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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1983年, 第3卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1983-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国第四纪古地理环境的分异
    周廷儒
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 191-206.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.191
    摘要   PDF (3434KB)
    第四纪自然界的最大特点是具有轮回现象的变化,即冰期和间冰期,海侵和海退,剥蚀作用和堆积作用等交替现象,有机界也是适用于这种自然环境韵律变化而变化的。我国处于欧亚大陆的东南部,一方面受到世界共性第四纪气候变化的影响,而另方面也受到地区性的季风环流和寒暖海流变迁的控制,所以形成了我国自然界特有的个性,而有别于同纬位置的中欧和北美。我国第四纪气候变化和波动,在各种沉积类型中,地貌发育过程中,水系和水体变动中以及重大生物生态转变中,都有相当的反映。
    This paper deals with the conspicuous climatic changes in the Quarternary time,an alternaton of relative warm and cold periods related to transgression and regrssion of the sea. In addtion, the terrestrial influence of the Monsoon climatic circulation caused the seasonal change of landscape in the areal differenciaion at various ages. In China,three major zones can be divided: Ⅰ. East China, (North, Central, and South)with prevailing monsoon circulation, 1. Early Pleiostocene The Climate here became colder than previous age. This is indicated by plant fossils which show a gradual decline of thermo-phalic elements. It should be noted that the cold spell produced a taiga forest, with a permafrost formation in the northern portion of the Da Hinggan Mts. The northern part of China Could be divided into two zones:a) The nor-theast provinces, characterized by a moderate, warm climatet, with a mixed forest Composed of Coniferous and broad-leafed deciduous trees; and, b) North China, with a summer-green forest and grassland. Central China involves a broad belt of subtropical climate. The area was influenced by the summer monsoon rain and continental Cyclonic storms which mitigated the effects of the dry subtropical high pressure cells of the northern hemisphere. Thus, a landscape of subtropical evergreen and deciduous mixed forest formed which Can be identified by pollen analysis from the "Qutagtang" peat beds near Dongting Lake and some other localities. In south China, sediments Containing pollens of subtropical evergreen trees as well as some deciduous trees are still found in fossil assemblages. In the most southern part, the fossil remains of the basin deposits reveal the prese-nce of a tropical rain forest and tropical animals, 2. Middle and Lare Pleiostocene In North China, the well known "Peking Man" and the animal associates represent the warm stage of the early middle pleiostocene, In the cold stages, plateaus, hills were covered by a veneer of loess and sediments of different origin., In the late Pleiostocene, the polar air mass pushed southward to the northern side of the Lake Taihu where is the southern limit of the loess deposits. Owing to insufficient moisture in the Cold air mass, no glaciation existed in East China except a few high peaks in the Ice Age. 3. Holocene After the last Quarternary Glaciation,the polar ice caps diminished causing a climatic change and a rise in the level of the sea, Higher temperatures shifted the natural zones to ward the northern pole which resulted in the migration of subtropical plants and animals to the north. This climatic change is mostly determined from the changes observable in the peat beds. Ⅱ.The arid region of North-West China. This arid region stretches from Nei Monggol to Xinjiang.Humidity decreased gradually westward, along with changes of landscape, as one moves across the steppe into a desolate desert. Ancient and present glaciation occurred on high mauntains.there were about 4~5 oceurances of glaciation of which the earliest were the largest. The extention of glaciation was gradually reduced. Ⅲ.The Qinghai-Xizang High Platiau and Affiliated Areas. The vast expanse of this high area became much Colder and drier during the Quarternary time.the marginal high mountains prevented oceanic air from pene-treting the interior. Thus ia areas where glaciation had aiminished, the lakes shrank quickly as it is indicated by many shore reraces that rise above present water surface. According to the pollen data and ages of moraines, four periods of glaciation developed. The plateau has been Covered with scanty grass and rosette plants, the herbivorous animals of the region adjusted to the severe environment by developing thick fur and strong jaws and teeth in order to adapt to such a severe climate and the consequent shortage of food. It is worth noting that the upheaval of the plateau and the radical change in the unfavorable environment to human habitat on the plateau are like to. day seems to have occurred in the very late stage of the Quarternary.
