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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2000年, 第20卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2000-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    近千年来内蒙古岱海气候环境演变的湖泊沉积记录
    曹建廷, 王苏民, 沈吉, 张振克
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 391-396.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.391
    摘要   PDF (907KB)
    内陆封闭湖泊是气候环境变化的敏感指示计。通过对内蒙古岱海湖泊岩芯的有机碳同位素、总有机碳、碳酸盐含量和磁化率等多环境指标的综合分析,结合Pb-210测定的沉积速率,讨论了岱海地区近千年来的气候环境演化过程。揭示了本区现代小冰期的前期冷湿,后期冷干的气候特征。记录的最后两次冷期与根据冰芯、树轮、历史文献重建的10年平均温度推得的1450’s~1510’s、1790’s~1890’s两次冷期极相吻合。指出了目前湖泊水面萎缩、环境恶化主要是人类活动的影响所致。
    Located in the marginal belt of the southeast monsoon and ecotone, Daihai Lake has always been one of the most significant areas in the studies of paleoclimate change.Environmental proxies, such as TOC,δ13C org , carbonate contents, frequency dependent susceptibility and ostracoda fossils of sediment from Daihai Lake, Inner Mongolia, had been employed to reconstructed the paleoclimate evolution during the past thousand years.The environmental multiproxies indicated the cold humid climate, rather than cold dry climate in the early stage of the Little Ice Age(LIA).The last two cold periods of the LIA, recorded by the sediment, were in good agreement with those deduced by tree rings, ice core and historical literature.Based on the climate features in the last hundred years, this paper also advanced that human activities had become the main reason of the lake environmental deterioration in recent years.
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    近2000年都兰树轮10年尺度的气候变化及其与中国其它地区温度代用资料的比较
    杨保, 康兴成, 施雅风
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 397-402.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.397
    摘要   PDF (1215KB)
    据高分辨率的青海都兰树轮年表,将过去2000年的气候变化划分为230’S以前的高温期,240’S~800’S冷暖波动强烈的低温期,810’S~1070’S显著高温期,即中世纪暖期,1080’S~1880’S的低温期,其中包括1420’S~1870’S的小冰期,以及1890’S后的升温期。统计发现11次极端高温或低温事件,以及几次大的突变事件全部出现于中世纪之前,指示150’S~1100’S期间气候运行的高度不稳定性。和中国东部、古里雅冰芯和青藏高原南部温度代用资料比较后发现,公元初至3世纪前期的东汉暖期,3世纪后期至7世纪初的魏晋南北朝冷期(期间约380’S~460’S暖),中世纪暖期以及小冰期等几次重大的气候事件在中国东部、都兰和青藏高原南部序列中均存在。古里雅冰芯仅记录了前两次重要事件,中世纪暖期以及小冰期在该序列中表现微弱。20世纪的升温在古里雅冰芯最显著,都兰、中国东部次之,而高原南部似乎不明显。
    Based on hig resolution tree ring data from Dulan area of Qinghai Province, five spells have been divided: the warm period before 230’s A.D., the cold period between 240’s A.D.and 800’s A.D., the significantly warm period between 810’s A.D.and 1070’s, i.e. "Medieval Warm Period", the cold period including the "Little Ice Age" 1420’s-1870’s and the warming period since 1880’s.All the eleven coldest or warmest decades and several great abrupt changes took place before the Middle Ages, indicating that climatic system operated in great instability during the period 150’-1100’s A.D..Comparison of the tree ring data with other temperature proxy data from East China, Guliya ice core as well as the south of Qinghai Tibet Plateau shows that such great climatic events as Eastern Han warm period between the beginning of the 1st century and the previous fifty years of the third century, the cold period covering the span of Wei, Jin and the Southern and Northern Dynasties, the well known "Medieval Warm Period" as well as the "Little Ice Age" appeared in such series as East China and Dulan area.Only the first two climatic events were recorded conspicuously in Guliya ice core while the "Medieval Warm Period" and "Little Ice Age" is far weaker.Also, the well defined "Medieval Warm Period" didn’t occur in the south of Qinghai Tibet Plateau.The warming since the 20th century is the warmest in the last 200 years in Guliya ice core, the second in Dulan area and East China, but it scarcely seems pronounced in the eastern part of Qinghai Tibet Plateau.
