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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1998年, 第18卷, 第6期 刊出日期:1998-11-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    1998年长江中下游特大洪灾的土地利用思考
    谭术魁
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 493-500.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.493
    摘要   PDF (2824KB)
    1998年夏季,长江发生了1954年以来的又一次全流域大洪水,造成大量农田被淹,作物减产、房屋倒塌,经济损失严重.引起这次洪涝灾害的原因除气候异常、雨水过大外,人类忽视林地保护,围垦、填占湖泊,改变湖泊用途也起了不能忽视的作用.从土地利用角度对此作了详细分析并对未来的土地利用方略作了探讨.
    In the summer of 1998, a rarely severe flooding disaster occurred in the Yangtze River basin, which made a great number of farmland submerged, crops damaged and houses collapsed. The main reason of the disaster is the unusual climate and the excessive rainfall. However, people’s behavior, such as cutting down trees, reclaiming and occupying lakes and changing functions of lakes, also aggravated the disaster.This paper analysed the unreasonable land utilization in detail and explored the strategy of land utilization aiming at the sustainable development of the region.
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    东北地区粮食生产潜力的分析与预测
    刘兴土, 佟连军, 武志杰, 梁文举, 邴印忠, 王建国
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 501-509.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.501
    摘要   PDF (2839KB)
    在东北地区粮食生产发展过程及原因系统分析的基础上,根据统计资料、资源环境遥感调查和实地考察、定位试验的最新数据,分别阐述与粮食增产有关的种植业与大农业结构调整、水资源开发、中低产田改造、物质投入、科技与政策投入潜力.采用土地生物生产能力模型和趋势外推法预测该区2010年、2030年粮食总产以及可提供的区际商品粮数量.
    On the basis of systematic analysis of developing process and cause of grain production in northeast region, according to statistical data, remote sensing survey of resources and environment and field investigation, the latest data of fixed position test, this paper expounds the potentials in such aspects as the platation relating to grain increase and macro-agriculture structure adjustment, middle and low yield farmland transformation, material input for water resource exploitation, scientific techniques and policies input.With the land biological production capacity model and trend it is predicted that the comprehensive production capacity of grain in northeast region in 2010 and 2030 will reach 1023-1038 billion kg and 126.5-133.8 billion kg respectively.Based on two standards of 400kg and 460kg of grain demand per capita, it is predicted that by 2030 the commercial grain provided by this region can meet 50% of grain demand of newly increased population of China.This region has huge potetial of increase grain yield. But there exist a lot of difficulties and problems, mainly poor agricultural infrastructure, low anti-disaster capacity. The following suggestions are made that is, to continue to strengthen input to the policies, materials, techniques and funds for middle and low yield farmland transformation, commercial grain base construction, to carry out "deliver water from north to south" project, stabilize grain sowing area, to establish multiple food production system, to improve agricultural eco-environment, to insist on sustainable development.
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    长江沿岸地区经济可持续发展面临的主要问题与对策
    杨桂山
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 510-517.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.510
    摘要   PDF (2756KB)
    开放开发长江,建设强大的长江经济带,是国家的一项重大战略决策,给长江沿岸地区的经济发展带来了勃勃生机,同时也加剧了该地区经济发展与资源环境之间的各种矛盾.本文综合分析了该地区经济可持续发展过程中存在的产业组织结构分散、重大项目重复建设、区域发展的差异扩大以及生态与环境不断恶化等主要问题,并在此基础上,提出了加强区域经济持续发展能力建设的对策与建议.
    Developing the Yangtze River and building a developed economic zone along the bank area of the Yangtze River is a great strategic decision of national macroeconomic development distribution. This decision has both given an impetus to fast development of regional economy and exacerbated the problems of economy itself, as well as economy and resources, environment. In this paper, some major problems existing in economic sustainable development, such as scattered industrial structure, duplicated construction of great projects, enlarging developing gap of regional economy and deteriorated environment etc. have been studied. Based on the above analysis, major countermeasures and proposals for increasing the ability of economic sustainable development have been brought out.
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    海平面上升对长江口三岛影响的预测研究
    杨世伦, 王兴放
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 518-523.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.518
    摘要   PDF (2637KB)
    根据国际权威机构IPCC 1990年对21世纪全球海平面上升的最佳估计值(0.66m)和本区地壳沉降速率以及地面沉降趋势,确定下一世纪末长江口相对海面上升1.0m左右.在此基础上,预测了相对海面上升对海岸工程、交通水利设施、湿地损失、洪涝灾害及盐水入侵的影响.
    As a worldwide authoritative organization, IPCC forecasted in 1990 that the world’s sea level would most probably rise by 0.66m by the end of the 21st century. Combined with the local depression caused by the sink of the earth’s crust and the human activity, the relative sea level in the Changjiang River estuary will rise by about 1. 0m during the same period. Based on this figure, the article forecasted the impacts of sea level rise on the safety coefficient of coastal structures and civil facilities, loss of wetlands, flood disaster as well as salt water intrusion. The results show that: a)40% as large as the present engineering mass should be added to the coastal structures in order to maintain the safety coefficient; b)a dynamic loss of 60 km of wetlands, as much as 15% of the present total area, would be caused; c)to hinder the increase in flood disaster dynamic capacity to drain water must incease by at least 34times as large as the present; d)to maintain the present navigation conditions, about 100 million yuan(RMB)is needed to reconstruct over 3000 bridges and 30 sluices; and e)the disastrous salt water intrusion caused by the sea level rise could be conteracted by increase in water discharge from the Three Gorge Reservior in the dry season.
