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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1983年, 第3卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1983-07-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    地理信息系统的探索与试验
    陈述彭
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 287-302.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.287
    摘要   PDF (3703KB)
    地理信息系统是最近十五年发展起来的。简称 GIS(Geographic Information Sy-stem,Geobased Information System,或 Geo-referenced Information System,Geo-Co-ded Information System)。名称虽稍有出入,内容则大同小异。
    Geographic Information System (GIS),developed since last fifteen years,consists basically of:a common geographic base,data digitization and standardization procedure,and a muliti-dimension structure.Its evolution eflects the following characteristics of geosciences: --regional Integrating capability --dynamic monitoring ability --the third generation of geographic language China has paid attention to exploring GIS since 1980 and several thematicexperiments have been conducted in some study areas since then.The experiments which could only be carried out at the thematic level or on the selected areasare due to the lack of large computer systems available in related organizations. 1.Prestudy on Data Acquisition During the 1978’s remote sensing experiment in Tengchong,series thematic mapping by using color IR aerial photographs as the same information source was realized.Meanwhile,the possibility of derivating various thematical maps based on a common landscape unit was also studied.this was actually the thematic extraction from same remote sensing data and then the presentation of the information extracted on a series of maps under a“standard”map scale (e.g.,1:100,000).This work is known an essential procedure in any GIS Sobjects related in the experiment are mentioned below,from what the primary knowledge of data acquisition was learnt.A.The relationship between landscape unit and the cartographic unit.B.Digital terrain model.C.Image enhancement and classification D.Computer assist cartography for statistical data Only the polygon system was used in the Tengchong experiment,Neither grid system nor network system was studied during that priod.2.A Model of Regional Data Bank A experiment system consisting of a IBM370/158 computer,IMS system,aJTS-86 digital Controlled plotter was constructed.Meanwhile attention was also given to studying the applicability of microprocessor a GIS,in order to populize mini-system at the county level for agricultral nagement,planning,inquriing,analizing and mapping.To establsh the model,experiments were conducted on the following aspects:A.Information acquisiton In this field,the methodology for data acquisition from various data sources and the techniques for information registration were experimented.Techniques concering thematic information presentation and digitization were also explored.B.Data processing The study covered such a great diversity of activities as software development for interface system,data assessment system,data input system and utility program package.C.Output and application In this scope,it provides programs for quality evaluation,dynamic analysis and forecasting models.The application covers such areas as assessment of subbmersion losses caused by reservoir construction,water resources estimation,land resource inventory,environmental quality evaluation and population developpment analysis,and etc.D.Integration analysis in case study areas In an industral area,data concerning land use,population and social economic statistics,environmental quality evaluation,resources exploration problem were integrately analized.In an agricultural area,fourteen different types of data were dollected and then analized on two levels.8.Data Base At The County Level The Institute of Geography of Academia Sinica has completed a county boun-dary data base of the whole country (Liu Yue and Liang Qizhang,1982),whi-ch provides the polygon spatial information of county administration boundari-es for over 2800 counties.The base also provides the map base for cartographic automation of the social economic data,resources inventory and for regional integrated anlysis at national scale,This data base has more than 150 fries,including 30 programs for file generation,maintainance,updating,exploration and application,and etc.The Instiute of Geography used the data base in the statistical analysis of some local deseases and in producing population distribution maps and densitymaps at the scale of 1:4,000,000.The results were well successful.In summary,the experiments so far conducted effect works on GIS covering a number of areas,The main achievements are as following:A.Primary experiences relating to the construction of data bases at different levels such as national,county,commune and landscape unit are gained,and the relationship between these levels and ground resolution of remote sensing data are studied.B.Primary understanding of the key technical problems such as improving map measurement and transfering accuracy,information registration between naturall and social economic data,updating data base by using Landsat data are gained.C.Some application software for statistical analysis and cartographic automation were developed or partly improved,which has opened a new channel for geographically integrated study,thematic series apping,remote sensing and telemetry technique.D.The possibility for cooperation at provincial level or county level,or between different water basins are studied.In short,basing on conventional geography,compurtational mathematics,photogrammetry and the remote sensing technique have stimulated further studies on the subject.For example,population,social survey,agricultural,forest,water resources,environment monitoring and urban planning departments have prepared to establish various data base to make their needs.There is a strong tendency for qualitative analysis in geosciences and biology.Such as mathematical geology,biological athematics,geographical qualitative analysis,glacier records,and etc.have been receiving increasingly attentions,Thus a favarable condition for the development of GIS is evident.
