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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1986年, 第6卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1986-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国的降水变率及其差距
    冯丽文, 郑斯中
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 101-109.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.101
    摘要   PDF (504KB)
    本文计算了我国1月、7月和全年降水变率及其差距。指出我国降水变率从夏季型式向冬季型式转变发生在11月,而从冬季型式向夏季型式转换,沿经度方向的变化发生在5月,沿纬度方向的变化发生在6月。
    In this paper the variability of the precipitation, for annual and twelve monthes, was calculated in China, the formular is Vrx/x?100 In addition, the deviation of variability was calculated according to the method suggested by V. Conrad. The data of the precipitation used in this paper were collected from about 160 stations for the period of 1951-1980. Maps of variabilities of precipitation and that of their deviations for annual, January and July were presented respectively. The seasonal variations for the monthly variability of precipitation along both the latitudinal direction and the longitudinal direction were also discussed. It is found that the variability of precipitation in China converts from its summer pattern to winter pattern for both the latitudianal direction and the longitudinal direction in November. But the conversion from winter pattern to summer pattern for longituginal direction occurs in May and for latitudinal direction occurs in June.
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    二○○○年我国工业生产力布局总图的科学基础
    陆大道
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 110-118.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.110
    摘要   PDF (635KB)
    分析了二○○○年我国工业生产力布局总图的依据,指出点轴开发是最有效的空间组织形式。提出工业布局变化应遵循的基本战略,如工业布局总图不宜发生重大变化;重点发展的轴线及点轴系统;大中城市及工业集聚区空间结构的小尺度调整等。
    The author argues that there shouldn’t occur any essential change(shifting) in the overall plan of the industrial productive allocation and it is inappropriate to set the more balancing regional development as the major target during the rest of the century. Since the production of industrial enterprises, either mining. raw material production or its processing, emerges from and agglomerates on geographical points and is connected each other by linear infra-structures, identification of the major industrial regions means the defining of key axes of development. By means of axes development an optimum spatial combination of the allocation of industry and that of transportation can be realized. Through analysis the author concludes that the most effective pattern of the spatial organization of industry is a point-axis system consisting of two first-order key developing axes, i. e, the coastal belt and the Yangtze River banks, and eight second-order developing axes. Another strategic measure to promote the development of industry is the small-scale adjustment of the rpatial structure of the large and medium-sized cities and industrial agglomerations.
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    东北经济区生产力布局探讨
    常凤鸣
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 119-124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.119
    摘要   PDF (422KB)
    本文对东北经济区作为国家重要工业基地的现状和存在问题进行了分析,指出东北区在工业、农业、交通运输、能源、城镇、生态建设等方面实现生产力合理布局的方向、途径和对策,并进行了具体的论述。
    The author analysed the existing conditions and problems of the Northeast Economic District as an important industrial base of China, and pointed out the direction, ways and polities for achieving the rational productivity distribution in aspects of industry, agriculture, communication and transportation, energy resources, cities and towns, ecology balance, etc. in the Northeast Economic District, meanwhile had a concrete discussion in aspects mentioned above.
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    我国主要高山名茶产地生态气候的研究
    黄寿波
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 125-132.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.125
    摘要   PDF (458KB)
    本文根据我国主要高山与山麓气象站的气象资料,讨论了我国主要高山名荼的生态气候。我国一些高山名荼产区的生态气候特征是:云量和雾日较多,日照百分率较小,散射光充足,降雨量充沛,空气相对湿度较大,温度上升与下降速度比较缓慢,温度的年、日变幅较小,适宜荼树生长的时间较长,在山地背风侧和山谷中风速较小。
    Tea tree (Camellia sinensis (L) Kuntze)is one of the world’s economic crops. It is an especially important crop for the southern China. Environmental factors related to tea yield and quality in some high mountain areas of China are identified in this paper. These factors are: geology, topography, climate, hydrology, soil and vegetation. Climatological factors are the most important factors of them. Using meteorological data collected from meteorological stations which are situated at the top and foot of high mountains respectivelly, the paper discussed ecologically climatic problems growing famous tea in China. The ecological climatic characteristics of those famous tea areas mainly include as follows: more cloud amount and fog-days, less percentage of sunshine, abundant rainfall and high relative humidity in air, slow temperature rising up and falling down, smaller annual and daily temperature range, more days to be suitable for tea growing, low wind speed in the lee sides and valleys of mountains. All of those are favourable for growth of tea tree.
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    泥炭和泥炭地的形成过程及其特性
    梅田安治, 辻井達一, 高橋英纪
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 133-140.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.133
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    由于选择分类依据不同,各国学者提出不同的泥炭地分类方法。从泥炭地的形成过程看,大部分具有三个发育阶段。泥炭的发育与气象条件有直接关系。
    There are closely interrelation among peatland, mire-land, swamp and wetland. Some of their charactristics are similar each other, some are different. Because of differentiation in foundation for classification, the classification system of peatland suggested by various scientists are distinct. In this paper, the classifications of peatland proposed 18 scientists and some of direct and indirect basises adopted by 28 scientists are demonstrated. In the light of forming process of peatland, most of peatland development include three stages, i.e. low moor peatland, high moor peatland and the trasition type between them-transitional moor peatland. The growth of peat is closely related to climatic conditions.
