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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1994年, 第14卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1994-03-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    中国古代对南海诸岛的命名
    刘南威
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 101-108,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.101
    摘要   PDF (2641KB)
    本文在对南海诸岛古地名和土地名进行考证、分析的基础上,指出南海诸岛土地名是其古地名的组成部分.把古地名与土地名联系起来,可得到一套中国古代南海诸岛地名系统.进一步得出中国南海诸岛的命名,是南海诸岛主权属于中国的有力的地名学证据.
    Through studying the folk place names and ancient place names in the Nanhai Is-lands, the thesis points out that the former representing the monomer of coral reef are parts of the latter representing the colony of coral reef. Both of them set up the place name system of the Nanhai Islands in ancient China,which is a full proof that the Nan-hai Islands are parts of China.
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    海平面上升对长江三角洲及邻近地区的影响
    朱季文, 季子修, 蒋自巽, 杨桂山
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 109-117,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.109
    摘要   PDF (2812KB)
    长江三角洲及邻近地区是下一世纪海平面加速上升的敏感地区.运用海平面上升影响指数综合评价显示,影响最严重的地区是长江三角洲,次为杭州湾北岸和废黄河三角洲,最轻是苏北中部滨海平原.
    The densely populated and economically developed Changjiang River delta and its adjacent area will be the reigon vulnerable to the sea level rise in the next century. Sea level rise would result in:1)retreat of coast,vertical erosi on of tidal flat and increase in length of eroding coastline;2)decrease in area of tidal flat and wetlands due to erosion,i-nundation and reduction in deposition; 3)increase in frequency and intensity of storm surge,which would threaten the coastal protection works and the protected coastal low-land;4)impeding drainage of Lixiahe lowland and eastern lowland of Taihu Lake region and exacerbating flood and waterlogging disaster;5)increase in salt water intrusion into the Changjiang River estuary.Comprehensive impact assessment of sea level rise in this area shows that the Changjiang River delta is the area most severly effected by sea level rise and the next is the northern bank of Hangzhou Bay and the abandoned Huanghe River delta,and the area most slightly effected by sea level rise is the north Jiangsu coastal plain.
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    近十余年来广东的经济增长与结构转化
    李立勋, 邱建华, 许学强
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 118-126,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.118
    摘要   PDF (2835KB)
    自1978年我国实行改革开放政策以来,广东经济发展令人瞩目.本文主要从经济增长与结构转化两个方面研究广东的发展与基本趋向,总结其成果,分析存在问题,并对今后进一步发展提出若干政策建议.
    Guangdong is the so-called testing area of China’s reform and open policy. Since 1978 the rapid developmint of Guangdong has gradually portrayed as the great success resulting from reform and open policy. The present study emphasises the analysis of eco-nomic growth and restructuring:1.The basic characteristics of economic growth in Guangdong are rapid,steady and overall economic growth, thus resulting in the significant increase in people’ s living standard as well as the Guangdong’ s importance in national economic development. Guangdong has become one of a few leading areas in terms of economic development in China. However the problems such as inflation,decreasing economic efficiency also hap-pened and necessary measures should be taken to deal with those problems.2.The tendencies of economic restructuring are; a)the growth of non-agricultural economic activity; b)within agriculture the activities which are able to produce competi-tive products,high efficiency,foreign currency earning have been playing a more impor-tant role; c)the growth of light industry,high technology industry as well as manufac-ture industry. The problems in economic restrucuring are the stagnation of basic indus-try,lack of cooperation between traditional and modern economic activities etc. Policy should be made to prompt the development of basic economic sectors and perfecting re-gional division,market system and transportation system.3. The spatial pattern of economic development also changed. The coastal region in Guangdong,especially the Zhujiang River Delta has been having the exceeding develop-ment since 1978. Inter-regional communications in Guangdong has greatly intensified. A spatial pattern with the Zhujiang River Delta as the core area and coastal regions in the east and west Guangdong as the wings has gradually emerged. However regional imbal-ance,especially the gap between the mountainous region and the rest of Guangdong has also been increased. Appropriate preferential policy should be given to the mountainous region so as to attract investment in this region. Labor force and capital transfer among regions should be encouraged. Boosting the development of transportation and communi-cation so as to strengthen regional communications and unite the economic activities in Guangdong as an organic entity.
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    青海湖水位下降与湖区人为耗水关系的研究
    彭敏, 陈桂琛, 周立华
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 127-135,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.127
    摘要   PDF (2828KB)
    近几十年来,青海湖水位不断下降.人为活动耗水虽对青海湖水位下降有一定影响,但不是主导因素.其主导因素为湖区气候决定的湖水水量收支平衡状况.青海湖面的蒸发耗水占湖区的总耗水量92%以上,年湖面蒸发量约为年降水量的2~3倍.