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    作物布局优化模型及其在农业区划中应用
    邓宏海
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 207-214.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.207
    摘要   PDF (2713KB)
    随着农业现代化的纵深扩展,农业生产对农业区划科学水平的要求越来越高,农业区划作为因地制宜指导农业生产的一种科学手段,与其他任何科学手段一样,是要不断发展的。继农业区划的单项指标法和多项指标法之后,定量化的系统方法正在向各国农业区划研究的领域渗透。
    The historical and logical necessity of application of systems theory and method to agricultural regionalization was discussed in this paper. According to the specific purpose and Contents of the agricultral regionalization of China, an optimization model for the Crops distribution, including both economic and eological Consideration, was formulated. As an attempt to use the systems method to agricultural regionalization based on the available data, this model was used to make a systematic analysis and synthesis to the general distribution of Crops in the 82 counties of Hobai Province. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The optimistic scenarios of the distribution of grains and cotton production base of Hobai Province. 2. The econoomie evaluation of the land in the 59 connties of Hobai Province. 3. The optimistic scenario of the synthesizing agricultural regionalization of the 82 Counties of Hobai Province.
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    计算湍流热交换的一个实用公式
    陈万隆, 孙卫国
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 215-222.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.215
    摘要   PDF (2577KB)
    目前,计算近地层湍流热交换的既简便又精确的公式还很少。本文根据J.A.布辛格(Businger)提出的普适函数求得一个计算湍流热交换和蒸发耗热的实用公式,其计算结果与利用布辛格普适函数所作的计算是相当一致的,而且计算方法简单,可供实际工作使用。
    It is usually difficult to calculate the turbnlent fluxes of sensible heat and laten heat near the ground by means of H=ρCpKu*12)/∫Z2фn/Z1Z dz (1) LE=ρCpKu*(q1-q2)/∫Z2фo/Z1Z dz (2) in which is called the universal function. Therefore, in this paper, we have developed an empirical formula for calculating the turbulent fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat to meet the requirements of practical use, which is based on the universal function sugge sted by J.A. Businger et el.
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    我国甜菜糖工业合理区位问题
    李为
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 223-232.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.223
    摘要   PDF (2947KB)
    甜菜糖工业是我国制糖工业的重要部门之一,其产量约占我国制糖工业总产量的1/5左右。为实现我国食糖自给,党和政府采取一系列措施,促进了甜菜糖工业的迅速发展。1981年全国甜菜糖产量已达到64万吨,比1980年增长73%,相当于建国初期(1949年)的60多倍。甜菜糖工业的布局也有很大的变化。
    Beet-sugar industry is one of the important branches of sugar-refining industry in China. The study of beet-sugar industryal location is helpful to. improve sugar-refining industry distribution. 1. Owing to very high material consumption quota per unit of product, and the high effectiveness for a given period and poor transportability of beet, the raw material factor plays a decisive role in the determination of beet-sugar industryal location. Placing the industrial location directly at the center of raw material producing area to minimize its transportation radius is the-only way to achieve better distribution results. On the other hand, the selec-tion and construction of beet bases should be highlighted too. 2. The selection of beet-sugar industrial location also depends on the. proper scale of the ablishment of the sugar refinery, and this, in turn, has definite relationship to the frequency of beet supply in a given area and its reasonable transportation radius. According to the actual conditions in China, there are two kinds of patterns can be adopted currently for beet-sugar industryal location and its scale: One pattern is large scale located along railway,and the other is small scale located not along railway. 3. Other than raw material, the determination of beetsugar industrial location and the selection of site for building refinery are restricted by such factors as energy resources, water supply, transportation, labour force, envi-ronmental protection and so on. In order to draw a proper and feasible con-glusion, the above-mentioned factors must be analyzed comprehensively and their influence on the integrity of beet-sugar industrial location must be investigated.
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    河口海岸带的地理系统和生态系统
    徐君亮
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 233-240.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.233
    摘要   PDF (2746KB)
    七十年代以来,河口海岸科学在继续向水文、动力地貌、海岸工程等部门学科深入的同时,也向环境、资源和生态系统保护的综合研究方向发展。近年来美国海岸带的研究,在环境、社会经济和工程的基础上,又特别强调资源、生态系统、计划、管理和法规等综合研究。
    The development and evolution of the estuary and coastal zone depend upon the dynamic processes of rivers, tides, waves, and littoral currents,etc. Chemical sedimentation and biological processes are also at work, but the dynamic processes are the most important. Human activities including Coastal engineering, industrial and agricultural pollution and improper fishery may contribute great effects to the modification. The modern estuary and Coastal zone results from the interrelation and interaction between various natural processes and human activities. It is a special physical geosystem affected by both continental and oceanic factors. The geosystem may be classified into four specific systems: dynamic system, environmental quality system,natural resource system and ecosystem. In the geosystem the ecosystem is an organic system whose limits coincide with those of the former. The upper limit of the coastal zone may be determined by the uppermost reach of the forces of tides, currents and waves as expressed by their erosion and accumulation, while the lower limit is defined by the reach of con-tinental physical and chemical processes indicated by river discharge, as well as by pollution. The estuary and coastal zone is not only a special geosystem but a special ecosystem as well. The limits of the coastal zone tally compara-tively with the differentiation of the regional geographical complex and meet the needs of the comprehensive development of the coastal zone resources. The geosystem and ecosystem of the estuary and coastal zone have two properties:first, the processes proceed rapidly; secondly, the processes may be disturbed by human activities, the latter being more important. Hence the study of the influence of human activities on the geosystem structure and the ecolo-gical balance is an urgent task.