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    松嫩平原湖泊的分类与分区
    吕金福, 李志民, 冷雪天, 介冬梅
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 524-530.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.524
    摘要   PDF (507KB)
    松嫩湖泊群的湖泊具有面积小、湖盆浅、密度大、类型多的特点.根据“成因-水量-水质”三要素的综合分类方案,运用三要素的三个主导指标和三个辅助指标,简明地将松嫩湖泊进行了分类.根据湖泊群的区域环境及湖泊主导类型与类型组合的区域差异,将松嫩湖泊群划分为6个亚区.
    Lake groups in the Songnen Plain are low plain lake groups, which are located in the temperate semihumid area in China. They are characterized by small area, shallow basin, thick density and various types.In the try for classifying comprehensively the lake groups, a classification system is developed based on three main factors, i. e. forming cause, water quantity and water quality. The most internal character can be concisely grasped through three principal indexes and three auxiliary indexes of the three main factors. A simple or complicated changeable path is put forward for further analyzing and outlining these basic types, in the meantime, it’s linking up easily with the classification system of the single factor.According to the regional environment, the regional differences of the type composition and the principal types, the lake groups in the Songnen Plain can be divided into 6 sub-regions.
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    西双版纳勐宋地区鸟类多样性及人地关系初步研究
    王直军, 门罗, 朵戈, 扎图, 宗伟
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 531-537.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.531
    摘要   PDF (2676KB)
    地理环境独特的西双版纳部分地区尚存人少资源丰盛,反映山区民族自然经济人地关系模式,鸟类多样性敏感地显示其相关性.在边远山区,必须全面了解人地关系的历史性及其生态过程,注意发扬当地持续管理林地的经验,不断协调人地关系,生物多样性保护、持续发展才会有更好的前景.
    In a Hani ethnic region of Mengsong area, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, near Burmerse border, there are traditional practices of agriforestry, which are dynamic adaptations to local geographic environment, and social economic conditions. This system works well and does not degrade the environment as long as human population density is low and there is abundant forest land. The Hani people had strong religious and cultural prohibitions a-gainst overcutting and overhunting. They can also manage natural environment and make ecotone habitats to maintain biological diversity. Bird diversity in different areas was obtained, a great deal of biodiversity exists in the place where people have lived for many generations, using the resources of their environment in a sustainable manner. Local people were practicing a traditional way of life in the land, the Hani people keep some areas as traditional conserving forests, in which the natural resources were selectively used with regeneration abilities, they are also as better habitats for birds. The present people are exploiting Mengsong area, the society is changing rapidly as it encounters outside influences, and there are often sharp differences between the older and younger generations. We should pay more attention to the ecological principle of man and land from the traditional practices.
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    钱塘江流域洪涝年的综合预测分析
    冯利华
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 538-541.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.538
    摘要   PDF (2488KB)
    洪涝是各种物理因子综合作用的结果.由于这些因子表现出趋势变化、周期变化和偶然变化等规律,因而洪涝序列中带有趋势变化、周期变化和随机变化等成分.这样,根据趋势变化分析、周期变化分析和随机变化分析综合集成的方法来寻求钱塘江流域洪涝年的长期变化过程是可行的,提出的综合预测模型效果较好.
    The problem of comprehensive forecast of flood-waterlogging year of the Qiantang River Basin is discussed. It has been known that flood-waterlogging year results from comprehensive action of various physical factors. Because these factors have the laws of trend, period and arbitrary change, there are trend, period and arbitrary change components in flood-waterlogging series, hence comprehensively reflecting the process of long period change of flood-waterlogging series Y(t)by means of trend item T(t), period item P(t)and arbitrary item A(t)has been put forward: Y(t)=T(t)+ P(t)+ A(t)(t=1, 2,…). The result indicates that it is feasible that the process of long period change of flood-waterlogging year of the Qiantang River Basin is researched by means of comprehensive method, and the effect of comprehensive forecast model put forward is comparatively good. Therefore comprehensive forecast by means of change process of flood-waterlogging series itself is a comparatively effective way, which is of actual significance for flood-waterlogging prevention and sustainable development in the basin.
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    应用SUNLIGHT模型求算微起伏区太阳辐射值——以松嫩平原大安古河道区为例
    王权, 杨正宇, 孙广友
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 542-548.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.542
    摘要   PDF (2558KB)