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    改革开放以来广东省空间极化研究
    甄峰, 顾朝林, 沈建法, 黄钧尧, 朱剑如
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 403-410.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.403
    摘要   PDF (889KB)
    改革开放20年来广东省的空间结构演化表明:传统的核心-边缘模式已发生了很大的变化,区域出现多极化且次级核心区形成。广州的华南中心城市的地位已经被香港所取代,韶关、湛江、汕头、潮阳等老中心城市地位不断下降,深圳、珠海、东莞、中山、顺德、南海和番禺等新兴城市正发展成为新区域增长中心。珠江三角洲经济发展开始向外围地区扩展,出现了反极化的趋势。全省空间差异扩大,形成了多层次的空间极化格局。
    Spatial polarization and uneven development has been the center of attention and of heated debate over the years.Much of the research is focused on the shifts of capital, jobs and population from the old industrial core to new cores or to the periphery.The theories of polarization and polarization reversal are central to regional development in advanced industrial economics.As for polarization, the most significant indicator is the emergence, consolidation and widening of gap between the economic core and economic periphery within a region or a country.Confronted with equipment obsolescence, unionized labors force and high production costs, the old industrial core has emerged polarization reversal.The theories of polarization and polarization reversal suggest that in the old industrial core the leading sector role of manufacturing has diminished in old manufacturing poles, and that income growth trends differ substantially between these old poles and new centers of development.In summary, based on the framework of polarization and polarization reversal, we can observe the spatial variation within the old industrial core, new growth center and periphery region.Since the economic reforms of 1978, China has opened up to foreign investment but retained restrictions on labor migration until the beginning of 1990s.In recent years, some impacts of these reform and open policies in regional development have been observed.It is significant that regional inequality is enlarged between coastal and inland regions but also between urban and rural regions in China.Guangdong Province is one of the first provinces in the People’s Republic of China to benefit from the open door policy which is representative in this research.Usually, the regional dynamics literature has tended to pay more attention to state or macro regional variation of growth than to regional or local variation.By taking Guangdong province as a case, this paper gives a method of measuring regional polarization and discusses the spatial polarization of growth within a region in order to give a clear explanation to the process of regional polarization under socialist market system.The consequence shows that regional polarization is a dynamic process under socialist market system, the core role may disappear when the leading sector of manufacturing declines.It is found that the old central cities, such as Guangzhou Shaoguan, Zhanjiang, Shantou and Chaoyang experienced a gradual process of weakening of their roles in regions, and some new cities, for example, Shenzhen, Zhuhai, Dongguan, Zhongshan, Shunde, Nanhai and Panyu became new regional growth centers.In general, the change of Guangdong’s regional structure can be described as a process of regional polarization.
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    成渝产业带主要城市空间关系研究
    黄炳康, 李忆春, 吴敏
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 411-415.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.411
    摘要   PDF (787KB)
    城市空间关系是指城市与城市空间相互作用关系,它的复杂程度是区域城市群体集聚效益的重要标志之一。通过对成渝产业带主要城市空间相互作用强度进行测算,分析了产业带内主要城市空间关系,提出了产业带内主要城市空间关系协调发展的思路。
    The cities space relations mean space interative relations among cities,its complicated degree is an important index of regional cities assemble benefits.This article discusses main cities space relations of Cheng-Yu industry belt.First,this article measures some indexes which mark the main cities space interactive strengths of Chen-Yu industry belt,and compares them with other main industry belts in China.Then,the article makes a concrete analysis of main cities interaction of Cheng-Yu industry belt.The third main part discusses the harmonious development thinkings of main cities space interaction of Cheng-Yu industry belt.
