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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1991年, 第11卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1991-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    地理学的发展与区域开发研究
    陆大道
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 197-206.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.197
    摘要   PDF (717KB)
    本文回顾了建国以来关于区域发展与开发问题的研究的历史与现状及今后的趋势,论述了新时期地理学的主要方向。最后,提出深入进行我国区域开发和发展研究的若干问题。
    The problems on regional development appeared widely in the 1980s will become important and extensive social and economic issues in the 1990s.The development of geography should meet the needs of objective requirements.The major target of regional development research is to realize the stable growth of regional economy,and to rationalize the spatial structure of social economy.The related research should be done multi-disciplinarily in coorperation with economists,ecologists and systematic scientists emphasizing on the theoretical and empirical analysis regional development and developing experimental sites.
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    太湖流域的粮食生产与气候变化
    沈小英, 陈家其
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 207-212.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.207
    摘要   PDF (381KB)
    明末清初前,气候温暖,双季稻可以自然生长。小冰期后,气候虽有几度回暖,但热量条件处于一年二熟有余、三熟不足的状况,热量条件成为影响粮食生产的敏感性因子。当今在气候的自然变冷和 CO2增加的增暖影响下,太湖流域实际存在的年积温下降,冬暖,夏凉和秋低温提前的趋势对粮食生产必有深远影响。
    Before the end of the Ming Dynasty to the early of the Qing Dynasty,climate was warm,and heat energy was plentiful,so double cropping of rice in Taihu Lake basin could grow without any protection. Later the world climate entered the Little Ice Age,the double cropping of rice was extirpated nearly,grain output decreased heavily.After the Little Ice Age,although,the world climate got warm,sometimes,the thermal condition was enough for two crops but three crops one year throughout the period.So both the area and output of double cropping of rice was fluctuated with variation of cold/warm.The condition of heat energy,with the movement of climatic zone,became a sensitive factor which effects grain production.Recently,as CO2 concentration. in atmosphere is increasing,climate is warming.With the comprehensive effect of such warming and natural cooling trend,the climate in Taihu Lake basin shows the following trend:warming in winter,cooling in summer,decreasing of annual accumulated temperature and advancing of autumn low temperature.This trend will strongly influence the grain production.
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    中国商业经济区划初探
    隋锡山, 周鸣, 彭同国
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 213-222.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.213
    摘要   PDF (620KB)
    本文系统论述了编制中国商业经济区划的原则和指标,分析了中国商业经济区划的等级序列,并据此提出了中国商业经济区划的具体方案。
    Commerical economic region(CER),or commerical geographical region,is the result of socialized production and development of commodity economy,characterized by system holisty,regional independence, interregional openness and relative steadiness. Commercial economic regionalization provides a scientific basis for organizing and building a commodity circulation network system with all directions,multifunction and openness,rational planning the direction of commodity flow. The principles of commercial economic regionalization are as follows:1.the principle taking a city business center as the core;2.the optimization principle of integrated function;3.the difference principle of physical geographical environment;4.the uniformity principle of human geographical environment;and 5.the order principle of dissipative structure. According to the above-mentioned principles,China’s CER can be divided into 4 levels.
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    东北区粮食生产潜力研究
    王本琳, 胡细银, 佟连军
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 223-233.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.223
    摘要   PDF (624KB)
    本文系统地分析了东北区粮食生产总量及其影响因素,并对该区粮食生产潜力进行预测,指出扩大耕地面积和提高单产的可能性,最后提出进一步增产的若干建议。
    Northeast region covers an area of 1.24 million km2,making up 12.9% of the total area of China,with a population of 103 million,9.9% of the total population of China.The total grain yield of this region is one eighth of the total grain yield of China.The grain commodity rate is over 35%.It is one of the very important regions of grain prodution in China.As population continuously increase and grain demand unceasingly increases,the potential of grain production in the future,and the commodity grain provided for the nation are the maior problems about grain consumption and distribution in the future.And they directly affect the realization of national planning objective of grain production. The analysis of grain production conditions and history indicates that.1)The increase of total grain output is mainly dependent on the increase of grain yield per unit areas,but not the enlargement of grain sown area.2)The factors to affect grain yield per unit areas are materials input,correct policies,yearly climatic variation.3)By the year 2000 and 2010 the total grain output in this area will be respectively 66.16—66.29 and 71.68—72.89 million tons,4)According to the results of research,the potential of increasing grain output in Heilongjiang and Jilin provinces is the greatest in the future. The key measures to raise grain yield include increasing material and energy input,strengthening the base construction of farmland,emphasizing the increasing of yield per unit areas of medium-and lowyield fields,and controlling the amount of farmland which are taken up by any other acivities.