    SUNLIGHT模型充分考虑了地形要素对太阳辐射的影响,适用于计算小流域的太阳辐射并较精确地描述其在微起伏区的分布特性.利用SUNLIGHT模型,对松嫩平原大安古河道区太阳辐射的直射辐射和散射辐射进行了计算,并对该古河道区的太阳辐射能的分布作出精确的描述,为土地潜力性评价提供基础.
    Solar radiation is the ultimate energy source for ecosystems and the base for all ecological processes. The radiation in the relief area will be obviously affected by the terrain. SUNLIGHT model takes such topographic effect into account in detail and can be used to calculate the solar radiation including direct, diffusive and reflective radiation of each point within a watershed scale. The model first calculates the topographic parameters such as slope, azimuth, view factor and sheltering angle of each point in a watershed based on DEM, then decides the sun rising and sun setting time angles of each point by comparing the angles calcualted from sun orbital equations for any slope and aspect and the sheltering angle in the sun rising and sun setting direction. The direct solar radiation can be calculated after getting the actual sun rising and setting angles of each point. The diffusive and reflective radiation can be simply calculated by using topobraphic parameters and actual survey data of a flat area site without topographic effect.Da’an paleochannel region is a newly found paleochannel in the Songnen Plain. It is the current most promising barren area that can be reclaimed. The paper applies the SUNLIGHT model in this region to know the detail spatial distribution of solar radiation. The results show that the possible direct radiation on May 15, 1994 was about 8.483 MG/m2 with normal deviation of 2.041 MJ/m2. Though the radiation distributes more evenly than in other relief area, it will be changed sharply in the slope area. The regression function between the direct solar radiation and topographic parameters can be represented as:
    Sdr = 0.002H-3.435α + 0.029β + 20.498VF-11.71
    (R-0.41)
    where H,α, β and VF represent altitude, slope, azimuth and view factor respectively. And PCA analysis shows the most important topographic factors that affect direct solar radiation in this area are view factor and slope. Their correlative coefficients with the first axis are 0.332 and-0.29 respectively. The results of the model have indicted that it can give a precise calculation for the distribution of solar radiation and thus provide the background for further study.
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    旅游者行为规律与旅游地图编制关系的探讨
    黄志良, 殷力
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 549-554.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.549
    摘要   PDF (2573KB)
    旅游者行为规律是旅游地理研究的一个方面,行、吃、住、游、娱、购行为是旅游者空间行为的重要方面,它与旅游地图有着双向导的密切关系,是旅游地图的主要内涵.旅游实施行为指导旅游地图编制,旅游地图为旅游者引导旅游实施行为,为其提供服务.因此,研究旅游者行为规律对旅游地图编制和产品开发有着重要意义.
    Tourist behavior law is one aspect of tourism geography. Travel, board, lodging, sightseeing, recreation and shopping are the concret behavior of tourists, so they should be one of the study contents of tourist behavior law. They are closely related with the two-way "guide" of tourism map, and also the main implication of tourism map. Tourist behavior "guide" tourism map compilation, and tourism map "guide" the implementation of tourist behavior. Therefore, the study on tourist behavior law is significant for tourism map compilation and products development.
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    对我国城市化研究的再考察
    张京祥
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 555-560.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.555
    摘要   PDF (2630KB)
    本文通过对当前我国城市化研究领域中一些观点的重新考察,以务实的态度提出有关我国城市化进程、城市规模、城市化转移空间、郊区化等问题的探讨性看法,指出城市化既要遵循经济规律,又要发挥政府的适当调控,不拘于西方模式与简单的现象分析,追求城市实质性的健康、有序、持续发展,才是城市化的主旨.
    By probing some ideas existing in the current urbanization research field in China, this article truly puts forward the inquisitive opinion with respect to the urbanization progress in China, urban scale, transferspace of urbanization and suburbanization, etc.. It indicates that the urbanization shall abide by the economic laws, but bring the appropriate adjustment and control by the government into play as well; the urbanization shall not be limited to the western pattern and simple phenomeninal analysis, but to pursue the virtually healthy, orderly and sustainable development of cities is the main aim for urbanization.
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    研究方法
    坡面溅蚀发生过程及其与坡度关系的模拟研究
    张科利, 细山田健三
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 561-566.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.561
    摘要   PDF (2551KB)
    通过人工模拟降雨试验,分别观测降雨过程中不同方向上溅蚀强度的变化,根据各影响因子间相互消长及相互制约的关系特点,分析了雨滴溅蚀发生的过程特征及其变化原因.从溅蚀过程的变化特点及溅蚀强度的变化规律比较,定量地探讨了坡度对雨滴击溅侵蚀的影响作用,得出了溅蚀强度与坡度因子之间的关系方程.
    In this paper, splash erosion process and its relation to slope gradient were studied under simulated rainfall, characteristics of splash erosion process and associated reasons were analyzed through a consideration of splash erosion rate in all directions and interactions among factors affacting splash erosion. On the basis of results from regression analysis, quantitative fomula for splash erosion modeling related to slope gradient were derived.
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    基于栅格数字高程模型自动提取黄土地貌沟沿线技术研究
    闾国年, 钱亚东, 陈钟明
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 567-573.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.567
    摘要   PDF (2445KB)