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    常流河向季节河转变过程中河床适应性调整及对行洪影响——以黄河和滹沱河为例
    师长兴
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 416-421.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.416
    摘要   PDF (678KB)
    研究黄河和滹沱河对季节河化的适应性调整,发现季节化程度较高的滹沱河下游河床断面和平面形态调整幅度不大,而河床的糙率成倍增加造成下游的小水大灾现象;黄河下游近年流量减小,不断断流,主槽淤积,虽然河槽断面形态在游荡段变得更窄深,但主槽明显变小、变窄、变高,构成下游近年出现的小水大灾现象的主要原因。
    The Hutuo River has been strongly regulated after two large reservoirs were built on the river in 1959.The annual runoff and mean sediment concentration in the lower reaches of the river in the period from 1969 to 1988 were decreased by 13.7 and 9.2 times respectively than those in the period before 1960.In the recent over two decades, there were only small water flows down the reservoirs in flood season, and the river kept dry in the rest time of the year.The discharge of the lower Yellow River decreased by over 1/3 in the period 1986-1996 comparing with that in the 1950’s and the 1960’s, but the mean sediment concentration changed inconsiderably.The phenomenon of flow breaking occurred as early as 1972 in the river, and the time and coverage of flow breaking had increased steadily thenceforth.Therefore, two of them have become essentially seasonal rivers.The paper discusses the adaptive adjustment of channels of the Yellow River and the Hutuo River to the change from a permanent to a seasonal river.The analyses show that the channel was eroded upstream and silted downstream along the lower reaches of the Hutuo River and was cut in the lower part and uplifted in the upper part cross sectionally.Since the river has been nearly cut off the flow and sediment load, the natural heavy sediment accumulation before 1959 has disappeared, and the changes in channel geometry and sinuosity were not significant.However, the hydraulic coarseness of the channel has been nearly doubled as a result of the invasion of vegetation into the channel and other reasons, resulting in the frequent occurrence of large disasters caused by small discharges which were harmless before.In the case of the Yellow River, the concentrated sediment accumulation in main channel has taken place in recent years since the discharge of the river was lowered conspicuously.Although the channel was deepened in the braided reach, it was seriously uplifted and narrowed, with obvious decrease in capacity, in the overall lower reaches.The result of the channel adjustment was the obvious rising of water level of a certain discharge and the huge disasters occasioned by small floods in recent years.With the enhancement of regulation, the possibility of increase in hydraulic roughness of the channel of the Yellow River due to the invasion of vegetation as the case of the Hutuo River should be paid more attention.
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    GIS技术和水热平衡模型在古湖泊水文重建研究中的应用——以石羊河流域为例
    郭晓寅, 陈发虎, 施祺
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 422-426.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.422
    摘要   PDF (650KB)
    首次利用GIS技术并结合沉积学研究结果,计算全新世两个时段石羊河流域终闾湖泊的面积,建立石羊河流域水热平衡模型,进而恢复全新世两个时期的降水量。
    The study of lake evolution is one of the important aspects of study of global change.Inland lakes are influenced by climatic change more sensitively than lakes in humid area.It is significant to study the evolution of inland lakes.Gansu Corridor is located in the regional edge of the Eastern Asia Monsoon.Because it is sensitive to climatic change due to its fragile eco-environment, it is an ideal regied for studying global change.In the prehistoric period a large terminal lake——Zhuyeze Lake once existed in the studied area——Shiyang River drainage that is located in the eastern Gansu Corridor.Since the historic period it has gradually shrunk into many small lakes, and these small lakes dried up and disappeared in succession.This article first tries to inquire into terminal lake evolution in this studied area by combining techniques of GIS with the results of deposit study.Digital Terrain Model(DTM) of lake area in the lower reaches of the Shiyang River is built.Space time evolution of terminal lakes was analyzed and the lake area of different periods in Holocene was calculated according DTM.The precipitation of two periods during Holocene was calculated by a mathematical model which applies to an ideal situation of terminal lake in the Shiyang River drainage, following the water and energy budget principle under the situation that no lake exists now.Preliminary results indicate that water levels reached 1320 m and 1314 m in 5000 a B.P.and 3600 a B.P.during Holocene, and terminal lake areas are 2130 km2 and 870 km2.Landforms around the basin reflected in the DTM suggest that if the water level reaches 1320-1330m, the Shiyang River drainage will become an outflow drainage.The lake of 2130 km2 maybe is the largest lake in this drainage.During late Holocene after 3600 a B.P., the large terminal lake broke into two parts.According to the model of water and energy budget in the Shiyang River drainage, precipitation of above two periods was 250-256 mm and 186-188 mm, more than that of modern time by 49%-52% and 11%-12% respectively.And a lake of 580 km2 would have appeared in the basin if there were no human activities in this area under modern climate situations.Analysis of sensitivity factors of the model indicates that temperature and vaporpressure have less effect on precipitation than cloudiness, albedo and the Bowen ratio.Compared to other regions, the Shiyang River drainage is more sensitive to climate variations.