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    四川紫色土和黄壤中硼锌含量及其农业评价
    成延鏊, 杨定国, 温琰茂
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 141-150.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.141
    摘要   PDF (601KB)
    本文在分析讨论四川紫色土、黄壤中硼、锌含量状况及其影响因素的基础上,对它们的丰缺趋势进行了评价。指出这两类土壤均系缺硼土壤;缺锌的差别甚大,紫色土比黄壤普遍。据此提出因地制宜地推广应用硼、锌微肥的建议。
    In the paper,contents of B and Zn in purplish soil and yellow earth of Sichuan were shown,the availability and its effeeting factors of B and Zn were discussed. At the same time, the rich-deficient status of available B and Zn were evaluated from developing agro-production. The average contents of total B in purplish soil and yellow earth are 70 and 97 ppm respectively. Their available B contents are 0.19 and 0.18ppm. In94.3 to 100% of the analysed samples of purplish soil,the available B are below the critical value(0.5ppm),and in 96.7to 100%of the samples of yellow earth, the available B are below that,too.They are considered to be B deficient soil and have been proved by a series of field experiments. The average contents of total Zn in purplish soil and yellow earth are 106 and 129 ppm respectively.Their availabel Zn contents are 1.16 and 1.75 ppm respectively.However,the content of available Zn varies greatly among different kinds of those soil. Cailcareous purplish soil of which is the lowest,in72% of the analysed samples(nonirrigated farming land)and 85% of the collected samples(paddy field)are below the critical value(1.0 and 1.5 ppm)respeetively.Consequently,it is the most important soil of Zn deficiency in Sichuan. In neutral purplish soil and acidic purplish soil, the area of Zn def icient soil are about half of their distributing area. As a whole of yellow earth,the available Zn content of them are richer but a part of them uased as paddy field has 50 to 75% to be below the critical value,except yellow earth developed on limestone. In future,it is indispensable to apply B and Zn fertilizers in the soils of B and Zn deficiency. there will be an increase in yield of rapeseeds,cotton, maize,paddy,and some fruit trees,etc.
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    华北区平原带第四纪植被类型及其气候意义
    赵景波
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 151-157.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.151
    摘要   PDF (481KB)
    华北区平原带第四纪森业植被主要有代表温暖气候的落叶阔叶林、松和落叶阔叶树构成的混交林以及反映较冷气候的云杉、冷杉和落叶阔叶树组成的混交林。以往确定的暗针叶林大部分应属耐冷的混交林。森林草原植被主要由松、桦、栎、榆和革本植物组成,代表温暖半干旱气候。另有指示温干气候的草甸草原和禾草草原。不存在冻原植被。冰期时相当于冻原的南界应在42°N以北。
    In the plain of North China, the major forest vegetations in the Quaternary were deciduous-broadleaf forest, mixed forest consisting of Pinus and deciduous-broadleaf trees, which indicate warm climate, and the mixed forests consisting of Picea, Abies and deciduous broadleaf trees, which indicate cold climate. Because of the lack of standard pollen amount the previous result determined as Picea Abies isn’t precise, actually the most of them should belong to mixed forest type showing cold climate. Cosequently, the droping range in temperature in the glacial epoch should be lower than that of being estimated by predecessors. The temperature was slightly lower than that occured at the lower boundary of Picea-Abies forest at that time. The forest-steppe vegetation mainly consisted of Pinus, Betula, Quercus, Ulmus and herb, which represents warm and semi-arid climate.The steppe included the meadow steppe and the graminea steppe. Some cold-resistant vegetations such as alpine meadow and tundra which the southern boundary should lie to the north of 42°N during the glacial epoch, have been found.
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    杭州西湖的环境水文条件与水体富营养化问题
    毛发新
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 158-166.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.158
    摘要   PDF (513KB)
    本文根据作者调查所得的西湖环境水文条件资料,分析水体富营养化产生的原因,提出改善西湖水质的对策。
    The West Lake of Hangzhou, a famous scenic spot for tourist, has become a nutritive lake with a turbid water body and unchecked proliferation of algae, which has seriously damaged the attractiveness of its beauty. The Lake, with an area of 5.6 square kilometres and an average depthof 1.55 metres, is artificially controlled in its water level, whereas the current velocity of the Lake may exceed 0.1m/sec. during flood water period, but it turns a "dead lake" during dry season. The Lake has a regular current direction but meagre sources of water, the water body was renewed for 1.2 times during the dry year of 1979. The temperatures of water vary very little both horizontally and vertically. The transparency of the Lake water has reduced from 0.5 to 0.35m,while the pH value risen from 7.1-9.2 to 8.1-10.2 over thirty years. In recent years, in consequence of 400 tons of sewerage drained daily into the Lake, the ammonia nitrogen rises to 0.04-12.0mg/l, the average value of total nitrogen to 2.76 ppm and that of total phophorus to 0.13ppm. The Lake, containing 60,000 algae, primarily blue and green algae, each millimetre of water, has become eutrophic. The unfavourable hydrological conditions of environment and the large quantities of sewerage drained into the Lake account primarity for eutrophication of the water body. To draw water from outside of the valley as an additional source so as to quicken water circulation in the Lake is one of important measures for improvement of the hydrological conditions and the cure of eutrophication of the West Lake.
