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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2004年, 第24卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2004-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    水资源约束下河西走廊的城市竞争能力与扩张幅度研究
    方创琳, 步伟娜
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 513-521.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.513
    摘要   PDF (1087KB)
    基于西北干旱区河西走廊7个城市市区的水资源供应状况及其短缺程度和城市化进程加快与水资源短缺二者的矛盾关系,分析了在水资源约束下河西走廊城市竞争力和城市扩张的变动幅度等问题。认为河西走廊绝大多数城市"缺水又费水",城市发展具有明显的"旱生性"。在水资源约束下,城市扩张的总体特征表现为以总量扩张为主,"农转非"空间和用地拓展空间大,以高耗低效扩张为主,水土资源投入产出效益普遍低下,城市发展处在主靠资源开发拉动经济增长的低级阶段,扩张质量有待提高。为了确保城市的有序竞争与扩张,建议在城市建设过程中坚持以人为本,以水为生命线,以经济发展为动力,以城市规划为法定依据,先发展后扩张,量水依法优质扩张,突出城市建设特色与个性,确保城市可持续发展。
    The paper analyzes the competitiveness and the mutative extent of urban expansion restricted by water resource, according to the situation of water supply and scarcity of the seven cities of Hexi corridor in the arid areas of northwest China. The relationship between the acceleration of urbanization and the scarcity of water resource is incompatible. Most cities of Hexi corridor is badly short of water, and the water utility is generally inefficient in these areas. Development process of the cities is evidently a mode of urban growth in arid areas. With the restrict of water resources, the characteristics of the cities expansion give priority to the gross expanding, and the extent of the agricultural population transferring to the non-agricultural and land-use expansion is large. At the same time, it is also the main method of the expansion that high consumption comes along with low benefit, that is to say that the benefits of input and output of water and soil resource is generally low. The development of the cities is in a low phases which is mainly driven by resource exploitation, and the expanding quality is under promotion. The compositor of the competitiveness from the strong to the weak is Jiayuguan-Zhangye-Jiuquan-Jinchang-Wuwei-Dunhuang-Yumen. In the future 30 years, the amount of population living in cities and the land areas of urban built-up regions will centralize and increase step by step restricted by water resource. The net increase of the gross of population in cities will be 1.14×1010, with 8.7×105 non-agricultural residents in cities and 7.47×105 in the urban areas. The net increase of built-up regions is 85.14 km2, and the level of urbanization is 35.14%。Metropolises and megapolises will not come forth with steady administration system. Middling cities will still be Wuwei, Zhangye, Jiuquan, Jinchang, Jiayuguan. And small cities will be Dunhuang, Yumen, Yongchang. To insure the competition and expansion be in order, the advice is persisting in the theory of people-oriented and taking water as the lifeline and economy develop as driven force, and taking city programming as the legal rule. It should be the first to develop, and then to expand. It is also important to improve the quality of urban expansion under the rules and restrict of water resource. The characteristics and individuality of the cities should be stood out, making sure about sustainable development.
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    珠江三角洲与外围地区的整合模式研究
    吕拉昌
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 522-527.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.522
    摘要   PDF (734KB)
    分析了珠江三角洲与外围地区整合基础、整合条件、整合动因,提出了整合模式。珠江三角洲与外围地区在自然地理上紧密相关,历史上相互影响深刻,在地域上相连且同处中国华南核心-边缘结构之下;资源、产业及商品互补性强,改革开放20年其可达性大大改善,经济联系强度迅猛增长,两者具备整合的基础和条件。两区域整合,需充分重视市场力与政府力;极化效应与扩散效应;区域政策、交通、城镇体系、产业等多层次动力机制的结合在区域整合中的作用。应以注重效率、重视可持续性和兼顾公平,以倾斜式整合发展为区域整合目标,实施区域整合的六大模式。
    Improving and narrowing regional difference is an important task of geography. Regional integration is an efficient approach to improving and narrowing the regional difference. Taking the Zhujiang River delta and its surrounding area as an example, with the analysis of the basis of integration, condition of integration, forces and causes of integration, the paper puts forward the integrated models of these two regions. The study shows, the Zhujing River delta and surrounding region link in physical geography, mutually influencing profoundly in history and territorially connecting together and laying the under of core-peripheral model in southern China, and they have good complementary in resources, industry and commodities. Their accessibility has improved tremendously and economic strength increased hundred times since reforming and opening to outside world for 20 years, they have already had good conditions and basis of integration. In order to realize integrated development, the two regions should emphasized multi-layers dynamics in regional integration which include market forces and government forces, polarization effect and diffusion effect, regional policies, transportation, urban system, industry, etc. taking the emphasis of regional efficiency, sustainability and giving consideration to regional equality as integrated object, they should carry out five models: water valley development model; point-axis development model; regional matching development model; industrial transfer, complements and division model; regional division model as well as the model of network radiation of central cities and making breakthrough from fringe cities.
