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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1984年, 第4卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1984-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    试论中国北方农牧交错地区沙漠化土地整治的可能性和现实性
    朱震达, 刘恕, 杨有林
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 197-206.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.197
    摘要   PDF (1956KB)
    近年来,各种影响经济建设的环境问题开始引起人们的重视,其中沙漠化问题,特别是我国东北的北部,华北及西北的大部分地区,已经成为危害农牧业发展的一个重要问题,所谓沙漠化乃是干旱半干旱地区(包括一部分半湿润地区)土地生产力衰退的环境退化过程,是人类强度活动与环境资源之间的不协调产物。换言之,也即土地强度利用与干旱多风的沙质地表环境相互作用,使脆弱生态平衡发生破坏的结果,从而使地面出现风沙活动的类似沙漠景观。这一过程称之为沙漠化过程。
    Desertification is a process of environmental degradation on the aspect of declining land productivity in arid and semi-arld (include some areas in semi-humid) zones,and is a phenomenon of disaccords between the human activities and environmental resources,namely,it is the result of the destruction of fragile ecobalance under the interaction of over-utilization of land resources and sand deposits conditions in dry and windy season.From these processes,the desert-like landscape,where winds and sands are active,is oceured on surface,and they are called desertification processes and the lands affected by them is called desertified land. There are 11,750,000 of population,40% of total population in arid and semi-arid areas in Northern China,in 81 counties and banners in the inter-di-stributing areas for agricultural and graziery practices where desertification is occured;and approximately 261,000 km2 of land area here,of which cultivated fields occupy about 4,500,000ha.,and cover 47% of that in arid and semi-arid areas in Northern China,The deserfification processes are developing rapidly at present and 61.5% of land area in the inter-distributing areas for agricultural and graziery practices is occupied by the desertified land.As for the desertified land above-mentioned,26.9% of it was occupied by severe desertified land;25.7% by most severe desertified land;and 47.4% by on-going desertified land. It is estimated that,on the basis of the data combined the analysis of airphoto with ground investigation and surv ey,the desertified land in the inter-distributing areas for agricultural and graziery practices increased for 3.4 million ha,during last 30 years.Of which 42.9% is formed by over-cultivation for farming; 31.1% by transcendence of carrying capacity and over-grazing;22.2% by conti-nuous firewood collection and the rest caused by construction of mills,mines,co-mmunication lines and new towns and by the destruction of vegetation and the misuse of water resources.Because of the difference of formational type,the de-velopment of desertification landscape is also different relatively.A diagramme of formation of desertification processes in the inter-distributing areas for agricultural and graziery practices is given in the paper. Huanghua Tala Commune in Naiman Banner,Inner Mongolia,for example,was a sandy steppe and annual rainfall is about 360mm,but the deserfified land area developed to occupy 81% of the total land area in the commune due to over-recla-matiion and over-cultivation of steppe and firewood collections.Since 1970,the land use rate which centred on dry farming has been re-managed;the specific gravity of forest and forage has been enlarged;the measures of combination of trees,shrubs and grass,of plantation of tree-belts and forests in patches have been adapted;the basic farmland and fodder farm has been protected;the tillage influenced by desertification has been cut down unceasingly and the measures for fencing-Sand-to-cultivating-grass have been integrated with other measures.At pre-sent,the land-use rate of the commune has been readjusted to the structure of 21:52:27 in the midst of agriculture,forestry and graziery practices.The deserti-fied land at first has been controlled initially,the total grain output has been increased 3.36 times that before controlling and the desertification process has been rationally reversed basically. By sythesizing above analysis,the desertified land in the inter-distributing areas for agricultural and graziery practices possesses not only the possibility.to remanage,but also the reverse rotation of desertification is becoming real in a great deal of typical region.
