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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1990年, 第10卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1990-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    景观生态学的发展及其前景
    景贵和
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 294-302,387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.294
    摘要   PDF (703KB)
    本文探讨了景观生态学的概念,论述了世界各国该学科发展过程特别是近10年的迅速发展状况,介绍了有关景观生态学的理论成果与理论基础,最后作者指出景观生态学的前景应加强理论原理、研究方法与应用技术的研究。
    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary science between geography and ecology.It studies the spatial organization,internal functions and mutual relations of landscape. As early as 1939,While studying the problems of land use and development in East Africa,C.Troll coind the term"Landscape ecology".But the development of landscape ecology was slow in Central Europe and in the world.Since 1981,after the international congress organizd by the Natherlands.Society for Landscape Ecology,the landscape ecology has been rapidly developing. The theories of landscape ecology include the biocybernetic symbiosis between biosystems and human systems,the theory of dissipative structure,and theory of hierarchical organization,etc. There are broad perspectives of development of landscape ecology in future.It must be focus on adopting advanced theories,methods and practical techniques.
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    地图、遥感与信息系统综合新体系——祝贺陈述彭教授70寿辰
    傅肃性
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 303-307,387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.303
    摘要   PDF (430KB)
    本文回顾了陈述彭教授在地图学、遥感技术应用及信息系统研究等方面所进行的科学探索,以及对我国地理科学的发展所作出的巨大贡献。
    The paper reviews the achievements in aspects of cartography, remote sensing and information system gained by Professor Chen Shupeng,famous geographer,member of Earth Science Division,Academia Sinica,and his great contribution to geographical development of China.
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    试论中国气候区划
    陈明荣
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 308-315,387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.308
    摘要   PDF (538KB)
    本文所作的中国气候区划,采用等效积温作为第一级温度带指标,千操度作为第二级干湿气候型指标。区划结果表明,等效积猛指标在高原和平原有较好的一致性。
    The climate regions of China are distinguished by the equivalent accumulated temperature as the first index of temperature zone and aridity as the second index of climate type of moisture.The equation of equivalent accumulated tempearature is
    ΣTe=(ρ0/ρ)ΣTh
    where ΣTh and ρ are the active accumulated temperature,and the air density from meteorological stations,respectively;h is altitude;ρ0 is the air density at sea level;ΣTe is equivalent accumulated temperature.Using equivalent accumulated temperature to divide temperature zone in both the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,the limiting indexes of temperature zones correspond to those of plain region of east China.
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    长白山高山冻原维管植物区系地理
    钱宏
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 316-325,387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.316
    摘要   PDF (662KB)
    本文将长白山高山冻原87属131种维管植物划分成各种区系地理成分,将长白山高山冻原维管植物区系分别与欧洲、亚洲和北关北极冻原进行了对比分析,提出了在最近一次冰期北极冻原在中国东部南迁到41°N左右的观点,认为长白山高山冻原植物区系是在第四纪全新世从北极冻原演化而来。
    The alpine tundra of the Changbai Mountain is situated in 41°53′42°04′N,127°57′-128°11′E,1950(2000)-2749.2m above sea level.There are 87 genera(gen).and 131 species(sp.)of vascular plants in the alpine tundra.Among them,19 gen.belong to Cosmopolitan Distribution Type(DT),58 gen.and 39 sp.to North Temperate DT,4 gen.and 9 sp.to E.Asia and N.America DT,2 gen.and 6 sp.to Old World(Eurasia)Temperate DT,4 gen.and 7 sp.to Temperate Asia DT,and 70 sp.to E.Asia DT,81 gen.and 58 sp.are shared with arctic tundra of Europe,of which,68 gen.and 27 sp.are shared with the arctic tundra of Europe;66 gen.and 51 sp.are shared with the arctic tundra of Asia;and 80 gen.and 42 sp.are shared with the arctic tundra of N. America.The main features of alpine tundra flora are 1)endemic floristic elements(17 sp.of vascular plants endemic to alpine tundra)are abundant,2)floristic independence(22 gen.and 70 sp.of vascular plants limited in alpine tundra)is great(strong),3)arctic-alpine floristic elements(6 gen.and 43 sp.)are rich.The flora of the alpine tundra in the Changbai Mountain originated from the arctic tundra during the Holocene of the Quaternary(about 12000 years ago).