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    沼泽模型设计
    万恩璞
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 167-174.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.167
    摘要   PDF (367KB)
    通过模型研究沼泽水体变化和予测生态环境的演变是沼泽学科领域的一个新手段,文章探讨了建立沼泽物理模型、电模型和数学模型的可能性及其理论和方法。三种模型各有特点,可以根据模拟内容和条件选择或结合使用。
    The construction of swamp model is a new way to study and predict changes of swamp water and ecological environment. The author makes an approach to physical, electric and mathematical models in the paper. The advantages of the three simulted methods are different. they can be seperarely or compositely used based on requirements and conditions.
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    综述
    试论地图信息传递论的实践意义
    田德森
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 175-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.175
    摘要   PDF (689KB)
    地图信息传递模型是从地图制图到用图过程的概括和简化。它是地图信息产生和应用的客观反映,其实践意义可概括为这几方面:用信息科学总结和研究地图制图的实践活动;在地图分析研究中的作用,对地图设计和编制的影响;丰富了地图学的理论研究。地图从制作到使用是一个复杂的系统,应用信息科学和系统分析的观点与方法,对其内部规律作深入地研究,找出提高地图信息传递效果的控制因素,促进地图科学的发展。
    The model of cartographic communication is a generalization and simplification of process from making to using map and also is objectively reflection of generation and application of cartographic information. It plays an important role in any activety in which the preparation and use of maps is a matter of basic interest. This includes summarizing and studying cartographic science, affecting the map design and compilation, applying several methods of map analysis and enriching content of research on theoretical cartography. The practical meaning of cartographic communication is presented in aspect of not only the cognition of cartography but also the research on complex system of making and using map. Information itself is of a communication character. If we only knew the cartographic information bearing the function of transmission, we would not pay attention to further studying the cartographic communication. From making to using map being a complex process its law must be analysed and studied furtherly with the method of information science, cybernetics and systemtical analysis. Then some control components may be found to raise transmiting efficiency. Only in this situation can we apply information theory and cybernetics to promote and bring about a great adance in cartography.
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    研究报道
    太白山冰缘地貌的初步研究
    谢又予
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 183-190.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.183
    摘要   PDF (2220KB)
    秦岭主峰太白山海拔3767米,晚更新世时至少存在两次冰川作用。全新世以来,随着冰川的消失,代之以冰缘过程占统治地位。本文根据实地考察,论述了寒冻风化作用、雪蚀作用和冻结分选作用所形成的各种冰缘地貌类型,并划分了五个垂直带,概述了古冰缘环境。
    The Taibaishan, a major peak of the Qinling Mountains, is 3767m high above sea level. There were at least twice glaciations in the late pleistocene. Since the Holocene, the periglacial processes dominanted overthere with allof glaciers retreating. In this area periglacial landforms can be divided into three groups as follows: 1. such forms as talus, rock glacier, and block slope, formed by frozen-weathering. 2. the forms, such as nivation hollows, nivation benches, and higher planation terraces, formed by nivation, and 3.the patterned ground (circles sorted, nets, etc.), formed by frozen sorting action, and distributed in the tundra zone, with an altitude of more than 3,000m above sea level. The present periglacial zone of the Taibaishan peak is Alpine periglacial one, continental climate forest-meadow type, while the ancient:one preferredthe desert type. Based on the low limit of periglaciations, permafrost distribution and the upper limit of coniferous forest, it is demonstrated that the ancient periglacial type isn’t of marine one, but transitional type from marine to continental climate.
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    学位论文摘登
    关于土地类型结构及其与综合自然区划关系的初步探讨
    王超
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 191-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.191
    摘要   PDF (297KB)
    现代各门自然科学和社会科学无不在广泛地探索着其研究对象的结构。参与土地研究的各门科学都不同程度地注意到了土地的结构问题,提出了景观结构、土地结构、土地类型结构、用地结构或土地利用结构等不同概念,但土地结构、土地类型结构的概念主要来自综合自然地理学。
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    学术活动
    中国科学院三江平原科技攻关成果通过鉴定
    刘兴土
    地理科学. 1986, 6 (2): 195-196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1986.02.195
    摘要   PDF (157KB)
    "六五"期间,中国科学院承担了三江平原科技攻关任务,包括农业自然资源复查、合理开发与综合治理以及农业若干增产技术研究。在长春分院和地学部的主持下,组织了院属长春地理所、林土所,黑龙江农业现代化所等十五个研究所的二百多名科研人员参加,并与黑龙江省的二十二个单位协作,进行多学科、多部门的联合攻关,园满地完成了各项研究计划指标,取得了丰硕成果。1985年11月27日至30日,中国科学院受国家科委委托,在长春召开农业自然资源复查成果鉴定会。
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