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    江淮流域大洪水的发生规律探讨
    冯利华
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 427-430.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.427
    摘要   PDF (162KB)
    对江淮流域的大洪水进行分析,得出如下三点新的认识:(1)在太阳黑子活动的峰谷年前后,江淮流域一般容易出现大洪水;(2)在太阳黑子活动的磁周期转变年前后,江淮流域容易出现大洪水,甚至是特大洪水;(3)在太阳黑子活动磁周期转变年前后的厄尔尼诺同年或次年,江淮流域更容易出现大洪水,甚至是特大洪水。这些认识可以为长期及超长期的洪水预报提供一定的理论依据。
    According to the analysis of the big floods in the Jianghuai Valley, three new conclusions are given as follows:(1)there is generally the big flood in the Jianghuai Valley around the peak-valley year of sunspot activity;(2)there is probably the big or huge flood in the Jianghuai Valley around the year of magnetic cycle transformation of sunspot activity;(3)there is more probably the big or huge flood in the Jianghuai Valley in the same or next year of El Nino around the year of magnetic cycle transformation of sunspot activity.These conclusions can provide certain theoretical basis for the flood forecast of long or over-long term.
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    农业活动与岩溶山区土地利用的可持续性探讨
    周游游
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 431-436.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.431
    摘要   PDF (318KB)
    以4项专题研究及抽样调查为主要资料来源,对西南岩溶山区的土地利用进行研究。结果表明,由于该区土地土层薄且通透性强和母岩漏水,长期耕种后土壤肥力明显下降、粮食产量对化肥的依赖性增强。长期施化肥的土地耕种约60年后,土壤有机质含量相当于天然状态下的30%。垦殖率在20%~30%、覆被率在35%~45%时粮食产量高而稳定。土层厚度<50~80cm、地形坡度>16°时的梯地对水肥保持及旱情缓解的作用甚小,不是解决干旱的途径。该区耕地的持续利用须建立在适当的垦殖率、森林覆盖率及合理施肥基础上。实现该目标的关键是建立生态农业体系,缩小耕地面积、减少人口是发展生态农业的前提。
    According to case study and sampling,this thesis researches farmland use in southwest China karst mountain area.The results show that because of the soil layer being too thin and freely aerated as well as waterleakage of the parent layer,the soil fertility reduces distinctly,drought and other natural disasters become more serious,yields strongly depend on chemical fertilizer after long-term improper reclamation and cultivation.On condition that large quantity of chemical fertilizer application,the farmland only keeps about 30% organic matter after about 60 years’cultivation in contrast with the uncultivated land.The yields are highest and very stable whene the rate of reclaimed land is about 20% to 30% and the percentage of forest cover is about 35% to 45%.If the gradient of the original land is steeper than 16° and the soil layer is about 50-80cm thick or thinner,the effect to keep soil-water and nutrient by building terraced fields can only relief drought slightly and is not at all the effective way to solve karst drought.Through comprehensive analysis,it is considered that sustainable use of calcic farmland in karst mountain must be based firstly on proper rate of reclaimed land;secondly on proper percentage of forest cover;thirdly on reasonable fertilizer application and lastly on effective soil conservation.The key to realize this aim is to establish eco-agricultural system.And the prerequisite for that is to reduce the farm land acreage and population in the area.