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    广东省丰顺县农业合理用地结构初步研究
    申元村, 尚佳莉
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 326-336,387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.326
    摘要   PDF (655KB)
    本文以广东省丰顾县为例,就县级农业合理用地结构的研究方法、研究内容和步骤等进行探讨,最后提出了可能的发展前景。
    The research method,content and process of rational agricultural land use structure in a county is studied according to the information from Fengshun County,Guangdong Province.The basic works are the analysis of present land utilization and existing problems,the mapping and measure on the basis of investigation of the type of land suitability.According to the view of resource economics and the method of hierarchy analysis,the percentage of land for different purposes is farming 7.3%,economic forestry 31.7%,forestry 52.0%,animal hu sbandry 2.0%,fishery 0.25%,and others(village and town,road,river)6.75%. The rational structure of each land use type is discussed.The objectives of short-,medium-and long-term and the benefit of resource development in Fengshun County is forecasted quantitatively in the conclusion.
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    东北地区地表面辐射平衡
    李广杰
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 338-346,388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.338
    摘要   PDF (541KB)
    本文利用东北地区9个日射站、3个探空站的实测资料,建立了计算该区域总辐射和冷季各月地表反射率的经验公式,确定了M.E.别尔梁德有效辐射经验公式中的云减弱系数,对东北地区辐射平衡各分量进行了细致计算。在此基础上,探讨了东北地区地表面辐射平衡的分布规律及其成因。
    In the paper northeast China refers to Heilongjiang,Jilin and Liaoning provinces.There are nine insolation-observing stations in northeast China.The equations of total radiation and ground albedo in winter are established based on the solar radiation data and climatic data from the nine insolation-observing stations from 1961 to 1980. The equation of total radiation is Q=S0a+bS)where,Q is total radiation;S0 is astronomical radiation;S relative sunshine;a and b regression coefficients. The equation of ground albedo in winter is
    A=0.331765+0.332506n/N-0.005886H
    where,A is ground albedo;n days of snow cover;N days of each month in winter;H the sun’s altitude. For effective radiation,the following equation is adopted:
    E=0.95σ[(0.39-0.058e1/2T4+(T04-T4)](1-Cn
    where,E is effective radiation;σ Stefan-Boltzman constant,which equals 5.68E-8;T0,T,e,n and C represent the means of ground temperature,air temperature,absolute humidity,cloudiness and a coefficient, respectively. The annual and monthly values of total radiation,effective radiation and net radiation for 166 stations in northeast China are calculated. Their characteristics of distribution in space and time are discussed. The results indicate that northeast China is rich in solar radiation resource.The amounts of annual total radiation,annual effective radiation and annual net radiation are 4100-5300MJ/m2,1600-2200MJ/m2,and 1470-2480MJ/m2,respectively.In respect to the spatial distribution,the annual total radiation in south is more than that in north.There is an increasing tendency of total radiation from east to west.The effective radiation increases from east to west,and the net radiation decreases from south to north.As for the annual variation,the smallest and largest monthly values of total radiation and net radiation are in December,and May or June,respectively;the smallest monthly value of effective radiation is in February or July,and the largest in March.
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    秦巴山区商品生产基地的结构与模拟
    刘胤汉, 张伯祉, 陆立新
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 347-355,387.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.347
    摘要   PDF (616KB)
    本文论述了秦巴山区建设商品生产基地的条件、结构特点,并根据自然、社会、经济等因素的分析,对现有3。个县进行总体效益评价,在此基拙上,对合理的商品生产基地建设进行模拟。
    The paper discusses the conditions and structure features of establishing the commercial production base in Qinba mountainous area. Based on the analysis of natural,social and economic factors,the whole benefit of 30 counties in this area is evaluated.And the structure of the commercial production base is simulated.
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    研究报道
    我国饮用天然矿泉水的初步研究
    宋德人
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 356-364,388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.356
    摘要   PDF (609KB)
    我国饮用天然矿泉水资源十分丰富,分布范围广.本文论述了我国饮用天然矿泉水的主要类型特征、形成条件、分布规律及开发利用现状和前景。
    Based on the studies and analyses of the geological structure,rock condition,geochemical environment and groundwater circulation condition in China,the features of main types,formation condition,distribution law,and exploitation and utilization of natural drinking mineral water are discussed systematically.