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    南极冰雪与气候的若干联系
    彭公炳, 司有元
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 303-309.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.303
    摘要   PDF (2708KB)
    气候受大气中长期物理过程的制约,而且总是与具体的自然地理环境相联系。因此,在研究气候演变规律时,既要分析制约它的物理过程,又要考察孕育它的自然地理条件;气候学中往往将后者称作下垫面。下垫面在气候形成和演变中的作用早已为人们所注意,但本学科的不同发展阶段对下垫面的含义和研究深度是不同的。经典气候学只注意不同地形、土壤和植被条件对气候的影响。近卅年来已将海洋看作下垫面的重要组成部分。
    The authors have revealed some facts that show the relationships between the climate and the Antarctic ice extent,and proceeded some analyses and discussions.As for the correlation coefficient,there are closer relationships among the Antarctic ice extent,the exponents of atmospheric circulation and the air temperature of China.While the zonal circulation of Northern Hemisphere becomes strong,the active centers of atmosphere over the world move to south,the subtropical anticyclones of Southern Hemisphere and the cyclonic system near the Antarctic move to south too;correspondingly,the Antarctic ice-snow cover increases.In this case,it is colder in the northeast of China and warmer in the south of China,and vice versa. Ice and atmosphere interact on each other.The atmospheric circulation restricts the climate and ice-snow cover of different regions.However,the variation of ice-snow cover causes the modification of cold source in the atmosphere and that of temperature field;the latter,in turn,leads to the variation of pressure field and finally results in the variation of atmospheric circulation and climatic characteristics of different regions.
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    学术活动
    《地理科学》期刊座谈会简报
    《地理科学》编辑部
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 310-310.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.310
    摘要   PDF (105KB)
    《地理科学》编辑部乘中国地理学会第三次理事会会议在长春召开之际,邀请《地理科学》顾问、编委和各兄弟杂志的主编、副主编等诸位先生于七月二十五日举行了座谈。参加座谈的有:黄秉维、周立三、侯仁之、陈述彭、李秉枢、李孝芳、郭敬辉、宋家泰、瞿宁淑、朱震达、刘恕、程鸿、钟功甫、毛德华、武吉华、李春远、黄锡畴、郝凌云、于振汉、丁怀元、郑平等,编辑部李为、马学慧、朱颜明等亦参加了座谈。
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    论文
    自然环境、人文因素演变与城市聚落发展的关系——以兰州河谷盆地为例
    鲜肖威, 张林源, 艾南山, W·WÖhlke
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 311-320.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.311
    摘要   PDF (2808KB)
    聚落是一种文化景观(Kulturlandschaft)。而一切文化景观都是在特定的自然基础上,人类经济活动与各自然因素相互作用在一定社会发展阶段的综合结果[1]。它应当是新的区域地理学研究的对象。我们试图以兰州河谷盆地为例,分析自然环境在一定社会历史阶段对城市聚落发展的作用与影响,作为研究区域地理学的尝试。
    Lanzhou valley is a dimond basin striking from NW to SE,including 6 river erraces.The older the terrace,the higher it is above the river and the more splited the surface is.The lower terraces ramaining even and smooth,are main sites for city building.In the east plain,where Lanzhou city lies,the course of the Yellow River has continually moved northward in these two thousand years and enlarged the area of plain,which basically results from neotectonic movement and other natural factors,but human activeties have taken role of increasing importance.The main function of Lanzhou urban settlement is a ferry and a transport centre.Lanzhou used to be a important crossing site and post on the“silk road”,and then became a transport and trade centre in Northwest.In the middle of 17th century,Lanzhou became the capital of Gansu,a new province,and its population and area grew rapidly.But the real fast development of its urban settlement is after 1949.The developing process of Lanzhou urban settlement indicates that urban settlement is a system consisting of natural enviroment and human sociaty basedon the former.