    Qinghai Lake is the largest inland lake in China. It is a closed-drainage lake located at about 3194m above sea level in an active tectonic basin in the northeastern Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. The lake area was about 4 304. 5km2 in 1986.The human activities around Qinghai Lake from 1949 to 1987 and the change of the lake level from 1959 to 1987 are discussed in detail in this paper. By comparing and ana-lyzing relationship between descending of Qinghai Lake level and the human activities around the lake,we found that descending of Qinghai Lake level was mainly caused by the climatic change in this region,not by the human activities around the lake.
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    广州城市环境与经济协调发展预测及调控研究
    杨士弘
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 136-143,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.136
    摘要   PDF (2856KB)
    通过建立的协调发展计算模式,对广州城市环境与经济协调发展的现状作了评价.采用灰色系统模型对2010年之前的广州城市环境与经济协调发展进行了预测.在此基础上提出若干实现环境与经济协调发展的调控对策和措施.
    This article introduces the concepts of coordinated development and coordinated de-gree with a formula to calculate it. Calculations are made of the indexes of environment quality, economic development and coordinated development degree in Guangzhou dur-ing 1985-1990.Results obtained are that the coordinated degree is over 0.87; it was a fine coordinated degree in the period. The variational tendencies on coordiated develop-ment of urban environment and economy are forecast up to the year 2010 in Guangzhou by adopting formula G. M(1,1)on the basis of the policy of environment and economy for the moment and evaluation for the present urban environment and economic develop-ment. It’s considered that the coordinated degree of urban environment and economic development had been over 0.8 before 1992. Not only is the index of economic develop-ment close to 1(advanced world level for the moment),the index of environment and e-conomy in Guangzhou on the basis of the index of environment quality down to 0.37, but also coordinated degree of 0.64 will lower to middle level from 1993 to the end of this century. With economic high-speed development, coordinated degree will degrade to middle disorder by 2010.Therefore, some effective countermeasures have to be tak-en, and suggestions are made for the sake of accomplishing the coordinated development of urban environment quality and economic development in different periods while quick-ening the tempo of economic development. We have to increcase investment in environ-ment protection enterprises and strengthening the ability of administration before the end of this century. There should be more effective integrated control on the urban envi-ronment by rational adjustment and arrangement of urbanization and structure of indus-try in the beginning ten years of the next century.
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    哀牢山降水垂直分布特征
    张克映, 张一平, 刘玉洪, 李佑荣
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 144-151,199.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.144
    摘要   PDF (2776KB)
    根据哀牢山脉北段迎风坡和背风坡地八个气象站的资料,讨论山地总降水和冷、暖平流降水的垂直分布及与东西坡地的对比特征.
    This paper discusses the vertical distributions of total rainfall, and cold and warm advection rainfall on the windward and leeward slopes in the northern part of the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province,China according to the climatological data of eight sta-tions:(1)There are 5% and 10% of annual rain days during the period of July to August with 25% and 40% of annual rainfall,which results in "rain disaster". Other 50% of an-nual rain days appear most frequently in dry season,but rain is only 9% of the total.(2)Rainfall increases with altitude. It is reduced by 38%-46% in the valley com-paring with the top area of mountain where it is more than 1800mm. Rainfall gradient normals is less greater.on the west slope than on the east one,of which it is greater in rainy season than in dry season. Rainfall variability is obviously decreased by a range of 313mm and 17% at the top to 132-200mm and 12%-14% in the valley.(3)The main peak of diurnal rainfall variation appears at about sunrise and the sec-ondary one in afternoon on the slopes,but it is contrary at the top. The night rainfall ra-tio is greater on the west slope with 51%-57% than on the east one with 44%-48%.(4)The warm advection(southwest monsoon)rainfall(WR)is 200-300mm on the windward(west)slope more than that on the leeward(east)slope,while the cold advec-tion(northeast monsoon)rainfall(CR)is 100-150mm on the windward(east)slope more than that on the leeward(west)one. The WR or CR gradient is the leeward larger than the windward in a whole year and rainy season,while it is opposite in dry season.
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    黄土高原森林草原的基本特征
    朱志诚
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 152-156,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.152
    摘要   PDF (2595KB)
    黄土高原上水热自东南向西北有规律递减,在旱中生和中旱生植物组成的草甸草原背景上,稀疏的分布着一些旱中生矮乔木,称疏林草原,这类群落乔木覆盖度一般不超出20%,通常10%左右,有时低于5%.大致420—520mm 隆水量是决定黄土高原森林草原存在的主要因素.