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    吉林省泥炭资源
    沼泽研究室泥炭组
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 241-252,287,288.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.241
    摘要   PDF (4246KB)
    泥炭是一种宝贵的自然资源,在工业、农业、医药卫生和环境保护等方面具有广阔的利用前景。1975~1977年间,我们对吉林省的泥炭资源进行了野外考察,并对大量泥炭样品进行物理、化学、植物残体、孢子花粉分析与同位素C14年代测定,在此基础上,本文对该省泥炭的分布、分区、形成时期、特性与质量进行了初步研究。
    The peat resource is rich in Jilin province, its reserve amounts to 1000 million tons, being in the third position of its rank in China. The peat in the eastern part of this region is distributed widely and rich in reserve, and most of it presented in exposed form; the peat in the western part is scattered, poor in reserve, and most of it Presented in buried form. Based on its form and quantity, the distribution of peat reserve in Jilin province is divided into 3 regions and 11 sub-regions. Through spore-pollen analysis and C14 dating, it is recognized that the peal in Jilin province has mainly been formed and deve loped since middle Holocene.In last thousand years, the peat swamp in the western part has been gradually buried by silts, but it, in the eastern part, is still continuously developing. In this region, the herb-peat of rich-nutrition is prominent. As compared with the peat in other provinces of our country, it has high organic substance content, intermediate degree of decomposition, and high humiaeid content. In addition to the peat with low organic substance content is only good for agricultural utili zation, the peat with intermediate and high content of organic substance is suitable for agricultural, industrial utilization, and in enviroment protection etc.
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    长江三角洲及其毗邻地区环境中微量元秦与肝癌的关系
    陈家其
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 253-260.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.253
    摘要   PDF (2684KB)
    近年来,微量元素与肿瘤的关系日益为人们所重视。据报导,美国肠癌高发与环境中缺硒有关;北威尔斯胃癌高发与土壤中缺铜、富锌有关;非洲肝癌高发区,土酒受、锌钴污染,肝癌组织里锌、钴增加而钼减少。因此,探素环境因素与区域性肿瘤高发之间的联系,已成为医学与地学工作者共同关注的课题。
    In this paper. We have analysed the trace elementr Mo, Cu, Zn of the geographical environments in the Yengtre River delta and adjacent arean in onder to investigate the pathogeny of lives cancer. The primany nerults have been of abtained as below: 1. The disticbution of this Clisease has obvious distvict Characteristis.In the areas of high incedencc, the Content of molybdenum in the water and soil is higher, while in the staple food is lower. Thus it dan be seen that the Content of molybdenum entering human body is lower. The intake of molybdenum scene to have negative relation with the mortality of liver Cancer. 2. The absorption of molybdenum in human body decreases, by excess Cu and SO4, entering local masses through food Chain. It leads to low Content of molybdenum in human body. 3. There phenomena Can checrcase enzywe activity,and form the damage of liver function. On other hand. it aid to synthesize nitrosamine, and to pollute from aflatoxin in the food. These lead to enhance the carcinogenesis of nctro-samine and aflatoxin.
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    吉林省大安至扶余一带更新世孢粉组合及其古地理环境的初步探讨
    林泽蓉, 张庆云
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 261-268.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.261
    摘要   PDF (2737KB)
    大安县和扶余县位于东经123°15’~125°30’,北纬44°50’~45°40’。本区属温带半干旱、半湿润气候区,植被区划属于内蒙、东北草原区的一部分(见图1)。本区位于松辽盆地次一级构造——月亮泡断陷盆地内。
    Daan and Fugu Counties are located in Yulianpao fault basin, a substru-Cture of Sonliao basin. Sediment of lacustrine and other genetic series were deposited with different spaces and times since Tertiary. Quarternary lithology is quite Complete with thickness of 60~80m,which is perfect area for studying the palaeogeography of pleistocene. For this paper, authors have described the spore-pollen composition and palaeovegetation zoning along 0~98m, 0~82m of well loggings, in Shell of Daan county and Zong shitun of Fuyu county respectively. Based on climatic-stratigraphy as well as the lithology and palaeomagnetic data, a new suggection of the lower boundary of pleistocene in developed herein.