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    中国土壤铬的地理分异
    章申, 王明远, 邹琪陶, 朱月珍
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 321-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.321
    摘要   PDF (2589KB)
    铬是动物和人的必需微量元素。已有报导,土壤铬含量异常而引起农作物生长不良、生态变异和产量下降。动物和人缺乏铬,糖耐量受损,甚至导致糖尿病、动脉粥样硬化和高血压等。铬是工业“三废”中常见的污染元素,含铬污染物对机体有致癌和致突变作用[1~4]
    To calculate the abundance of chromium in soil and to study geographical differentiation of chromium content in soil are of great importance for evaluating soil chromium pollution,estimating anomaly of chromium in soil,which has relation to doing harm to man,animal and plant,and existence of dispersion halo of mineral deposits.Statistics from 273 samples of surface soil and 240 samples of soil profile shows that the frequency distribution of chromium content in soil belongs to the approximate logarithmic normal distribution (See Fig.2),the chromium contents of surface soil and soil profile range from 3 to 600 ppm and from 5.2 to 1000.5 ppm respectively;the coefficients of variation are 84.9% and 100.4%;respectively the geometrical means are 58.5 and 61.8 ppm respectively(See Table 1).Chromium content of different soil types and chromium abundance of soil in Chinaare listed in Table 2 and 4.Ceographical differentiation of chromium content of soil in China is characterized by evident provincialism.There is close correlation between soil and its parent material in respect of chromium content (See Fig.3),i.e.chromium content of soil depends closely on those of its parent rock:soil formed on ultra basic and basic volcanic rock is of the highest content of chromium,and soil formed on acid volcanic rock and sand is of the lowest content of chromium (See Table 3).
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    华北平原与长江下游平原泥炭地的类型及形成时代
    钟金岳, 张则友, 邱淑彰, 孙世英
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 329-337.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.329
    摘要   PDF (2813KB)
    1976-1978年我们对华北平原与长江下游平原的泥炭资源进行了考察与勘探,这个地区泥炭的分布比较普遍,泥炭地的类型、特征以及形成时代等,在我国东部平原地区具有一定的代表性。此外,通过泥炭研究第四纪,特别是全新世,已经引起人们的重视。所以本区的泥炭地的研究具有一定的理论与实践意义。
    Huabai plain and the lower reachers of Yangtze River plain in China are regions of which buried peatlands are widely distributed.The cover layers of peatland are chiefly within five meters.In this region,there exist three ypes of peatland,subdivided into seven patterns.Ⅰ.River Valley Type Peatland 1.Washland pattern peatland 2.Paleochannel pattern peatland Ⅱ.Lake Basin Type Peatland 3.Lagoon pattern peatland 4.Barrier lake pattern peatland Ⅲ.Cleuch Type Peatland 5.Head pattern peatland 6.Cleuch pattern peatland 7.Fan’s edge in mouth of cleuch patternp eatland.The peatlands in this region were chiefly formed in Mesoholocene,secondly were formed in eoholocene,and only a small part was formed in Euholocene.The ancient castline in high sea level period in the earlier stage of Mesoholocene could be used as boundary of peatland distribution.In peatland to the eastof this boundary line,there were two buried peat layers,the lower peat layer was formed Chiefly in Euholocene,the upper peat layer was formed chiefly in the later stage of Mesoholocene to Neoholocene.The peatlands to the west of this boundary line were formed chiefly in the earlier stage of Mesoholocene.
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    学术活动
    中国科学院地理科学情报网成立
    戴国良
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 338-338.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.338
    摘要   PDF (354KB)
    1983年9月20—26日在成都举行了《中国科学院地理科学情报网》成立大会。地理科学情报网是在中国科学院地学部、出版图书情报委员会和图书馆的关怀与支持下,经过近一年的筹备而正式成立的。院内外14个地理学研究单位的28名代表出席了会议。中国科学院成都地理研究所所长吴积善同志到会讲话表示祝贺。
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    论文
    大同盆地古冰楔(砂楔)和晚更新世自然环境
    杨景春, 孙建中, 李树德, 王一峋
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 339-344.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.339
    摘要   PDF (3507KB)
    山西省大同盆地是一个断陷山间盆地,盆地底部拔海约1000米,盆地南部山地最高峰拔海2600米左右。盆地底部出露大片中更新世到晚更新世的灰绿色和灰黄色湖相粘土以及晚更新世的黄土和砂。另外,盆地平原上还有20多座火山锥和微微起伏的玄武岩垄岗。盆地东部大同县许堡的东边,有一条小河从北往南流向西水地然后汇入桑干河。从许堡沿小河往南行约1公里,靠河流左岸的灰绿色湖相粘土层中,发育30多个古冰楔(砂楔)(图1,图版Ⅰ照片1)。
    In the east of Datong basin (about 1000m above sea level),we found some fossil ice wedges of late Pleistocene.The surface polygons were composed of ice wedges with meshes measured as large as 3m across.The ice wedges themselves were dominantly vertical and extend to a depth of 120 cm and widened to a width of 20~30cm.Upon the thawing of ice,the cavity of the ice wedge left was filled by fineroundish,eolian sand,forming a cast of sand wedge. Because of the lateral growth and squeeze of the wedge,adjacent lacustrine clay sediments usually developed an upward bend.This fossil ice wedge indicated a rather arid and windy periglacial environment with its mean annual temperatures estimated as some 11.5°to 16℃ colder than those of the present.About 26000 years ago,the southern boundary of late Pleistocene permafrost extended to the latitudes 40°N.