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    松花江吉林——扶余江段沉积汞释放速率的模拟研究
    王起超, 王书海, 王稔华, 刘景双
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 365-371,388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.365
    摘要   PDF (393KB)
    本文用模拟实脸方法研究了松花江吉林一扶余江段沉积汞的释放速率。汞的释放速率主要受沉积物中汞含里,汞的形态,水中溶解氧状态和温度的影响。在正常溶解权状态下,汞释放速率与不稳定态沉积汞浓度成线性关系,与温度成指数关系。建立了汞释放速率的经验公式。推算了该江段沉积汞的年释放贷。
    Releasing rate of mercury from the sediments in Jilin-Fuyu reach of the Songhua River is studied through simulating experiments.Releasing rate of mercury is mainly affected by the content and species of murcury in sediments,as well as the content of dissolved oxygen in waters and temperature.Under normal oxygen condition,releasing rate of mercury is linear with the concentration of unstable mercury,and exponential with temperature.The empiric formula about releasing rate of mercury is established.Annual releasing amount of mercury from sediments is estimated.
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    鲁北平原浅埋古河道带基本特征
    张祖陆
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 372-378,388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.372
    摘要   PDF (500KB)
    鲁北平原大致分布有三条浅埋古河道带,呈西南一东北方向平行展布,每带一般宽5-15km,最宽处达20km,沉积厚度在10-20m,最大40m,浅埋谷河道可分为两期,早期古何道形成于晚更新世晚期或全新世初期,晚期为全新世早一中期。古河道研究对本区经济开发,有着重要的理论意义和实践意义。
    The depth of shallow-buried paleochannels in Lubei(North Shandong Province)Plain are 8—60 meters underground.The paleochannels can be divided into three major paleochannel belts,which stretch parallelly from southwest to northeast.They are generally 5—15kin wide, the widest section reaches 20km.Sediments of the paleochannels are mainly composed of fine sand,silt or medium sand,usually 10—20 meters thick,the thickest 40 meters.The floor levels of the shallow-buried paleochannels consist of brown-yellow sandy clay or clay,the top levels grey sandy clay,clayey shad and mud. According to the characteristics of the paleochannel sedimental structure and the synthetic analysis of granularity,mineral and sporepollen data,the shallow-buried paleochannels can be divided into two sedimental stages.14C dating shows that paleochannels in the first stage in the lower sedimental cycle was formed about 25000—9500 years B.P.They are,the river traces from the last period of the Late Pleistocene to the early period of the Holocene.The sediments in the second stage was formed 9500—4100 years B.P.,the early-middle period of the Holocene.
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    乌鲁木齐河终端湖区荒漠化过程中土壤植被系统的演替
    肖洪浪
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 379-384,388.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.379
    摘要   PDF (427KB)
    本文漂统地探讨了乌鲁木齐河终端湖区的环境变化过程,并从生境演替的观点出发将乌鲁木齐终端湖区的土壤植被系统概括成四种主要的组合类型,将湖盆荒漠化过程中土壤植被系统的演替分解为四个阶段。从这个规律出发探讨了湖区资源的合理利用。
    The Urumqi River is an inland river in the arid zone of northwest China.Because its terminal lake had dried up by the end of the 1960s, desertification occurred and presented four phases(types):aridization, salinization,sandization,and the formation of desert landscape.The succession law of soils and vegetation is Phragmites communis marsh soil→Phragmites communis meadow soil→Tamarix spp.,Karelinia caspica solonchak→Haloxylon arnmodendron,H.Persicurn gray desertisol and aeosandisol.According to this succession law,HaIoxyIon ammodendron communities will form new shelter-forests under the condition of the rational use of resources.It is necessary to set up the new balance between animals and grasses because of the decline of land productivity in the desertification.
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    学术活动
    对钱学森同志发展地理科学倡议的认识与建议——中国地理学会东北片讨论会纪要
    李为, 徐效坡
    地理科学. 1990, 10 (4): 385-386.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1990.04.385
    摘要   PDF (158KB)
    1990年4月16日至17日在长春召开了建设和发展地理科学东北片研讨会。会议的主题是:讨论国家科协主席钱学森先生关于建立地理科学体系与发展地理科学的一系列讲话,研究如何落实钱老的倡议,建设和发展地理科学问题。会议由中国科学院长春地理研究所主持,参加会议的单位有东北师范大学地理系、哈尔滨师范大学地理系,吉林省地理学会、黑龙江省地理学会、辽宁省地理学会,吉林省气象学会、延边大学、吉林教育学院、黑龙江省教育学院,以及吉黑二省国土规划部门,共30多位代表。
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