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    中国深埋古岩溶
    李德生, 刘友元
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 234-243.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.234
    摘要   PDF (1294KB)
    碳酸岩是石油与天然气的主要储集岩类之一。本文对中国深埋古岩溶发育规律及影响其发育的多种因素进行了综合论述。认为深埋古岩溶大大提高了碳酸岩储集层的孔隙性和渗透性。研究深埋古岩溶,是寻找储量丰度大、油气产能高的油气田的重要课题。
    Carbonate is one of the main petroleum reservoirs.40% of oil and 50% of gas all over the world are reserved in carbonate.In production capacity,carbonate and pore sandstone are about the same.We are now explorating oil and gas in the carbonate distributing areas including Sichuan,north China,northwest China,and near-shore continental shelf. Generally,carbonate deposited in shallow sea with stable lithological character and big thickness is widespread.On the other hand,its reservoir space,that is,the distribution of fractures and caves,is very un-uniform.The high output is dependent on the developing degree of fractures and caves in reservoir which is drilled.The developing degree of reservoir space was influenced mainly by tectonic factors in addition to unconformity and paleokarstization during the depositional break. The developing regulations of deeply-buried paleokarst in China and several factors influencing their development are comprehensively discussed.Deeply-buried paleokarst made carbonate reservoir highly pore and highly permeable.It is necessary to study deeply-buried paleokarst in order to find oil and gas fields which have high oil-gas productivity and large reserves.
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    长白山高山苔原植物微量元素地球化学分析
    朱颜明, 黄锡畴, 刘景双
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 244-252.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.244
    摘要   PDF (450KB)
    本文研究了长白山高山苔原带土壤、植物中14种微量元素的平均含量及其富集克拉克和分散克拉克。探讨了土壤、植物的微量元素地球化学谱。计算了高山苔原植物和大陆植物的生物吸收系数。
    The concentration Clarke,the dispersion Clarke and average contents of 14 microelements:Mn,Cu,Cr,Co,Ni,Pb,Zn,Cd,V,La,Mo,Sr, Be and Ba in soils and plants of alpine tundra zone in Natural Conservation Region of the Changbai Mountain which is China’s earliest area joining in International Biosphere Conservation Network are studied.The microelement geochemical spectra of soils and plants is approached.The alpine tundra zone in the Changbai Mountain is the biological geochemistry area with high contents of Pb,La,Zn and Mo,and low content of Sr. After calculating the biological absorption coefficient of alpine tundra plants and continental plants,it is found that alpine tundra plants have a characteristic of strong absorbing most of microelements.The research on the biological absorption coefficients of 19 kinds of plants in the region shows that different plants have different absorption capacity to the same microelement,and the same plant has the different absorption intensity to microelements.Each plant has an obvious geochemistry choice for the migration and enrichment of chemical elements.And this choice is carried out in the intrinsic way under the circumstance without the strong interference of human activities.It is impossible to explain completely the biological gathering of elements with physical and chemical laws.
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    环境质量区域分异模式的建立——以上海市川沙县为例
    刘幼慈, 应龙根
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 253-260.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.253
    摘要   PDF (405KB)
    本文以上海市川沙县为例,选取6个环境要素作为区域环境质量的指标系列。应用主成分—聚类分析法建立环境质量的区域分异模式。把川沙县27个乡(环境单元)划分成6类并对环境污染特征作出描述。
    The model of the regional varation of environmental quality in Chuansha County is established with the method of principal component —cluster analysis.First,selecting the environmental quality’s separate indexes of 6 environmental elements,the target series of regional environmental quality are founded.Secondly,6 environmental quality’s indexes are composed into 4 principal components having important envirohmental significance through the principal component analysis.And 4 principal component scores are regarded as new data of cluster analysis. Finally,27 villages are divided into 6 types through system cluster with the method of sum of squares of deviations.The features of environmental pollution is described.