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    浙东曹娥江上游构造地貌初探
    刘振中, 王飞燕
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 345-352.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.345
    摘要   PDF (2595KB)
    水系的发育及其分布组合直接影响着干流水情动态,并在很大程度上控制着流域的地貌发育。在构造活动区,水系常沿构造带发育,形成独特的水系特征和河谷形态。研究水系发育和河谷成因以及河谷地貌特征,可为水能利用和河道整治提供科学资料和依据。曹娥江流域主要位于浙东绍兴地区,处于四明山、天台山与会嵇山之间,形成一个完整的流域盆地。
    The origin of the drainage system and geomorphical development of the Cao-e River was brought under control by geologic structures,especially by faults of new tectonic movements.The original three great tributaries of the Cao-e River have become drainage divisions due to the influence of new tectonic movements,and Pleistocene stream deposits have been left over the drainage divisions.But for each former tributary,two new parallel rivers flowing in the same direction,at a short distance adjacent to each other,with symmetric tributaries,have developed along both sides of the elevated block formed by these deposits:the Xinchang River and the Huangze River,the Chengtan River and the Zuoyu River,and the Changle River and the Xiaowu River,respectively.The Yanshan eruptive rock and its north-eastern strike folds formed the foundation of modern low height mountains.Cretaceous andstone,gravel beds and eruptive rock deposited in structure basins made up the foundation of modernlow mountains and hils.Basaltic table-land that formed at the end of the Tertiary period to the beginning of the Quaternary period was cut apart into high,middle and low basaltic table-land due to unequal height of formation.Therefore,the revived faults due to new tectonic movements became clear geomorphic demarcation lines,new rivers developed along those demarcation lines,and the original river system changed into the present river system.
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    初论三江平原第四纪地壳运动
    孙广友
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 353-360.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.353
    摘要   PDF (2573KB)
    三江平原位于黑龙江、松花江和乌苏里江的汇流地带,具有完整而独特的自然地理结构。探索这一结构的特点和形成过程,对该区的合理开发及综合治理具有重要意义。构成三江平原地理环境的因子较多,影响其发育过程的因素复杂,其中第四纪地壳运动是一个重要因素。对此,本文试作初步探讨。
    The Quaternary crustal movement of Sanjiang plain has been mainly submer ging successively on a large scale,and the maximum depth of the submergence in that region is believed to be nearly 300 meters.The rate of [submergence is 1.7 mm per year.Recently it mainly continues to submerge,but it indicates a tendency of reduction in range and of weakening in the activity of crustal movement gradually.The neotectonic movement provinces of Sanjiang region may be divided into four first-class sections and eight second-class sections:Ⅰ1 and Ⅰ2 The Qianjin-Hanchonggou [and the Juncuan-Seibin province,showing maximum range of submergence in the Pleistocene and a slow submerge in recent time.Ⅱ1 and Ⅱ2 The drainage area of Rouli river and Anbang river,showing the middle range of submergence in the Pleistocene and a glow submerge in recent time.Ⅲ1 and Ⅲ2 The Huacuan-Hongwei and Hanchonggou province,showing middle range of submergence in the Pleistocene and a slow uplift in recent time.Ⅳ1 and Ⅳ2 The Jiamusi-Haiqing province,showing minimum range of submergence in the Pleistocene and a slow uplift in recent time.It is noticeable that the formation of continental rift valley system caused by Pacific plate underthrusting the continent is the principal mechanism which formed the rift of the Sanjiang plain.