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    上海经济区城镇群体中的苏锡常通
    丁景熹
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 207-212.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.207
    摘要   PDF (388KB)
    城镇作用显著,城镇聚集成巨大群体是上海经济区的基本特点之一全面认识与正确反映经济区的特点是建设经济区的重要前提。上海经济区是我国经济、文化发达,城镇化程度较高的城镇聚集区。区内不仅有全国最大的城市,而且在其周围有一批大中城市和星罗棋布的小城镇。在长期的历史发展过程中,加上解放后的努力建设,现已形成以上海为核心的多层次、多类型、大中小密切结合的城镇群体。城镇在区域中的地位和作用日益突出,显著地超过其他一般地区。上海一个市就集中了全区工业总产值的48%,社会商品零售额的30%(不含县)。区内10座大中城市(不含县)集中了全区工业总产值的70%,社会商品零售额的48%(1981年)。科技和文化所占的地位更高。连同众多的小城镇,城镇在整个区域经济发展中占有关键地位。因而在巩固与提高农业的基础上,逐步加强城镇作为前进的主要动力的作用,是建设上海经济区的重要战略出发点之一。
    This paper deals with the status and functions of Suchou,Wuxi,Changzhou and Nantong cities in Shanghai economic district from the angle of the urban group system.One of the basic characteristics of the district is that cities and towns are gathered into a large system,and the functions of cities and towns are distinct in the district.It is very important to emphasize the central role of metropoiis-Shanghai and play the backbone part of Suzhou,Wuxi,Changzhou and Nantong cities in developing and building Shanghai economic district.
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    中国入海离子径流量的初步估算及影响因素分析
    许越先
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 213-217.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.213
    摘要   PDF (323KB)
    离子径流量及其影响因素的研究,对探讨流域物理过程、化学过程和生物过程的综合作用,分析河川径流的物质组成和化学性质,揭示水文循环和地理环境间的相互关系,都具有一定意义。
    This paper mainly deals with dissolved solid quantity of China’s rivers on the basis of the observed data collected from thirty rivers.Average annual dissolved solid of China’s rivers empting into the sea totals 345×108 tons,estimated by following formula: where,D =monthly average total dissolved solid quantity in water (mg/l); Q = monthly average river discharge (m3/s); T=seconds for each month.The amount of main ions transported into the sea annually by rivers are shown in Table 1. The dissolved solid quantity of various regions and monthly dissolved solid amount of main rivers in China are given in Tables 2 and 8, respectively.
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    秦岭北部辋川溶洞发育规律研究
    黄春长
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 218-224.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.218
    摘要   PDF (1220KB)
    秦岭是我国南北方之间重要的自然分界线。对秦岭山地岩溶地貌发育规律的研究,将有助于我国南北方岩溶化作用过程的对比。1981年夏季,笔者在秦岭北部辋川山区发现了锡水洞旧石器时代早期古人类文化遗址,结合该遗址的综合研究,进行了岩溶地貌的野外考察工作[1]。这里仅就该区岩溶洞穴的成层性及其与活动性断裂构造的关系作初步探讨。
    In this paper,the fundamental law of the karst caves formed in Wangchuan, the north Qinling Mountains is discussed.In Wangchun region NE and NW direction shearing fractures combining with EW direction main fault formed a neotectonic fracture system which is still moving,and it controls the level extending direction of the karst caves.The level caves on three different elevations at slope reflect the intermittent rise of crust and karstification.stages.Therefor,the level caves can compare with the three level erosion surfaces in the Qinling Mountains.This provids important evidences for the comparison of the karstification periods between the South and the North in the Cenozoic.