    从数字高程模型(DEM)中提取具有精确定位特征的连续的沟沿线是构建黄土沟壑丘陵地区土壤侵蚀、泥沙搬运和径流过程的空间分布式机理一过程模型的关键技术.本文提出了基于地貌形态学特征的地貌提取技术,在提取具有代表性的黄土丘陵沟壑区山西离石王家沟流域汇流网络的基础上,自动提取了该流域完整的沟沿线,得到了满意的结果.


    The extraction of continuous shoulder line of valley having precise location is the key technique to the construction of spatial distribution mechanism-course models such as soil erosion, sediment transportation and runoff course in gully area in the Loess Plateau. The extraction technique presented in this paper is a morphologically based method utilizing finite morphologic elements to define the topographical structure. In this paper, the authors present an algorithm by which the drainage network and the continuous shoulder line of valley is extracted automatically from the DEM of Wangjiagou in Lishi, Shanxi, which is located in gully area in the Loess Plateau, and the final result is in accordance with the real condition of the experiment area.

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    运用系统动态学方法研究区域可持续发展问题的一些探讨
    王桥, 毛锋
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 574-580.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.574
    摘要   PDF (2494KB)

    本文在分析区域可持续发展系统一般特征的基础上,讨论了运用系统动态学方法研究区域可持续发展问题的优势、潜力和面临的种种问题,提出了解决有关问题的一些具体途径,并初步形成了基于系统动态学的应用与扩展的区域可持续发展研究方法体系框架.


    Based on the analysis on general features of regional sustainable development system, this paper discusses the superiority, potentiality and problems in the research of regional sustainable development using system dynamics, and proposes some concrete ways to resolve existing problems, at the same time, a method frame work of using and expanding system dynamics to research regional sustainable development is given.

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    灰色系统理论在估产中的应用——以吉林省梨树县为例
    张树清, 陈春, 万恩璞
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 581-585.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.581
    摘要   PDF (2402KB)

    以吉林省梨树县为例,阐述了利用灰色系统进行玉米气象估产的方法,其中包括用GM(1,1)模型进行趋势产量预测,用灰色关联度分析方法确定主气象因子群,以及利用GM(1,N)进行气象产量预测等.


    Taking Lishu County as an example, this paper states the way of maize yield estimation of meteorology by gray model, which includes the methods to forecast the tendency yield by GM(1, 1)model, to figure out the dominant meteorological factors affacting meteorological yield through gray-relative-degree analysis, to foreshow the meteorological yield by GM(1, N)and so on.

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    简报
    中国科学院三江平原沼泽湿地生态试验站简介
    吕宪国, 王瑞山
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (6): 586-586.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.06.586
    摘要   PDF (564KB)
    中国科学院三江平原沼泽湿地生态试验站位于东北三江平原腹地,黑龙江省同江市辖区内.地理座标为东经133°31′,北纬47°35′,海拔高度为55.4m~57.gm.属温带湿润大陆性季风性气候,年平均气温1.9℃,年降水量600mm左右.夏季温暖湿润,冬季寒冷馒长.分布有多种类型的草本沼泽和沼泽化草甸.土壤类型主要为沼泽土和白浆土,土壤pH值6.0左右,有机质含量5%~50%.该站代表的区域为三江平原,代表的生态系统类型为温带湿润平原湿地生态类型.从1989年开始开展部分项目的观测、研究和实验,1992年成为“中国生态系统研究网络”的基本站.依托单位为中国科学院长春地理研究所.
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