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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1984年, 第4卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1984-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    欧亚大陆东部高山苔原的南缘
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 293-302.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.293
    摘要   PDF (607KB)
    苔原(Tundra)是欧亚大陆和北美大陆高纬度的无林地带,是大陆三个环球性的自然景观地带之一。它具有特定的气候、植被、土壤和自然景观类型。苔原分平原苔原和山地苔原。
    On the alpine zone, adore timberline and below snowline, there are various types of vegetation and natural landscape. The author has divided the alpine zone in the temperate zone of Eurasia into3 types, i.e. alpine meadow, alpine sleppe, and alpine tundra. The distribution of the alpine tundra zone in the East Eurasia can stretch right to China’s Changbai mountains where is situated at the middle latitude, the reason is that besides influence of the Quaternary glaciation, the monsoon climate of northern Pacific is main factor. Based on landscape ecologic analysis in the Changbai Mountains’alpine tundra zone, the author points out that the specific ecologic environment, biological community and eco-biologic characte istics of plant, all of those comprehensively constitute a interractive, adaptive each other the alpine tundra landscape. Some Japan’s literatures haven’t divided various types of alpine vegetation and natural landscape, and only have gaven a joint name-alpine zone or alpine vegetation. The paper has mainly approached to answer the question whether the vegetation type and natural landscape of the alpine zone on the mountains adove timberline in Hokkaido of Japan belong to alpine tundra or not. From the poin: of view of ecologic environment (eco-climatic condition, periglacial landforms and soil type etc.) and biocenosis (composition of plant species, structure of community, life form and ecologic characteristics of plant etc.) the author has compared the alpine zone of Daisetsu with one of the Changbai Nits. The result shows that the two areas have very simular ecologic environments. The alpine vegetation in Dassetsu cosists of shrub, subshrub, perennial herds, moss and lichen etc, as the same as ones in Changbai. The Daisetsu has 230 species of vascular plants, in which the same species as that in Changbai mrs. makes up 17%, the same genus makes up over 60%. prof. Koji Ito has divided the alpine zone of Daisetsu into 6 communities, apari from pinus pumila, 5 communities are the same as that divided by us. The differences only are on construction species and dominant species. Therefore, the vegetation and natural landscape type of Daisetsu mountains should be put in alpine tundra. The Daisetsu alpine tundra belongs to a marine type and the Changbai alpine tundra belongs to a coast type. In general, the two alpine tundra zones are situated at the southern boundary of alpine tundra of Eurasia.
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    从农业气候角度确定辽宁省作物的合理布局
    杨永岐, 那守谦, 班显秀
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 303-311.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.303
    摘要   PDF (629KB)
    农业是按着人类的经济目的而进行的生物生产。农业生物有其固有的生命活动规律,它受当地自然环境条件,诸如气候、地形、土壤等因素的影响与制约,具有明显的地域性;同时,它又是经济再生产,故受到经济规律,诸如社会经济条件、生产水平、人力物力以及社会需要等影响与制约。
    In this paper, by analysing some basic factors the authors point out that some main climatological factors, such as light, temperature and mois ture, obviously affect the yields of crops, and then propose a agroclimatic model for the output of five crops as to evaluate regional agroclimatic resources. Under conditions of the present climate, the three correct coefficients in this model, interception of leaf area for light, temperature and moisture, are given. On the premise of analysing the climatological yields of crops and their variances, in order to develop the advantages of climate, the main regions of croping are drawn out. After calculating adjustment coefficients for planting area of five varieties of Crops in 45 counties, the authors plot the composite distribution map of crops.
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    长江流域水平衡三要素分析
    杨远东
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 312-320.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.312
    摘要   PDF (504KB)
    长江流域面积达180万平方公里,是我国最大的词流。它的水量和长度均居世界第三位。长江发源于"世界屋脊"的青藏高原,海拔6621米。流域位于北纬24°27’~35°54’、东经90°33’~122°19’之间,呈东西长、南北窄的流域形状。
    Proceeding from the isograms of longterm mean annual precipitation, runoff and evaporation, this paper introduces chiefly the regional distribution of the three key elements in water balance and their variations through-out the year or from year to year as well as further analyses the related characteristics between the precipitation and the runoff or evaporation in Yangtzer River basin, Yellow River basin and Pearl River basin. Some abnormalities in the relationships, such as the relation between drought index and runoff coefficient, show that pseudo-correlationand and its effects are existed.The runoff probabilities calculated for the three regions reflect better corresponding relationship between the key elements. Based on the data of 13 groups of Yangtze Basin, the author has calculated the evaporations. The examinations can satisfyingly be use in practice in plain, hilly and mountaineous area.
