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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1990年, 第10卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1990-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    开拓前进的十年
    《地理科学》编辑部
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 193-193.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.193
    摘要   PDF (83KB)
    《地理科学》自创刊起已历十年,这十年正是我国改革开放和社会主义建设事业取得伟大成就的十年。回顾《地理科学》走过的路程,可以说它没有辜负新时期所赋于的历史任务,没有辜负广大地理工作者寄于的期望。它在坚持四项基本原则,明确社会主义政治方向,遵循办刊宗旨,提高期刊质量,扩大社会效益等方面取得一定成绩,当然也存在一些问题有待解决。
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    祝贺《地理科学》创刊十年
    陈静生
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 194-194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.194
    摘要   PDF (127KB)
    今年是我国地理学三大学报级学术刊物之一的《地理科学》创刊十年,首先我要向《地理科学》十年来在促进我国地理学发展与繁荣方面所取得的巨大成绩表示衷心祝贺。
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    全球气候变化及海平面上升问题研究的现状与发展趋势--为《地理科学》创刊十年而作
    任美锷
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 195-207,291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.195
    摘要   PDF (865KB)
    全球气候变化与海平面上升是人类面临的史无前例的挑战。全球气候将继续变暖,全球理论海平面今后100-200年将不会有大幅度上升,下一世纪上升幅度估计50-100cm。相对海面上升对人类威胁最大,因此许多国家制定对策,以抗御或减轻全球变化将造成的灾害。
    Global climatic warming and sealevel rise are the most serious challenge to mankind,Global warming will continue and is irreversible.Since Antarctica ice sheet will not melt and disintegrate during the future climatic warming,it is unlikel that sealevel will greatl rise in the next 100 or 200 ears.The best estimate for sealevel rise over the next centur is 50-I00cm.But relative sealevel changes are mainly controllod by various local factors,among which the most important is land subsidence.As the coastal region is the most densel populated and best developed area in the world,a relative sealevel rise of one meter will be a great threat to our society. The recent development in the study of global climatic changes and sealevel rise is as follows:1)It is realized that mankind has become a more important agent of environment changes than nature.Therefore,increasing attention is being paid to the stud of man’s role in the global change.2)Man developed countries have already started preparing for global warming and sealevel rise and a number of plans have been formulated and measures taken to combat these long-term threat.
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    近年中国干旱区研究的进展
    赵松乔
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 208-216,291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.208
    摘要   PDF (661KB)
    地理科学 10(3),p208,表1,参31,1990近40年来,特别是近10年来,我国干旱区研究获得重大进展。在自然资源清查及评价、自然灾害的监测和治理、地理环境的演变和预测、生产布局、人口动态以及区域研究与区域开发等方面取很不少成果,为下世纪大规模开发作了充分的准备工作。
    The arid zones(including semi-arid zones)are widely distributed from the west of the Da Hinggan Meuntain,through the Taihang Mountain,the Liupan Mountain,and the Bayan Har Mountains,to the Nyainqentanglha Range in China. In the past 40 years,especially the last 10 years,China has made a great progress in the arid zones research,and some fields have reached the advanced level of the world.The arid zones research involves the following aspects: 1.The inventory and evaluation of natural resources,including land types, land resource,water resource,climate resource,biological resource,mineral resource,etc. 2.The monitoring and control of natual disasters.The emphasis was placed on the research on disasters such as drought,sand-storm and salinization, particularly,controlling sand-storm got an evident result. 3.The evolution and prediction of geographical environoment.Because of natural evolution and the effect of human activities,the geographical environment in arid zones is changing continually. 4.The production allocation of industry,agricultune and transprt.To meet the need of national economy developmert,recently the production allocation of arid zones has been approached deeply. 5.Population dynamics.The investigation was carried out on minority nationalities population growth,the population and economy of mountainous areas, population and environment,migration of northwest.The policies of adjusting industrial structure and coordinating development were proposed. 6.Regional research and regional development.Some prieparations are being made for the development at a large scale in the next century. In the future,one should continue to make an effort on the range and depth of the arid zones research,especially strengthen comprehensive and regional research.