    The Loess Plateau is situated at 33°3′-40°6′N,100°5′-114°3′E. It is covered with loess of 50-150 m thick. As it is eroded by flowing water for a long time,it formed alone yuan,beam-ridges and hill-gullies topography. Humidity and heat decrease gradu-ally from southeast to northwest in the Loess Plateau. The forest is replaced by the steppe, and an obvious transition zone formed between them, it is a forest steppe. Its characteristic is that stunted exro-mesophilous trees are distributed sparsely on the meadow steppe. The meadow steppe mainly consists of xero-mesophytes and meso-xero-phytes,the trees cover degree is usually less than 20%,generally about 10%,sometimes below 5%. Precipitation of about 420-520 mm is a decisive factor of the existence of the forest-steppe in the Loess Plateau.
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    安徽太平湖水体环境中元素的地球化学特征
    何岩, 佘中盛, 阎百兴, 刘玉青
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 157-164,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.157
    摘要   PDF (2743KB)
    通过对太平湖湖水和沉积物中12种微量元素进行系统研究,分析了湖水中元素的存在形态,不同水期、年份和沿湖流程的变化.揭示了沉积物中元素含量变化的影响因素,元素含量与矿物成分、汇水区岩性的关系以及元素间的相关关系.阐述了湖水与沉积物间元素的迁移转化,富集与分散的特征.
    The geochemical characteristics of trace elements in water environment in Taiping Lake are studied in a systematic way based on the field investigation and sampling, and the analysis and measurement in the laboratory. The content, form,distribution, varia-tion, effect factors and migration of 12 trace elements Cu,Pb,Zn,Cd,Co,Ni,As Hg,Cr, Mn,Fe and V in lake water and sediments are discussed in detail. The main research re-sults are shown as follows.1. The elements Pb,Zn,Cd,Co,Fe exist,in lake water, in the form of suspension, but Hg exists in the form of solution, the rest elements exist in the form of suspension and solution simultaneously in Taiping Lake water. The less the element contents,the more the precipitation and water quantity.2. The change range of element contents is not large in the lake sediments. There is a close correlation between sediment and rock strata of basin. The trace elenemts are en-riched in clay sediments. There is a close correlation among Fe, Mn,Co,V,Cr,Zn,Ni in sediments under the condition of a = 0.01. 3. There is a same distributive tendency of the trace elements in Taiping Lake water and sediments. Most of trace elements are enriched in the sediments. Trace element Pb is enriched in Taiping Lake water environment.
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    吉林省河流水质分析与评价
    王俊, 姜建祥, 杨彬, 王宁
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 165-171,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.165
    摘要   PDF (2532KB)
    对吉林省27条河流,220个监测断面,28630个数据的水质综合信息进行主成分分析和聚类分析,在选取的主成分基础上,采用综合指数法、模糊数学法及灰色关联分析法,对吉林省河流水质进行了评价.
    By means of principal component analysis, based on 6 principal components chosen on computer,cluster analysis of the river water quality in Jilin Province was made objec-tively. Based on chosen principal components, the river water quality in Jilin Province was evaluated by means of synthetic index method,fuzzy mathematic method,and grey correlation.
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    纪念竺老逝世20周年
    竺可桢教授开拓了中国气候变迁研究的道路
    施雅风
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 172-176,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.172
    摘要   PDF (2497KB)
    竺可桢教授是中国杰出的科学家和教育家,研究领域覆盖气象学、地理学和自然科学史三个方面,中国历史时期的气候变化是他用力最深的研究课题,尤其最后发表也是最光辉的论著“中国近五千年来气候变迁的初步研究”,在国内和国际上引起广泛反响,他的研究方法与成果为中国气候变化研究开拓了道路.
    Professor Zhu Kezhen(Co-Ching Chu,1890-1974)was an outstanding scientist and educator. His research covered three fields including meteorology, geography and history of natural science. He published about 300 papers related to these fields. The his-toric climatic change in China was a subject which he most intensively studied. Eight pa-pers related to this subject were published by Professor Zhu Kezhen from 1925 to 1972. The last brilliant paper on the title"A Primary Study on Climatic Change in Past 5000 Years in China "reconstructed the climatic change history based on temperature index, particularly on winter temperature index. He concluded that the temperature was 2℃ higher in 5000-3000a B. P. than that at present and temperature in January was 3-5℃ higher then. He found that.in the latest 3000 years,there were major cycles of 400-800 years with an amplitude of 1-2℃ and small cycles of 50-100 years with an amplitude of 0.5-1.0℃. The temperature curves of the past 5000 years which Zhu Kezhen recon-structed in China basically alike the δ18O record from Camp Century Ice Core in Green-land. He was particularly good at analysing and summarizing historic data of phenology, archeology and meteorology and comparing with that at present. He also closely fol-lowed the international progress in science and technology. He considered that the study of historic climatic change was very useful to the forecast of future climatic change. His method in research and achievement opened up a new path for the study on the climatic change in China.
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    研究报道
    沈阳市东陵区景观异质性变化研究
    赵羿, 吴彦明
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 177-185,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.177
    摘要   PDF (2860KB)
    采用沿景观分别切割剖面线、均匀分段的方法,通过对剖面线出现的景观要素异质性信息量的研究,揭示了景观异质性的特点和其变化规律以及与地貌条件、人类干扰的关系.