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    东北地区降水分布特性的主成分分析
    赵焕宸
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 225-234.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.225
    摘要   PDF (727KB)
    主成分分析是一种多变量数学分析方法之一。这种方法,在气象现象解析上的应用,最早是 Loretz,E.N.在1956年对北美海面上的空间气压场的解析。之后,如陆续有气压(Kutzbach,J.E.,1967,1970)、气温(三上,1975)、风(Barnett,T.P.,1977)、降水(北岛,1981)等各种气象要素的主成分分析,论述了各种气象要素水平分布的优势型及其时间变动特性。
    The basic patterns of the deviation distribution of annual precipitation in the Northeast China were defined objectively through the principal component analysis of monthly precipitation from January to December (1961-1978) in 35 meteorological observatories or stations of the Northeast.The eigenvalues and distributive features of precipitation deviation are presented in Table 1 and Fig.1.The first,second and fourth principal components represented wet or dry patterns of the whole area,the pattern of north wet-south dry or north dry -south wet,the pattern of east wet-west dry or east dry-west wet,respectively. The third principal component represented different local precipitation deviation. The author made a dynamic investigation on the formations reasons and processes of dominant patterns of precipitation deviation (Fig.2 and Fig.3) based on the result of principal component anatysis of moathly mean air pressure,and also approached the changing time characteristics of precipitation deviation and reasonally climatic changing differences in the Northeast China (Fig.4 and Fig.5) through the analysis of scoring time-series each month and each year.In order to reveal fully the precipitation differences within the region further,the climatic region-alization of precipitation distributive pattern was carried out with the principal component cluster analysis (Fig.7) and the regional climatic characteristics were clear.Therefore the scientifc basis could be provided for rational arrangement of agriculture,forestry,animal husbandry,production of by-product and fishery.
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    应用遥感图象研究河床演变
    濮静娟
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 235-242.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.235
    摘要   PDF (1810KB)
    以往研究河床演变、泥沙扩散形式、三角洲发育模式等都必须有大量的水文、泥沙、潮汐资料,还需要有实测的断面和测线来控制河床、河口及滨海海域的各要素,投入的工作量是相当可观的。但是取得的资料仍是不同步的,断续的,只是点上和线上的资料,面上的情况仍不清楚。遥感图象既能提供区域自然景观和地质构造条件方面的背景材料,多时相遥感图象分析又可获取大范围连续的同步相关资料,便于动态观测。因此,遥感图象也是研究河床演变的重要手段。目前,我国应用遥感图象研究河床演变业已开始,并在古河道的研究、讨论遥测水深和含沙量的方法、河口滨海区沿岸流、曲流演变、岸滩上河流微地貌的研究等方面都已取得良好效果。
    The author investigated and studied the developing model of the Delta of Yellow river and various forms of sediment diffusion near the seashore,the stability of Meng-zheng reach of the Yellow flyer valley,the transitioonal zone from mountain to plain,and development cycles of meandering channels shaped likea "goose head" in the reach of the Yangtze River from Changjiang town to the Yangzhou,by the following means.First,with the help of Landsat images,ratio and clustering analyses werc made by the 101 image processing system,combined with the visual interpretation based on the spectrum of ground objects and their representations on images.Then the results were tested by field investigations,observational data,historical information and maps.
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    定兴点坝沉积
    顾家裕
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 243-250.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.243
    摘要   PDF (1735KB)
    点坝(Point bar)是曲流河段十分明显而又重要的沉积体,它是河流侧向迁移过程中侧向加积和垂向加积共同作用的产物。古代点坝沉积是地下水和油气储集的良好场所,因此,对点坝的研究引起沉积学家、石油地质学家的浓厚兴趣,麦高恩(McGowen)和加纳(Garner)(1970)研究了路易斯安娜州阿米特河和德克萨斯州科罗拉多河曲流点坝中的沉积构造,科尔曼(Coleman)(1969)和雷(Ray)(1967从不同角度分别对孟加拉的布拉马普特拉河和密西西比河的点坝沉积进行了研究,特别是艾伦(Allen)(1964)提出的点坝垂向沉积层序模式得到广泛的重视。
    Through the investigation for eleven profiles in the Dingxing point bar, the vertically depositional sections can be divided into two types,one is dominated by the large trough cross-bedding,the another is dominated by opposite inclined bedding,and this paper also discusses the developing process of the former.According to the geomorphological location,texture and structures of the deposits,the point bar is divided into six sub-facies:channel lag deposits,small shoal,flute bars,flood fill deposits between two flute bars,chute deposits and mud bodies on the outside of fIute bar.Finally,the paper deals with the origin of the two kinds of interesting bedding-distorted stratification and opposite inclined bedding.