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    黄河中游黄土丘陵区的沟谷类型
    陈永宗
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 321-327.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.321
    摘要   PDF (417KB)
    本文利用野外调查和形态测量资料划分黄河中游黄土丘陵地区的沟谷类型,分析各类沟谷发生发展过程中的相互关系,以揭露这个地区侵蚀沟发育的规律,为防止它的发展提供理论依据。
    Taking the evolution processes of gully and morphological features as the fundamentals of classification and major standard to distinguish the processes, the author has divided the erosive gullies in the Loess hilly region in the middle reaches of Yellow River into the Shallowgully, Cut-gully, Gully Golch and Valley which present the model of gully evolution processes in the Loess region. The various morphological parameters of a group of gullies are obviously and concentrically distributed in a certain area, and the Critical values are existed. There is a good correlation between the morphologic parameters of same group of gullies as well as between the same one or two parameters of various kind of gullies. To diffuse slope runoof, stabilize and rise up erosion base are the main approach to prevent the erosion gullies from developing.
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    日本学者宫川泰夫来长讲学
    经地
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 328-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.328
    摘要   PDF (63KB)
    根据中国科学院与日本学术振兴会学术交流备忘录,日本爱知教育士学副教授宫川泰夫先生应邀于1984年7月15日至7月26日访华。宫川先生此次来华主要是到中科院长春地理所讲学并进行学术交流。之后还到中科学院北京地理所、西安光机所、广州能源所进行了参观访问。
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    北京的大气混浊度
    谢贤群
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 329-334.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.329
    摘要   PDF (324KB)
    测量与分析一个地区的大气混浊度,对深入研究该地区的大气污染状况和气候变化趋势有重要意义。世界气象组织(WMO)建议在全球范围内建立大气混浊度监测网,以便对全球的本底污染趋势作出估计。
    Based on the data of solar radiation measurement of 21 years, the Linke turbidity factor in Beijing district are analysed and its yearly changes and trends are discussed, too, in this paper. It shows that the average value of turbidity factor of 21 years is about 3.25 and Beijing tends to be in the rank of turbid cities. In the yearly changes of atmospheric turbidity factors, the largest turbidity value is in summer, about 3.67, in winter it is the smallest, about 2.89. There are three positive departure values of T in the changes year by year. In the end of 1950’s the positive departure had been affected by local environment of Beijing. In the middle period of 1960’s T increased because of Agung volcanic eruption. Since 1970’s the atmospheric turbidity have been increasing year by year, with the industrial development and the growth of population in Beijing.
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    地理条件对“铁丰18号”大豆生态影响模式的研究
    高振福, 单维奎
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 335-340.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.335
    摘要   PDF (317KB)
    我国近十年来培育并大面积推广的一个最优良的大豆品种——"铁丰18号"育成于辽宁铁岭。它克服了现有大豆品种适应性差、产量低等缺点,不但在辽宁已成为大豆的主栽品种,而且从1974年以来,经全国各地试种,也都表现增产趋势,表明它具有广泛的适应性、较好的商品性能、较高的经济效益和较强的抗病能力。近几年,有关科研部门系统观察"铁丰18号"大豆在不同栽培条件下的生育表现,为研究"铁丰18号"大豆在不同地理条件下的生态规律提供了丰富资料。本文拟根据这些试验数据,探讨"铁丰18号"大豆在不同地理条件下栽培的生态模式,为"铁丰18号"大豆易地种植提供依据。
    The soybean, "Tiefeng 18", has been the best variety of soybean in our country for more ten years. It is of wide adaptability, better function of commodity and more economic efficiency. For years, the scientific research institutions of the different parts in our country have tried to grow it under the various geographical conditions. The authors, according to the test informations achieved have done a lot of calculations, using statistic analysis method. After studing the law that environmental Condition,geographical latitude and height above sea level have an effect on soybean, "Tiefeng 18", the authors present yield models under the different geographical conditions. In this paper, the authors offer the various scientific informations so as to grow it on large area in all over the country.