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    我国环境演变研究的进展
    张兰生
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 217-225,291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.217
    摘要   PDF (724KB)
    本文回顾了我国近年来环境演变研究的进展,论述了新生代以来我国自然环境演变与全球演变之间的关系,青藏高原隆起过程及季风形成问题,环境演变序列的建立及特征环境的复原,中国西部和华北旱化趋势的探讨,海平面升降变化的研究,区域环境演变与人类活动影响的研究等方面。
    The recent development in research on environmental change in China is recounted comprehensivel and discussed in this paper,including the following aspects:the recognition of the relationship bet een the global change and the evolution of ph cical geographical environment in China since the Tertiar;the progress in the research on the uplfting process of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and the formation and evolution of East Asia monsoon;the reconstruction of the characteristic environments in the past and the set up of the time sequence;the discussion on the trend towards dryness in north and west China;the progress of the study on the sea level change;and the study on regional cnvironmental change and the influence of human,activities.
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    土地评价研究发展动向
    李孝芳
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 226-229,291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.226
    摘要   PDF (294KB)
    本区论述土地评价的产生和发展。近年来土地评价从定性研究走向与社会经济因素相结合的定量评价,并在土地评价中纳入土地质量供应能力,即充足性的评价,使其成果更为实用。
    The papel expounds the origination and development of land evaluation.In recent years,land evaluation is developing from quatitative research to ard quantitative evaluation combined with social economic factors,and the land quality supply capacit is brought into the land evaluation namely,sufficient evaluation,which makes the evaluation target more concrete and the results more practieal.During the middle-late period of the 1980s,a Canadian,H.Shrcier did the sufficient evaluation of land in several river valle s in Nepal,proposed the relationship between the population gro th in the future and the demand for land suppl,predicted the future environment change caused b population growth.His research work merits the reference in the research on land capacity and local population demand.
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    中国海岸风沙研究的进展和问题
    吴正, 吴克刚
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 230-236,291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.230
    摘要   PDF (557KB)
    本文初步总结了近十多年来我国海岸风沙研究工作所取得的进展,加深了对现代海岸风沙地貌与沉积特征的认识,探讨了海岸沙丘的的成因,提出了地方性发育模式;海岸沙丘岩在我国华南沿海多处发现,提出了认别标志,将其与海滩岩明确区分;提出了老红砂的风成见解等。丰富和深化了我国海岸地貌与沉积的理论,填补了国内在这一研究领域的空白。文章还提出了我国海岸风沙今后要进一步研究的主要问题。
    This paper sums up the recent research progress in the field of coastal aeolian landforms and sediments in China and suggests the problems to need to be solved in the current research. During the last decade the researchers of the coastal aeolian erosion have deepened the understanding of modern coastal aeolian landform and sedimentar, characteristies;discussed the formation of coastal aeolian landform and advanced some local evolution models;discovered the wide-distributed coastal dune-rock (aeolianite)along south China coast and raised the distinguished characteristics between beach rock,ridge rock and dune-rock;put forward the new point of view of aeolian formation on the old red sand sediments.The above progress have greatly enriched the theory on coastal geomorpholog and sedimentology and filled a vacancy of the research field in China. The authors also point out the key problems to be researched currently as follows:the dynamic geomorphologic process of coastal aeolian landform;the diagenesis of coastal change such as sea level change and neotcctonie movement; the weathered(redden)process of the old red sand sediments and its dating methods.