    We subdivided two lines,which go through the landscape of Dongling District sepa-rately, into segments of equal length and studied the information of the landscape ele-ments, that distribute on the line,by mathematical theory of communication. Then we expounded the characteristics of landscape heterogeneity and its change law of Dongling District and relationship with geomorphic condition and human disturbance.
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    长白山岳烨林带泥炭沼泽孢粉分析及其意义
    许清海, 王子惠, 徐全洪, 夏玉梅
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 186-192,200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.186
    摘要   PDF (3282KB)
    长白山岳桦林带赤池泥炭沼泽堆积开始于3400aBP.前后,其周围植被有过针叶林和岳桦林的交替过程.长白山地区于3400a B.P.前气温已开始下降;3400~2200a B.P.为相对温暖时期;2200a B.P.之后气温下降加快;1800a B P.以后气温冷暖交替变化.
    Pollen analysis and 14C dating of Chichi peat marsh in Betula ermanii forest, the Changbai Mountains show that the peat deposit of the marsh probably accumulated after 3400aB. P. There might be vegetation succesion between dark coniferous forest and Betula ermanii forest there since then. The palaeoclimate estimated from major factor anal-ysis of pollen data reveals that the climate had begun to descent before 3400aB. P. It was a relative warm period between 3400-2200aB. P. Then the climate declined rapidly and reached the lowest level in 1800aB. P. Later,it changed alternatively in warm and cool. The comparatively warm periods were respectively 1200,800 and 200aB. P.,and relative cool periods 1000 and 400aB. P.
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    书评
    评《现代人文地理学》
    李振泉
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 193-193.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.193
    摘要   PDF (291KB)
    自80年代初,已故著名人文地理学家李旭旦先生倡导复兴人文地理学以来,国内人文地理学的发展有如枯木逢春,奇葩竞放,先后已有多本人文地理学的专著问世,呈现一派繁荣景象.前不久,由河南大学出版社出版,李润田教授主编,有王发曾等几位青年人文地理学家合写的《现代人文地理学》,又为国内人文地理学苑增添了一株新花.作者们历尽整整五年的时间,以极其严谨的科学精神,三易其稿,力求以马克思主义为指导,借鉴国内外最新研究成果,反映我国当代人文地理研究的特色,构筑人文地理学理论体系基本框架,回答一些热点问题,不求其全,但求其新,体现了人文地理学的现代特点,是一本可读性强的新著.1993年,该书获得河南省优秀图书一等奖,全国地理学会人文地理著作一等奖.
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    学位论文摘登
    嫩江下游右岸大安古河道的形成与演化
    马建平
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 194-196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.194
    摘要   PDF (1997KB)
    大安古河道系嫩江在晚更新世末至全新世时期河道发生变迁所形成的地貌遗迹.它是北起黑龙江省泰来县江桥,南经月亮泡、查干湖,于松源市长山镇附近与现代嫩江相联的大型嫩江古河道的南段,命名为大安古河道.行政区划归属吉林省大安市,地理座标为123°30′~124°30′E,45°~46°N.大安古河道是松嫩平原第四纪水文网演变的重要组成部分,系应用卫星遥感技术结合野外地质地貌调查发现的.本文运用剖面测量勘探、粒度分析、重矿物鉴定、粘土矿物X衍射、石英砂电镜扫描、14C年代测定、孢粉分析、微体古生物分析等综合手段,获得了该古河道丰富的古地理信息,系统地论证了大安古河道的存在及其沉积环境,并阐述了形成演化过程.
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    学术活动
    国际地理联合会(IGU)工业空间组织委员会1993年学术讨论会概况
    王缉慈
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (2): 197-198.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.02.197
    摘要   PDF (1412KB)
    国际地理联合会工业空间组织委员会是研究工业地理的专业委员会,1992年夏在华盛顿国际地理大会上成立.其前身是工业变化委员会(1984—1992)和工业系统委员会(1976—1983).自1984年中科院地理所李文彦先生第一次应邀参加该学术团体的会议以来,我国工业地理学者李文彦、陆大道、李小建、庞效民、曹勇等人曾先后参加了在法国、西班牙、澳大利亚、马来西亚和美国举行的历次学术讨论会.李文彦先生曾任工业变化委员会常务委员,王缉慈被任命为工业空间组织委员会(1993—1996)常务委员.1993年学术讨论会于7月25日在日本东京举行.这次会仪是工业空间组织委员会成立之后举行的第一次学术讨论会,参加者来自24个国家,共80人左右.我国代表北京大学王缉慈和中国科学院长春地理研究所于振汉、李为应邀出席了会议.会上提交论文35篇,宣读33篇.
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