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    常熟市可持续农业与农村发展系统评价及其规划
    罗守贵, 曾尊固, 王伟伦, 涂为员, 杨建新
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 437-443.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.437
    摘要   PDF (1138KB)
    可持续农业与农村发展(SARD)是发达国家与发展中国家面临的共同问题,而不同地区SARD所处的阶段不同,发展模式也各具特色。科学地确定其发展偏离度并为其未来发展作出合理的规划,具有重要的理论与实践意义。文章构建了SARD多目标规划模型,运用它对常熟市过去8年进行了系统评价,并对未来发展进行了动态规划,得出了3个不同的投入方案。
    Both developed and developing countries face to sustainable agriculture and rural development(SARD).The stage of SARD in different areas is different, and their developing pattern is various.It is meaningful both in theories and practices to scientifically appraise the deviation of SARD and to reasonably draw up plans for regional development.In this paper, based on the designed appraisal thinking, a multi objective planning model is designed, which is
    (Vp) Fmax =(f1,f2,...,fm)
    s.t.∑ =1Xlt≤cl, l=1,2,...,s
    Xlt ≥0,t=1,2,...,nl,
    We do our researches by taking Changshu City as an example.Firstly, we establish an indicator system of Changshu SARD, which includes 28 input and 30 output indicators.In establishing the indicator system, we act upon the basic thoughts of SARD that sustainable agriculture and rural development is synthetic outputs of various inputs containing resources, environment, manpower and economic factors.That is to say, not only direct economic inputs, but the use of resources and the burden of environment are regarded as input factors; meanwhile, the outputs not only contain economic and social factors, but contain the factors of environmental quality.And based on the framework of this indicator system, we establish a database of sustainable agriculture and rural development of Changshu(CSSARD) and an auxiliary database(ACSSARD), and standardize them through efficacy function.Then using the model mentioned above, we appraise the results of sustainable agriculture and rural development in Changshu from 1990 to 1997.It is shown that the degree of the developing deviation to the best possibility in the 8 years is respectively 0.25, 0.28, 0.10, 0.17, 0.12, 0.08, 0.17, 0.19.That is to say, the developing situation in 1995 is the most satisfied, while that in 1991 is the most unsatisfied.In the end of the paper, through dynamic simulation on computer, we get three different input plans:(1) laying emphasis on technology and economics, which stresses high benefits";(2) laying emphasis on operation of manpower resources, which stresses intensification"; and(3) synthetic balancing plan, which is designed by comprehensively adhering to the connotation of model of high benefits, intensification and sustainability.As an example, the concrete planning data in 2000 is given in the paper.
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    人类活动对若尔盖高原沼泽的影响与对策
    赵魁义, 何池全
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 444-449.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.444
    摘要   PDF (360KB)
    指出若尔盖高原沼泽受人类活动影响所发生的变化,通过沼泽植被、沼泽土壤错拉坚湖滨沼泽土壤中不溶性氮、磷(全量)高于九道班(1)、(2);而可溶性氮、磷、钾(速效性)却相反,受干扰的沼泽土壤含量要高于原生沼泽、沼泽水化学、沼泽小气候对比分析表明,近年来区域环境发生明显变化,进而出现草场退化、野生动物减少、鼠害严重、局部出现砂化和盐渍化,对上述问题的原因进行分析,并提出防治对策。
    The change of Zoige Plateau mire as the result of the human activities is discussed in this paper,by way of the comparative analysis the mire vegetation,mire soil(infusible N,P,K in Chuolajiang lakeshore(CLJL) mire soil without disturbance plot is higher than its in ninth road group(1) which is low degree disturbed or its in ninth road group(2) which is high degree disturbed.But the solubility N,P,K(namely quick result N,P,K) is in the adverse,its conttent in the disturb mire pasture soil is higher than its in the original mire.Tht analysis of mire hydro chemistry,mire microclimate shows made known that the region environment have distinctly changed in the recent years,resnlting in the pasture degeneration,wild animal decrease,mouse harm increase,part of the land is sandy and salt.This paper analyzed the cause of the above problem and puts forward some preventing countermeasures.