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    研究报导
    七千年来姚江平原的演变
    吴维棠
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 269-271,274,275.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.269
    摘要   PDF (2392KB)
    姚江平原属于宁(波)—绍(兴)平原的一部分,西起曹娥江,东止于甬江,南界四明山山地,北临杭州湾。平原高程绝大部分在5米以下。但有不少孤丘和低山凸出于平原上,略排成东西两列:东列在慈溪县南,余姚县北,东西横亘;西列界于上虞与余姚两县间,南北纵列。姚江干流自西向东横贯平原南部(图1)。
    According to the origin of the Yaojiang plain, it can be divided into two parts, the southern part of the plain is an alluvial plain formed during 8000~7000 years (B.P.), and the northern part of the plain is a beach plain formed in last 1000 years The formation of Yaojiang river was not more than 5000 years. Formerly, surface water flowed together and separated into two streams in the plain; the eastern one flowed eastward into the Yaojiang river, and the western one flowed northward into the sea. Lately, the flow direction of the western stream was Changed eastward. The causes of direction Change were:First, it was acted by the difference of tidal levels between east and west, the western tidal level became higher than the eastern level in 6000~5000 years (B.P.) Second, the land developed northward and deposited higher. Third, the valley in east of He-Mu-Du became deeper in same stage, causing a difference in hydraulic force. There were repeated swamping and increase or expansion of lakes in turn for several times in the south of the plain.There were two obvious swampings of lakes, one arose in 6500~6000 years (B.P.), and the other arose in 5500~5000 years (B.P.). The most obvious increase or expansion of lakes arose in 5900~5500 years (B.P.). There were a lot of lakes in the south of the plain in historical periods, and there are not so many remained today. It is very important to reserve lakes. The plain divelopment Concerning the migration of beach line, could be divided into three sections:the middle section was developed toward the sea invariably and proceeded 15 km in last 1000 years, the east section was fairly stable and developed only a little toward the sea in last 1000 years, and the west section was changed very much during recent time.
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    沼泽植物群落的低空系留气球多光谱摄影实验
    王汝笠
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 277-280,282,283.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.277
    摘要   PDF (2580KB)
    近二十年来,卫星和飞机是遥感仪器的主要运载工具。但是,随着遥感技术的广泛应用,人们还迫切需要其它各种各样的遥感平台,以适应不同应用对象的要求。系留气球是一种可供试验和实用的遥感平台。
    In September,1980,an experiment on application of singlelens multispectral photography wa carried out successfuly on the grassy marshland at Jinyuetan area in Changehun and the marshland at Huangnihe in Dunhua County in Jilin Province. The writer used the self-designed and-fabricated low-altitude tethered balloon as a platform of remote sensing for multispectral photography. The height taken for multispectral photography was from 10 to 100 meters. Because of the aerial influence and the limitation imposed by the ground resolution, the photographs taken by satellite and aircraft can be applied only to provide partial material for marsh researching. But the low-altitude tethered balloon multispectral photographs Can supply some additional new information. This information is of benefit to the quantitative analysis for the Classification and distribution of the marsh vegetation, the type of the marsh and its boundaries, etc. (1) By detecting and Comparing spectral densities in four Channels (400nm—800nm), three different kinds of marsh vegetation can be distinguished. Typha Orientalis Can be recognized more easily in IR Channel than in the other Channels. (2) The old buggy routes in the marshland Can bedetermined by colour compositional images.The application of these images Can also make correct sketch of the marsh classification and Calculate the area of the dispersed marsh vegetation. (3) It is a new means of applying digitized image processing to take quantitative measurement of the Colour Compositional image. According to the, colour-minus △E. it has been proved that the IR-G-R image is better than the IR-R-G image in recognizing various marsh vegetation. As a result of this experiment, the low-altitude tethered balloon is proved to be an economic and effective platform for multispectral photoghaphy. It is an easy and Convenient method to collect data of remote sensing. But it has a shortcoming that the tethered balloon moves along with the wind.So the writer suggests to develop a motor-balloon.
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    学术活动
    国际地貌测绘组织近期活动简介
    陈志明
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (3): 286-286.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.03.286
    摘要   PDF (534KB)
    国际地理学联合会(IGU)的地貌测绘组织自1981年以来,为适应地貌学及各门分支不断发展的需要,由原《地貌调查与制图委员会》改为三个工作组,即地貌调查与制图工作组、河流与海岸平原地貌工作组和构造地貌工作组。
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