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    晚全新世以来江淮之间湖泊的变迁
    潘凤英
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 361-368.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.361
    摘要   PDF (2780KB)
    江苏是我国淡水湖泊分布最集中的省(区)之一,面积大于1平方公里的湖泊约有110个。湖泊总面积为6850平方公里,湖泊率超过6%,居全国各省(区)之首位。素有“水乡泽国”之称。本文试图从历史文献的记载和晚全新世沉积层的岩相、岩性特征出发,辅以浅层泥炭矿点的地理分布作为佐证,对晚全新世以来江淮之间(仅指江苏境内古代长江以北淮河以南地区)的湖泊变迁进行初步探讨。
    The region between the Yangtze river and the Huaihe mentioned in the artile,is from the south of the old course of the Huaihe (now the abandoned channel of the Huanghe) to the north of the Yangtze river.The data obtained by drilling 4 meters deep in Gaoyou,Xinghua,Yancheng,Baoying,Huaian,and Jianhu,show that are two types of lacutrine deposits in the late Holocene:one is the lake of continental facies and the other,the lagoon deposit.With the help of the historic and local records,the author tries to describe the transition and thedevelopment of the lakes of this region in number,area and form.There are widely distributed shallow peat deposits at 0~7 meters below the surface of this region and 3~4 layers of natural gas bearing strata of 7~30 meters deep.These facts can be used as evidence of the transitions in the early and middly Holocene to prove the actual existence of the numerous lakes and marshes during that period.During Ⅱ94~Ⅰ885 when the Huanghe captured the Huaihe,the changes of the lake areas were more markedly influenced by man-made factors mainly in twoaspeots:one was the building of the dykes along the Huaihea against the Huanghe, which caused the lakes to join together and enlarge their areas.These lakes were easily silted up by the river deposits during the flood time.The other aspect was the policy of retaining the clear Huaihe water to wash the Huanghe bed and to supply water for the Grand Canal.As a result,the area of the lakes west of the Grand Canal was gradually reduced,and the lakes in the area of Lixiahe were speedily silted up.
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    研究报导
    内蒙高原的盐湖
    郑喜玉
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 369-378.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.369
    摘要   PDF (2858KB)
    内蒙高原是我国北部的大高原,西起阿拉善高原和鄂尔多斯盆地北部,东止于锡林郭勒高原及呼伦贝尔盆地,面积约140多万平方公里。据考察,全区约有盐湖220多个,是我国盐湖带的主要组成部分。这些盐湖具有数量多、面积小、类型全、成盐期短的特点。在干燥气候影响下,成盐作用强烈,盐类沉积发育,尤以碱湖多为特征,是我国苏打、天然碱资源的主要产地。探索和研究这些盐湖的基本特征和形成演化规律,对揭示高原自然环境特点和盐湖资源的开发利用等都具有现实意义。
    Inner-Mongolia plateau is the most widely distributed area of salt lakes in China.It is especially well-known at home and abroad for its great number of alkali lakes.It is a main source of the trona resources of our country.These salt lakes bear the characteristice of large in quantity,complete in types,and short in salt-forming period.This paper is to discuss the physical constituents,hydrochemical characteristics,classification,formation and evolution,and salt-forming regularities of salt lakes in that area through their distribution,lacustrine deposits and salt-forming conditions,etc.Moreover,it also presents some suitable introduction about the resources of salt lakes.
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    鄱阳湖地区土地利用问题的探讨
    林文荣, 杜高洪
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (4): 379-386.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.04.379
    摘要   PDF (2756KB)
    鄱阳湖地区位于江西北部。行政上包括波阳、乐平、余干、万年、余江、东乡、进贤、临川、抚州市、清江、丰城、高安、安义、南昌、新建、南昌市郊区、九江、永修、德安、星子、湖口、都昌、彭泽、瑞昌、九江市等25个县市。土地面积近四万平方公里,约占全省的23.4%,耕地一千四百多万亩,人口约一千二百万。
    The Poyang Lake area lies in the north of Jiangxi Province.It is rich in light and heat resources and has various types of land,which provided favourable Conditions for the agricultural production in the broader ense.Generally the type of the land in this area is centered on Poyang Lake.From the center to the outside of thearea and from the foot of mountain to its top the types of land in turn:the mar-shland-meadow-sandy beach and the water surface;the light meadow-paddy soil alluvial plain,the red soil on which pine and tea oil trees are grown;the low hilly land with brown-red soil;the hilly land with red and yellow soil on which pine and China fir are grown;the hilly area with the yellow-brown soil on which there is broadleaf forest.The Poyang Lake area has varioua land resources.Its area under Cultivation is 24.2% and 17% under forest.The water area is 9.4%.The industry andcommunication,the cities and towns are 10%.the waste hills and land are 39.4%. Out of them there are 3,000,000 mu of waste land in the low hilly land which can be brought under cultivation.Due to various reasons the waste of land is made,the soil fertility is decreased,the level of productiveness is not high etc.In order to rationally exploit and utilize the land resources in the area we have put forward the following ideas:1.Developing the advantages and avoiding the disadvantages,regulating the distribution of productiveness and bringing the potential of land in production into play;2.Launching a large-scale water conservancy projects and reforming soils;3.Persisting in combination of the utilization with the conservation and avoiding the decrease of the soil fertility;4.Rationally opening up the wasteland with red soil at the low hilly waste land.
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