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    自然保护区生态旅游与可持续发展——以哈纳斯自然保护区为例
    杨兆萍, 张小雷
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 450-455.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.450
    摘要   PDF (873KB)
    概括了自然保护区、生态旅游与可持续旅游的概念及衡量标准,提出了自然保护区旅游开发普遍存在的问题。对哈纳斯自然保护区进行了旅游环境质量评价并提出保护措施,对旅游区生态环境容量进行了估算并提出了相应的保护措施,阐述了自然保护区旅游开发中的经济有效性、经济运行机制的生态化和环境管理的法制化的强持续发展的保证因素。
    Nature reserve usually locates in remote backward areas.Tourism development not only can drive development of economy but also lead to heavy environmental pressure to nature reserve.Unwell development can make nature reserve crushing destruction.Khanas locates in Burgin county of Altay, Xinjiang.Tourism is limited in southern buffer of reserve, with area of 35 km2.Khanas Lake and Khanas River valley landscape is the essence of Khanas tourism resources, which is one of the few districts with the most beautiful landscape and the best preserve in Xinjiang.Experts at home and abroad pay close attention to Khanas for its science and tourism value.This paper appraises Khanas atmosphere quality and source water quality, the result is the eco-environment of Khanas is good.Based on three estimating principles(principle of protection, patience degree, and satisfaction), two methods(route method, area calculating method) are used to estimate environment capacity.The final result is that the total environmental capacity is 350,000 person-time, and the totals will add if winter tourism is carried out.Through above analysis, some eco-environment protection measures of Khanas nature reserve have been put forward:(1) Protection is as important as value increase.Abiding by the principle of protection, development and use, appropriate development can be in progress within the scope eco-environment can endure.(2) Protection should be classified.The first grade reserve is core area, which only can be used by scienctifical research, but ordinary tourists and pollution material should be forbiddened.The second grade is buffer of reserve, it is also the essence of tourism resource, nature landscape and primitive human landscape should be protected strictly.The third grade is the outer-ring, which goal is to control industry pollution and beatify landscape.(3) Creature resource should be protected.It includes protection of natural forest, prevention from fire and insect pest, prevention of excessive herds in grassland, protection of rare animals.(4) To prevent and cure tourism pollution is needed.Measures can be taken to decrease atmosphere and water pollution caused by tourism to small degree.Garbage should be classified and disposed.(5) Constructive destruction should be prevented.Life base must consider effectively effects and construction in scenery area should be kept in perfect hewmony(6) To protect human landscape is very important,Such as protecting primitive village, nationality customsetc.
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    论旅游资源中石灰华景观的形态建成过程——以四川九寨沟和贵州黄果树等地石灰华群为例
    田友萍, 何复胜
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 456-461.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.456
    摘要   PDF (274KB)
    在众多风景旅游资源中,石灰华景观以其独特壮丽的形态为世人所瞩目,并引发出一系列对其成因的解释。本文通过对四川九寨沟和贵州黄果树等旅游地区的石灰华景观进行考察和研究,认为,石灰华景观的形态建成过程主要是受生物、地形和水文的共同控制。其中,生物的控制作用处于十分重要或中心地位,生物(蓝藻、绿藻等低等生物)通过与沉积物颗粒紧密结合形成的藻席的成层加积和侧向延伸生长,与地形、水文等因素一起共同引导和控制着石灰华景观的形成和发育规模。文中提出了旅游资源中瀑华和坝华等主要石灰华景观的形态建成过程模式,为石灰华景观旅游资源的科学保护提出理论依据。
    Tufa landscape is an important component of the world karst landforms.Owing to its tremendous scale, peculiar form and wonderful colour, tufa landscape becomes very valuable karst tour resources.For example, Plitvice national park of Yugslavia, Jiuzhaigou, Huangguoshu and Maling gorge of China.All of them are famous scenic spots which take tremendous scale tufa landscapes as the main scenic body.Many reports had explained formation process of tufa landscapes.The vast majority of research workers think that formation process of tufa landscapes is controlled mainly by karst water and landform place related to karst water current, and organisms only participate in(e.g.organisms absorb CO2 through photosynthesis and result in CaCO3 deposit in water) or controlled the formation of small tufa shapes.Very few research workers understand the organisms control role of tufa landscapes(large tufa shape) which should not be ignored.However, through a lot of on