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    安康地区土地类型的划分
    秦关民
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 341-349.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.341
    摘要   PDF (562KB)
    "土地"是一个综合性的科学概念,它反映地球表面某一区域内的一个具体地段,这个地段包括地质、地貌、气候、土壤、水文和动植物等全部自然地理因素,也包括人类社会活动对自然环境的影响,故是一个自然地理综合体,也是一个地区历史发展的产物,具有特定的地理历史意义。
    In this paper, according to the field inverstigation and relative informations, the auther analysis and studies the characteristics of physical geography and the factors of land differentiation in Ankang District, and presents a principle of classifing land in mountain area, delimiting the identified index of each type and the system of land classification. In addition, from the Point of view of dialectical materialism and synthetical study, the paper expounds the features of various type of land and makes different potential valuation,In order to make people scientificially understand complex natural environments in mountainous area and manage better agricultural production, the author suggests a way to use rationally each type of land.
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    1:100万东北区沼泽图编制的研究
    李蓬莱
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 350-356.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.350
    摘要   PDF (422KB)
    沼泽是自然资源,是一个湿地生态系统。编制沼泽图对正确认识沼泽分布规律,深入研究沼泽的发生、发展机制、生态结构以及开发利用等问题,可提洪基础性科学资料。东北地区沼泽面积达5000多万亩,约占全区总面积的3%,占全国沼泽面积的33%,是我国沼泽类型多、分布面积大的地区之一。经过几年来的考察研究,对东北地区沼泽的分布、面积、以及类型积累了一定的资料,为编制东北区沼泽图提供了有利条件。沼泽要素作为专题图内容进行编制,在我国还是第一次。现提出我们在编制1:100万东北区沼泽图(以下简称本沼泽图)中的一些看法,望批评指正。
    The Northeast Region is one of main swampy distribution area in China. In order to summarize achivement in scientific investigation of swamp, especially elaborate acreage and type of swamp and its distribution regularity as to find a way for Comprehensive development and utilization of swamp resources, the author has compiled and drawn the regional swamp map. The compilation of the swamp map should embody the principle of swampology (the author has suggested that the classification method of Comperhensive factor can be adopted), directly reflect distribution of swamp and its type characteristics, show regional features of swamp distribution and ecological condition, and mirror research level in depth and extent. In expression form, the author used the method combining colour with symbol. It is that the base colour is used to express respective range of swamp type and the added symbol is used to distinguish whether peat exists in swamp or not. The no-proportion symbol is used to express the swamp with acreage less than provided target. In all over compilation and drawing, the author has adopted combinatiye analysis method in informations and field inverstigation with landsat interpretation.
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    水电工业布局若干问题探讨
    刘东海
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 357-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.357
    摘要   PDF (519KB)
    我国水力资源丰富,理论蕴藏量6.8亿千瓦,其中可开发水力资源3.8亿千瓦,已开发2200多万千瓦,加上在建的水电站装机1000多万千瓦,仅占可开发容量的10%,约有90%多的水力资源尚未开发。这样丰富的水力资源如能很好的利用,可节省大量地下宝藏——石油、煤炭、天然气和铀等能源。开发水力,不仅是电力问题,也是对整个能源的合理利用和工农业的发展问题。因此,研究我国水电工业布局的发展变化规律,对于当前的经济调整和全国在本世纪末实现工农业年总产值翻两番的战略目标,都具有极其重要的意义。现就水电工业布局的几个原则问题,初步探讨如下。
    From the viewpoint of objective economy, the paper expounds following problems: the arrangement principle of hydroelectric station and rational development programme with stair-shape based on features of all over basin the correlations between development of hydroelectric resources and inundation loss, and between the utilization of waterpower resources and management of ecological environment; rational arrangement of hydroelectric station in the light of regional component of electric powers; adaptability of the station to regional economic development etc. Finally, the paper makes an approach to concentric or decentralized arrangement on hydroelectric industry.