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    武汉市湖泊环境的遥感研究
    邹尚辉
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 261-268.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.261
    摘要   PDF (470KB)
    本文应用遥感技术分析了武汉附近湖泊水质、水生植物等湖泊环境状况,并就湖泊面积、个数减小而致功能萎缩、水质变劣,生物区系变化等方面论证了近十年来湖泊环境的动态变化。
    A lot of lakes surrounding urban areas in the middle and lower reaches of the Changjiang River have an important function in urban ecosystem and urban life.However,lake ecosystem is greatly affected by land ecosystem.Lake water quality,aquatic plants and lake eco-environment of Wuhan urban areas are analyzed by remote sensing. The dynamic changes of lake environment concerning the function shrink,water quality deterioration and flora changes fordozens of years resulting from the decrease of the total number and areas of lake are discussed.
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    厄尼诺及其地理规律
    朱其文, 章少卿
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 269-278.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.269
    摘要   PDF (640KB)
    本文用Ansell方法确定的10个厄尼诺年和6个反厄尼诺年分别计算了这两组年份前年、同年、次年各月,季的太平洋海温正距平和北半球500hPa高度负距平出现的概率。并用北半球500hPa高度场选取因子建立了秋季厄尼诺指数的预报方程,效果较好。
    In this paper,the probabilities of both the positive departure of sea surface temperature(SST)at the Pacific Ocean and the negative geopotential departure in 500 hPa of the Northern Hemisphere in month and season from last to next year were computed for ten E1-Nio years and six anti-El-Niño years,which were defined by Ansell.It is evident that the main characteristics of the SST and the geopotential height in each season during the same period are contrary between El-Niño year and anti-El-Niño year.The life cycle for either El-Niño or anti-El-Niño can be divided into seven stages,i.e.portent,occurrence,development, prosperity,stability,weakness and extinction stages.There exists an opposite PNA teleconnection pattern in 500 hPa between them on the evolution of the circulation type,and there is the factor of change toward the opposite direction as they are happened.The representative season and district of El-Niño were defined objectively.The spectral analysis for the indexes of both El-Niño and PNA shows that the most obvious evidence is 42-month periodic variation,the index of El-Niño is backward for 4.15 months compared with that of PNA.On the other hand,the predictive equation for the El-Niño index in autumn is established by these predictors selected by the 500 hPa geopotential height of the Northern Hemisphere.The effect is satisfactory.
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    学科进展
    我国医学化学地理的进展
    王明远
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 279-286.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.279
    摘要   PDF (476KB)
    医学化学地理是医学和化学地理的边缘学科。我国在60年代开始医学化学地理的研究,20多年来,取得了可喜成果。本文从7个方面介绍了我国在这方面研究所取得的突破性进展。
    Medico-chemical geography is the verge subject between medicine and chemical geography.Medico-chemical geography is separated from chemical geography.We have made progress in medico-chemical geography as follows.1)the correlative law of organism with geochemical environment;2)the geochemico-ecological classification of chemical elements;3)the types of formative cause of biogeochemical provinces in China;4)the parabolic correlation between contents of iodine in drinking water and prevalence rate of endemic goiter;5)the discovery and proof of the low selenium zone in China;6)successive discovery of endemic fluorosis of the types of pollution from burning coal,drinking high fluoride tea and high fluoride table salt from the year 1978; and 7)the compilation of the Atlas of Endemic Diseases and Their Environments in the People’s Republic of China.
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    研究报道
    我国亚热带东部丘陵山区油桐物候特征分析
    陈正洪
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (3): 287-294.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.03.287
    摘要   PDF (465KB)
    本文利用我国亚热带东部丘陵山区十几个观测点三年的油桐物候观测资料,以及笔者对鄂西、湘西北山区油桐栽培现状考察结果,首次详尽地分析了油桐的物候期及其随纬度、高度的特征;初步分析了油桐产量与气候条件、海拔高度、物候期之间的关系;最后对我国油桐适宜经济种植高度进行了讨论。
    Tung oil tree’s phenological properties and their relation with change of latitude and height are analysed.The low temperature both in tung oil tree’s blossom period and winter is the limiting factor for tung oil tree’s development in higher mountains or more northern areas in subtropical zone. The relationship between tung oil tree’s yield,and meteorological factors and height can be transferred to the relationship between the yield and the phenological periods. The suitable cultivating height in various mountains of the subtropical zone of eastern China is calculated.Tung oil trees should be cultivated at the following districts:river valleys and basins below 500m in north subtropical zone;slopes and hills below 800m in mid-subtropical zone;mid-high mountainous areas over 800m in south-subtropical zone; while the wood oil trees at such districts as river valleys and basins below 500m in mid-and south-subtropical zone.
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