the spot surveies and laboratory researches of the tufa landscape in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan and Huangguoshu, Guizhou etc., it is believed that organisms(Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta) are associated closely with deposits and form algae mats, which not only play key role to generation and formation process of tufa are on a cause position, but also control exceedingly the formation scale of tufa landscape through repeated layered accumulation and side extension of mats.Therefore, formation process of tufa landscape is controlled by organisms, topography and hydrology.Among them, organisms are on an important or center position.Models of formation process of main tufa landscapes(waterfall tufa, dam tufa and beach tufa, as tour resources) are put forward in the paper.Studying organisms control role of tufa landscape has important theoretical value in Biokarst, Sedimentology and Karst geomorphology and new guide role to scientific protection and utilization of tufa landscape tour resources.This paper is composed of two parts.Frist part is the base shape of tufa landscapes and analyses and models of its shape formation process.Tufa landscapes are mainly waterfall tufa, dam tufa and beach tufa.Waterfall tufa often appear on Knick point of considerable drop river.e.g.Shuzheng waterfall tufa and Luorinang waterfall tufa(in Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan), Huangguoshu waterfall tufa(in Guizhou).These waterfall tufas often consist of a lot of tufa bodies whose shapes are diverse.some show cone and hang on waterfall wall, for example, Huangguoshu waterfall tufa,top of cone tufa bodies often adhere to the place where direction of flowing water in river change suddenly; Some show mushroom’s head shape, lung’s lobe shape, broom shape etc.It is hollow between some tufa bodies and bedrock, and form tufa cave.Some tufa bodies cover tightly bedrock, and are solid.It is closely related to the slope of rock under tufa bodies that tufa bodies are hollow or solid.Formation process of waterfall landscape is explained in the paper throught explaining an instance of formation process of typical cone Huangguoshu waterfall tufa(abbreviate "cone tufa").Dam tufa often appear on Knick point and protuberance of river.Beach tufa often appear on slope and beach of river.The article analyses models of these tufas formation process.It is thought that organisms are the main "builder" of these tufa.So these tufa may be named biotufa.Second part of the paper is the conclusion.
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    贵阳城市土地利用变化及其环境效应
    苏维词
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 462-468.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.462
    摘要   PDF (813KB)
    从城市土地利用的范围(规模)、土地利用功能和用地形态等方面阐述了贵阳城市土地利用变化过程、特征、趋势,探讨了城市土地利用变化的驱动力因子,并对近代贵阳城市土地利用变化所带来的系列环境效应进行了分析评述。
    In views of ubran land use scale,functional structure and spatial pattern of land use this article preliminary analyzed the basic characteristics of urban land use changes in Guiyang City for last seven centuries:(1) expanding speed of urban land use scale become more and more faster,but the expanding way was first exterior extension(before 1985), they belongs to interior transition together with exterior extension;(2) functional structure of urban land use from single to mixture and next to separatation methodically;(3) shape structure of urban land use from concentrated distribution(before liberation) to assembled distribution(iner city and seven satellite towns).Based on these analysis,the authors explored the main driving forces(such as policy and institution,the agglomeration of population and economics, karst landform structure, compensating use of urban land, urban traffic and communication, the progression of science and technology, and suitability of urban land) which affected the development of Guiyang ubran land use.Finally, the environmental effects(especially in modern times) following the development process of ubran land use in Guiyang were summarized as follows:(1) "modern city siknesses" are serious(mainly including urban "island climate", crowding urban residential environment and unreasonable land use strueture),(2) urban environmental quality tend to deterioration,(3) the frequencies of urban disasters(such as flood, landslide and mud-rockflow,karst collapse) are quickening.