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    河南工业布局问题探讨
    李润田, 秦耀辰
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 237-245,292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.237
    摘要   PDF (655KB)
    本文论述了河南省工业布局的形成与演变过程,从不平衡到平衡等工业布局的基本特征,最后探讨了有关工业合理布局的几个问题,提出改善布局的建议。
    There is a very long industry history in Henan Province.Modern industrial distribution has gone through three periods,from the beginning of the 20th century to 1949,from 1949 to 1979,and from 1979 to now. According to the investigation of indtstrial history in Henan Province,and calculating indexes of 128 counties and cities,four features on the industrial distribution in Henan are proposed as follows. 1.The industrial distribution tends toward balance. 2.The macrostrueture of distribution is that taking the concentrated zones of enterprises along the five rail a lines as a frame,and northwest part of Henan with concentrated resources as a heavy industry core area,while the southeast pair of Henan featuring agricultural products as the periphery area with lower output values of industry. 3.The city-count-village and township industrial system is the product of economic reform in the last ten years. 4.There are considerable differences in structures of industrial sectors and their benefits. To improve the industrial distribution in Henan,five suggestions are made. 1)The construction of the energy sources and heavy chemical industry bases in northwest part of Henan must be strengthened. 2)The government of Henan Province should appropriately and timely control the balanced development,and improve the industrial benefits in core area,and help to bring about a mechanism of self-cycle increase in the system.3)The industries of counties,villages and towns with weak industries force should be emphasized.4)Export-oriented industry should be developed in the light of the actual conditions in Henan,And 5) the rational territory structure of industry should be constructed in every economic zones.
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    三江平原地区沼泽成因与泥炭分布规律
    牛焕光, 宋海远, 孟宪民
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 246-256,292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.246
    摘要   PDF (1210KB)
    三江平原地区是我国主要沼泽分布区之一。受降水变率大和负地貌平浅等区域自然条件的制约,形成的沼泽绝大部分没有泥炭堆积,少量泥炭沼泽发育在有地下水补给的古河道区、一些沼泽性河流的中上游段以及深洼地中。本区为草本泥炭,全局分布很不平衡,主要赋存于古河道、河漫滩、泥床河漫滩沟谷以及热融深洼地等负地貌类型。
    The Sanjiang Plain region is one of the main marsh distribution regions in China,where marsh covers an area of 11200 km~2.The marsh formation resulted from the synthetic action of such natural factors as regional geological structure, geomorphology,composition of surface materials,climate,hydrology,etc.Most of marshes did not accumulate peat because of the restraint of regional natural conditions,such as big precipitation variability,smooth and shallow negative landform,etc.The peat marsh only developed at the ancient channel fed with groundwater,the middle and upper reaches of some marsh rivers and deep depressions. The peat of this region belongs to herb peat originated from water-body paludification,and its spatial distribution is unbalanced.The peat deposit in the plain area is characterized by a small quantity and abundant reserves,while the peat deposit in the mountain area is characterized b a great quantity and scarce reserves.There are big deposits with rich peat reserves in the eastern part of the plain and small ones with little peat reserves in the western part of the plain. The peatlands are chiefly distributed at negative lanaforms such as ancient channels,floodland,riverbed-floodland,valley depressions and thermokarst depressions.
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    冬季季风与东亚气温
    任广成
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 257-263,292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.257
    摘要   PDF (443KB)
    本文首先根据季风气压场特征定义了冬季季风强度指数,并对该指数与东亚气温之关系作了分析,发现两者存在显著的负相关关系。文中还分析了与两者联系的大气环流过程,指出了前期夏季北半球主要大气活动中心对东亚冬季气温趋势的指示作用以及高空500hPa西风环流与低空冬季季风气流强弱方面的联系。
    By using the pressure field of winter monsoon,winter monsoon intensity index is defined,There is a better positive correlation between winter monsoon intensity index and the grade of temperature in various regions of China.Winter monsoon,intensity index is closely related to the grade of mean temperature in winter in China.The major atmospheric action centers over the northern hemisphere in summet are the precursors of the tendency of Winter air temperature over East Asia region.Winter monsoon influences not only our country,but also Korea,the far southeast part of USSR and Japan,etc.The relationship between 500 hPa circulation pattern and winter monsoon intensity is discussed.