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    北半球100毫巴高度场波谱分析
    傅逸贤, 李栖筠, 米涤生
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 251-259.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.251
    摘要   PDF (523KB)
    众所周知,100毫巴等压面通常离地面16公里左右,是对流层向平流层过渡的一个等压面。研究这一等压面高度场的多年平均时空分布规律及特殊年份的环流异常情况,对长期天气预报提供新的思路和依据,对探讨气候形成及生态环境的演变是十分重要的。过去对100毫巴等压面已有不少的研究[1][2],但多偏重于天气方面或限于副热带高压和极涡方面的研究。为此,本文试图对整个北半球从1970~1979年中1、4、7、10月各纬圈100毫巴平均位势高度的纬偏值进行波谱气候统计分析。
    The latitude deviation and amplitide at both high and low latitude change greatly in a year.The maximum of latitude deviation appears at 60癗 in Ja-nnuary,April,and October,and at 30癗 in July. October approachs comparati-vely winter in the circulation characteristic in comparison with April.The po-sitions of trough and ridge lines at 100 mb.height oscillate in east and west direction during a year.
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    三江平原土壤中的锌及锌肥效应研究
    富德义, 汪淑哲, 朱颜明, 吴敦虎, 王起超, 钟立梓, 蔡兴文, 魏永先, 刘义立, 郑淑学, 黄庆余, 张喜君, 安月柏, 张本勋
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 260-268.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.260
    摘要   PDF (513KB)
    三江平原位于黑龙江省的东北部,包括完达山以北的黑龙江、松花江及乌苏里江冲积形成的低平原和完达山以南的穆棱河——兴凯湖淤积的低平原两部分。平原总面积约50000平方公里。区内分布大面积沼泽湿地。从五十年代以来逐渐被开发,至1975年统计,已开垦的荒地超过4000万亩,成为我国重要的商品粮基地。为探讨已开垦土地的增产潜力,我们从1980年开始在研究农业土壤主要微量营养元素含量和分布的基础上[1],进行微量元素肥料肥效试验。本文仅就三江平原土壤中微量元素锌的含量、形态、分布及锌肥对主要作物——大豆、小麦的增产效果进行初步探讨。
    The total Zn contents in soils in the Sanjiang plain range from 15.0 to 203.Oppm,and the mean iS 84.7ppm.The effective Zn contents in soils are C.33-6.89ppm,and the mean is 2.37ppm.35% of the farm lands in the Sanjiang plain belongs to various lessives and the mean content of effective Zn (1.54ppm) in lessive is lower than or fluctuates at the critiCal value of lacking Zn.The production experiments in pilot plots have shown that employing Zn-fertilizer moderately in Zn-lacking soils can increase the yields of wheat and soybean.The yields of wheat and soybean in lessives employed Zn-fertilizer can increase by 4.4%-15.6% (mean 7.5%) and 16.9%-28.1% (mean 22.5%),respectively. Therefore,we should take measures of determining soils and then rationally employing Zn-fertilizer,which is of great importance to increasing grain yield and keeping the ecological balance of farmlands.
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    研究报道
    武夷山风景区划及其旅游资源评价
    雍万里
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 269-276.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.269
    摘要   PDF (650KB)
    任何自然风景区的自然景观,都有其发生、发展与演变的规律。然而,人们对风景区内一些自然现象的解释,往往偏重神话传说,缺乏科学的闸明,常使旅游者"知其然而不知其所以然。"本文试图以武夷风景区旅游资源综合考察工作为基础,论述武夷山自然景观的形成;武夷风景区划;同时,根据有关资料,对旅游资源进行评价,为风景区的开发和规划提供科学依据。
    Wuyi Mt.located in the southern part of Chongan County in Fujian prov-ince,with an average elevation of 300~400 metres,is a monoclinal fault-block mountain consisting of the late Cretaceous to the early Tertiary red sandstone and conglomerate.The Jiuqu stream rising in the Wuyi,Mt.on the boundary, between Fujian and Jiangxi provinces incises Wuyi Mt.to produce a magnificent scenic spot with a unique natural landscape composed of "tower karst" of red beds with evergreen broadleaf forest.Moreover,there is a various cultural landscape, and a beautiful environment in the spot.Finally seven subregions have been divided according to the principle of difference in natural landscape,regional integrity and do on.