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    黄土高原土壤中硒等元素的地球化学特征
    王金达, 于君宝, 张学林
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 469-473.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.469
    摘要   PDF (457KB)
    研究了我国黄土高原景观土壤中硒等元素的地球化学特征。结果表明:硒、铅、钙等元素在不同类型土壤剖面中表现出相似的分异特征,硒主要富积于土壤表层,并与土壤有机质含量呈正相关;磷、锌、铅等元素从残积景观向堆积景观迁移,并在此累积,而硒则在水成景观(泾河水体)中富积。硒在土壤中的地球化学行为受制于土壤中的有机质含量和气候条件,其含量水平与土壤类型及发育程度密切相关。
    The geochemical features of elements of selenium etc.in soil of Chinese Loess Plateau landscape is studied.The results indicate that the elements of Se, Pb and Ca show similar differential law in different kinds of soil sections.Se mainly accumulates at top layer of soil, and its content is positive correlation with content of organic matter in soil.P, Zn and Pb are transference from residual landscape to accumulational landscape, and are accumulated there.But Se is accumulated in aqueous landscape(Jinghe River water body).The geochemical action of Se in soil is controlled by the content of organic matter in soil and meteorological condition, and its content is closely correlatied with soil type and soil growth degree.
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    泥石流信息范畴与信息收集
    谢洪, 钟敦伦, 韦方强, 李泳
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 474-477.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.474
    摘要   PDF (442KB)
    泥石流及其灾害信息和与之有关的各种其它信息,都属于泥石流信息范畴。泥石流信息收集、整理及其标准化,是建立泥石流信息系统和实现信息资源共享与综合利用的基础。
    Debris flow and its hazards as the well as related various data belong to the category of debris flow information.The collection and collation and standardization of information of debris flow are the basic work for setting up information system, sharing and utilizing comprehensively the information resources.
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    内蒙古土地资源及其持续利用
    宝音, 包玉海
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 478-482.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.478
    摘要   PDF (464KB)
    系统分析内蒙古土地资源的特点和土地利用结构特征,找出土地利用中存在的问题及原因,指出土地利用结构不够协调合理、土地利用结构区域差异十分明显,并阐述其原因。在此基础上着重阐明内蒙古土地资源持续利用的原则和实现土地资源持续利用的措施和途径。
    In this paper,systematic analysis has been made to the characteristic of land resources and its utilization structure in Inner Mongolia,and the main problems exited in land use have been found.Furthermore,the irrationality and regional diversity of land use structure have also been found out and explained.In the end,the principle of sustainable land use and rational proposal of its, utilizition have been proposed.
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    松嫩平原弱碱性湖泡湿地特征及其农业开发的探讨——以大安古河道区腰泡为例
    罗新正, 易富科, 孙广友
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (5): 483-486.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.05.483
    摘要   PDF (187KB)
    松嫩平原存在着大量弱碱性湖泊和泡塘,构成了独特的盐碱湿地类型,在区域资源环境系统中占有重要地位。腰泡作为松嫩平原弱碱性湖泡湿地的典型之一,其生态系统具有生物多样性相对较好和食物链较短的优点,但动植物的数量关系反映出系统结构失调和功能受阻的缺陷。根据腰泡生态系统物流特征,以建设渔稻草禽畜的复合模式为目标,提出了进行生态农业开发的具体措施。
    In Songnen Plain, there is about 16 340 square kilometres of saline-alkaline wetland, which mainly consist of a lot of alkaline lakes, now occupying an important place in the system of regional resources environment.The saline-alkaline wetland is the result of saline-alkalization of wetland, showing degeneration of entironment.It has great significance to harness and develop saline-alkaline wetland either for the recovery of enviroment or the development of agriculture.Among the alkaline lakes, there are a lot of alkalescence lakes and ponds, which form special kind of wetland and occupy an important position in the system of regional resources environment.Yaopao Lake is one of the typical alkalescence lake wetlands in the Songnen Plain.Its ecosystem boasts such excellence as better bio-diversity and short food chains.But the quantitative relation of animals and plants reflected the shortages of imbalance of ecosystem structure and functional disorder.Finally, the paper points out such concrete measures for eco agricultural development as fishery, breeding of poultry, planting rice and reed according to the ecosystem characteristics in order to build the model of paddy-reed-fishery-poultry-domestic animal livestock.
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