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    人口密度分级的一般原则与定量标准的探讨
    党安荣
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 264-270,292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.264
    摘要   PDF (475KB)
    本文以科学而有效地传输人口密度的空间分布规律及定量特征为目的,探讨了人口密度分级的一般原则,在剖析现有统计地图分级定量标准的基础上,拟定了最适于确定人口密度分级,并同时顾及分级的统计精度与图面效果的新型分级精度计算公式,并通过实例验证了新公式的优越性。
    The determination of classification scheme is one of the important problems about the theory and practice of classification expresion.It includes t o aspects, the determination of classification number,and the selection of classification limits.The number of classification number should be determined based on the scale of population density maps,their mapping purpose,the eharacteristics of population distribution in mapping regions,charting and printing technology and so on.The basic principles of classification limits are that the map surface is scientific,the statistical aecurace is high,and it is convenient for useage.On the basis of the present quantitative standard of statistical map classification, some ne/calculating formulas for classification accuracy:ACAi(N,K)(i=1,2, 3,4,5)ere vorked out,hich are most suitable to population density classification,and give consideration to the statistical accuracy of classification and the mapping effect.And the advantages of the new formulas are proved by the practical example.
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    研究报道
    平泉县地貌与土地资源的分异和评价
    唐成田, 胡孟春
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 271-279,292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.271
    摘要   PDF (622KB)
    土地是农业生产的基础,它的生产能力受诸自然要素综合影响,由于地貌制约着地表水热再分配,在土地资源的分异中起着主导作用。因此,研究土地的地貌条件,是搞好土地资源评价和制定土地利用规划的重要基础。
    Land is the foundation,of agricultural production.Its productivity is comprehensively affected by several natural factors,among which the general configuration of the earth’s surface plays an important role in the dissimulation of land resources because it governs the redistribution of water and heat on the earth’s surface,Therefore,a careful study of the conditions of the general configuration of the earth’s surface of land provides an important basis for the better evaluation on land resources and the plan of land utilization.
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    新疆哈密盆地土壤中微量元素的因子分析
    周天骧
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 280-285,292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.280
    摘要   PDF (366KB)
    本文应用因子分析的方法,对新疆哈密盆地主要土壤类型中锌、锰、铁、铜四种微量元素的全量和有效态含量之间以及与土壤理化性质之间的相互关系进行探讨,指出用因子分析方法研究土壤分类及土壤中各种元素和土壤理化性质之间相互关系是一种可取的方法。
    By means of factor analysis,the author researched ten physical and chemical indexes of 33 soil samples from Hami basin.Through Q-mode factor analysis, 33 samples may be divided into three groups,which corresponds with the soil types.Based on the R-mode factor analysis,ten indexes can be classified into two types.The total Zn,Mn,Fe and Cu in soils are closel related each other, and among availables Zn,Fe,Cu,Mn,organic matter and mechanical composition,there is a close relationship.
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    书评
    B.Б.索恰瓦著《地理系统学说导论》评介
    李世玢
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (3): 286-289.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.03.286
    摘要   PDF (326KB)
    50年代末,苏联由于开发西伯利亚的需要,在伊尔库茨克建立了西伯利亚和远东地理研究所,由苏联著名自然地理学家和地植物学家、苏联科学院院士B.B.索恰瓦(1905-1978年)任所长。他领导该所把新的思想和方法引进地理学中,在西伯利亚展开了广泛、深入的综合自然地理学研究。他首先把系统论思想应用于景观研究,提出了"地理系统"的概念。他认为,深化景观研究的唯一正确途径是建立自然地理定位研究站,开展对地理系统的结构、功能作用、动态和自然状况的实验研究。为此、先后在西伯利亚建立了六个定位研究站,运用他提出的综合定序法(或译"综合同步研究法")对地理系统各组分和自然状况进行全面的同步的观测研究。同时,把系统分析方法、数学方法、模拟方法、景观地球物理学方法、景观地球化学方法、生物-生态学方法等均应用于景观研究。
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