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    太行山区的植被资源及其利用方向
    刘濂
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 277-284.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.277
    摘要   PDF (1225KB)
    太行山在河北、河南与山西三省之间。北起河北省的拒马河畔,南到黄河北岸,山脉走向由东北而西南,至河南辉县,转为东西走向。王屋山就是它西部的尾闾部分。多年来,太行山区由于滥肆砍伐森林、陡坡开荒及过度放牧,造成了水土流失,使太行山的生态平衡严重失调,农、林、牧业的发展受到很大的限制。植被是生态系统中的核心,研究该地区自然植被,对搞好山区生态平衡,实为必要。太行山区的自然条件
    The zonal vegetation of the Taihang Mountains in Hebei province is dominated by deciduou broad-leaf forest.With the mountain increase in height, differently venical vegetation belts are formed,namely,mountain deciduou broad -leaf forest belt,mountain frigid-temperate coniferous forest belt and subalpi-neshrub meadow belt. So the Taihang Mountainsis considered as forest ecosystem.For a long time, excessive felling and destruction depleted the forest resourcs,which leads to soil erosion,serious imbalace of forest ecosystem,and the Haiho River system carries 1.4 hundred million tons of silts into the.sea every year.According to weather,land fertility and local conditions,the proper.utilization of the Tai-hang Mountains should be directed towards foresting dominantly,promoting a diversified economy,and combining forest with stock raising.Therefore,at present following measures should be taken: 1.Changing the existing farmland into forest land,and rationally utilizing resources step by step;2.Afforestng the Taihang Mountains to prevent soil erosion and establish a nice ecological environment.
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    学术活动
    日本陆地卫星地面站及陆地卫星-4号的资料应用
    赵华昌
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 285-288.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.285
    摘要   PDF (585KB)
    国内外的实践证明:遥感在地学中的应用已卓见成效。遥感信息的定量分析和利用连续信息进行动态监测是遥感应用的必然趋势,并在许多应用领域里初见实效。但由于我国的陆地卫星地面接收站尚未建成,陆地卫星-1、2、3号都已停止工作,陆地卫星-45号号信息得不到及时提供甚至难以获得,因此,信息源不足的问题越来越突出。笔者于1983年7月间随吉林省遥感技术及其应用访日考察团去日本遥感中心进行了参观访问。现就见闻片断并结合个人工作中的体会,对陆地卫星-4号的遥感资料及其应用作简单介绍,以飧读者。
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    人文地理学专业委员会举行工作会议
    中国地理学会办公室
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 289-290.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.289
    摘要   PDF (138KB)
    中国地理学会人文地理学专业委员会,于1984年8月6日至10日在南京召开了第一次工作会议。人文地理学专业委员会是1983年夏经中国地理学会常务理事会批准成立的,现有专业委员35人,由李旭旦教授任专业委员会主任委员,郭来喜、张文奎、邬翊光任副主任委员。这次工作会议主要讨论了两项议程:(1)落实举办人文地理学研究班问题;(2)研究人文地理学近期的主攻方向。
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    环境科学研究新成果
    彦明
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 291-292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.291
    摘要   PDF (159KB)
    中国科学院环境科学委员会最近在长春召开鉴定会,《第二松花江水体汞污染及其治理途径》和《巯基棉富集分离技术的建立及其在环境分析化学中的应用》两项科研成果通过了技术鉴定。中国科学院长春地理研究所承担的这两项研究课题,经过近十年的连续努力,取得可喜的成果,受到与会专家的好评。
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    论文
    《世界生态系统》丛书第四卷《沼泽》评介
    王荣芬
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (3): 292-292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.03.292
    摘要   PDF (83KB)
    《世界生态系统》丛书的第四卷《沼泽:积水沼泽,泥炭沼泽,低位沼泽、高位沼泽》一书于1983年1月出版了。该书由英国陆地生态研究所蒙科思森林实验站的A. J. P. Gore 先生编辑,全书分A、B 两册,共9,19页,图409幅,表89个。主要论述淡水湿地上发育的各类生态系统,即有泥炭累积为特征的沼泽生态系统的专著。
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