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    综述
    大骨节病克山病的地理病因研究——低硒统一病因简论
    朱振源, 侯少范
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 365-373.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.365
    摘要   PDF (827KB)
    自本世纪五十年代证实白肌病(White muscle disease)和渗出性素质(Exudativediathesis)等硒易感性疾病(Selentum resonsive disease)是环境低硒和维生素E不足引起的畜禽地方病以后,生活于低硒环境中的人体是否会产生类似的地方病引起了各国有关研究者的普遍关注。
    Based on following four directional grounds of argument,the article further expounds low-selenium unified cause of Kaschin-Beck disease and Keshas disease in China. 1. Relation of geographical distribution of Kaschin-Beck disease and Keshah disease to White Muscle disease; 2. Relation of the Kaschin-Beek disease and Keshan disease to low-selenium environment 3. Low-selenium responses in human bodies in the disease-occurring regions; 4. Prevention and treatment effectiveness of selenium to Kaschin-Beck and Keshan diseases.
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    研究报道
    长白山的矿水资源及其开发利用前景
    宋德人
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 374-380.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.374
    摘要   PDF (458KB)
    长白山绵延于我国吉林省的东部,素以山势雄伟、风光绮丽、资源丰富闻名中外。其中矿水资源,蕴藏量丰富,类型繁多,有的有一定的医疗价值,有的有较高的温度,赋存巨大的热能。本文就矿水资源类型、形成、分布和开发利用问题作初步探讨。
    The Changbai mountain area is rich in mineral water resources. A preliminary inverstigation shows that there are various types of mineral water in Changbai mountain, and the reserves of the mineral water and the potentials of the thermal energy are considerably plentiful. At present, seven types of mi neral water which are mostly spilled out as spring groups have been found. Based on the investigations and observations as well as collections and analysis of the related informations, the paper presented the forming conditions, types and distributional regularities of mineral water resources as well as its physical and chemical characteristics. In addition, the paper has preliminarily evaluated the quantity and quality of the mineral water resources and provided a valuable basis for exploitation and utilization of them.
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    哈尔滨荒山近期的上升运动
    叶启晓, 吴金城, 魏正一
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 383-388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.383
    摘要   PDF (375KB)
    哈尔滨东郊的荒山是我国东北区较早开展第四纪研究的地点之一。1956年裴文中在荒山发现梅氏犀(Rhinoceros merkeri)下颌骨化石,遂使荒山成为东北区中更新统标准剖面的所在地。此后,对荒山的研究引起了更广泛的兴趣。但以往的工作多侧重地层划分对比、堆积物成因和时代、古生物及考古等方面,对荒山本身的形成和演变问题尚无人论及。本文拟就此提出初浅看法,望指正。
    According to study and inverstigation of a vast amount of informations and evidences on geology,geomorphology,fossil soil and trades of ancient human, a huge geographical variations occured in Huang Shan during the last thousands of year. The authors point out that the directional reason for the variation is the tectonic uplift in Huang Shun far back in the past. The uplift bringed a series of changes, the relief beame higher, climate from wet to dry, vegetation from luxuriance to rareness, and the pedogenesis became slower. After a Considerable period of time, progressively, various consequences and indications in Huang Shah obviously appeared. The even more serious erosion, poor soil,winddrift sand and drought were coming, so that ancient human who lived here had to leave for the existence. This important geographical event occured during the three-four thousands of year.
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    三江平原开发与整治论坛
    三江平原农业开发与治理战略
    何万云
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (4): 389-392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.04.389
    摘要   PDF (308KB)
    三江平原具有很大的资源优势,土地、水、森林、草地、野生动植物、矿产资源等都非常丰富,急待进行全面开发,变资源优势为经济优势。另一方面,这里地处三江下梢,河流泡沼多,排水不畅;森林过伐,盲目开荒,削弱了调节生态系统的作用;中低产土壤面积大,自然灾害频仍,粮食单产较低,增产潜力很大,急需进行综合治理。
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  编辑部公告 More  
· 声明
  2019-03-04
· 新年贺词
  2018-12-25
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  2016-09-18
· 祝贺我刊三篇文章入选“首届最具影响力中国地理期刊优秀论文”
  2016-05-31
· 严正声明
  2016-05-11



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