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    中国能源领域温室气体排放现状及减排对策研究
    齐玉春, 董云社
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 528-534.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.528
    摘要   PDF (891KB)
    自工业革命以来,随着化石燃料的广泛应用,能源领域的温室气体排放逐渐成为其主要的人为排放源,能源、环境和经济发展之间的矛盾也日益成为各国政府共同关注的焦点。如何有效地进行能源活动中温室气体的减排已经成为涉及环境、经济、政治、外交等多方面的全球性科学问题。文章对中国能源开发利用现状和主要温室气体二氧化碳(CO2)、甲烷(CH4)、氧化亚氮(N2O)能源排放源进行了简要分析,并对适合中国国情的温室气体减排与能源可持续开发与利用"双赢",实现"发展型减排"的有效途径进行了初步的探讨。
    Since the industrial revolution, the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in energy field gradually becomes one of the major anthropogenic sources with the wide utilization of fossil fuel. The contradiction among energy, environment and the economic development also becomes the focus that the governments of all countries pay much more attention to in recent years. How to reduce the GHGs emission in energy field effectively has become the worldwide scientific problem in terms of environment, economy, politics, diplomacy and the like. In this paper, the situation of development and utilization of energy and the main sources of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide in energy field in China are reviewed and discussed. At last, some effective approaches with twin wins in greenhouse gases mitigation and sustainable exploitation and utilization of energy are proposed.Generally speaking, the way to mitigate the emissions of GHGs in energy field can be summarized as the following three kinds of measures. The first is the technology means, namely, quickening the exploitation of energy-saving technology, enhancing the utilization technology of renewable energy and clean energy, whatever, strengthening the cooperation with the developed countries in the field of the relative technology researches is also very important. The second means is the economical and financial means that refers to provide a series of the preferential policy including offer preferential tax revenue, public subsidy and low-interest loan and other preferences to the relevant enterprises. Thirdly, it is the administrative means, including strengthen and improve the macro-control mechanism and promote the construction of rules and laws on the exploitation and utilization of energy and environmental protection, establishing reasonable strategy of energy consumption and industrial development and increasing the fund input of science and technology in energy field and so on, at the same time, laying stress on the propaganda of energy-saving and environment protection is also very necessary.
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    东北地区哈大交通经济带的城市化响应研究
    王荣成, 赵玲
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 535-541.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.535
    摘要   PDF (1156KB)
    东北地区哈大交通经济带的城市化随着工业化和运输化的逐步发展而相应演化,其发展伴随着人口、产业、城镇、信息等要素在空间上的大规模集聚和扩散。特殊的地缘政治与地缘经济环境深刻地影响着哈大交通经济带的城市化演进过程。作者在论述东北地区哈大交通经济带的基本特点及其城市化现状特征的基础上,分析了哈大交通经济带的时空演变过程与城市化响应机制,探讨了哈大交通经济带城市化响应的发展趋势与未来格局,并提出了城市化有序发展的对策与措施。
    Urbanization evolved with the development of industrialization and transportation, and gone with the development of urbanization, population, industry, cities and towns, information and other elements centralized and diffused on a large scale in Harbin-Dalian Traffic Economic Belt(TEB). Special geo-political and geo-economic environment affected the course of urbanization in Harbin-Dalian TEB deeply. At present, the characteristics of urbanization in Harbin-Dalian TEB are: (1) The function system is not perfect while urban system formed basically. (2)The space expand fast, otherwise, the differences of development level of the cities are obvious. (3)Extra-economy developed quickly, and the industrial construction changed to the higher level day by day. (4) The system reform is lagging, private economics developed slowly, and there are lots of difficulties in regional accumulation. (5)The construction of modern infrastructure provide solid foundations for the development of urbanization. Three backgrounds must be considered in forecasting the trends of urbanization in Harbin-Dalian TEB: (1) industry transformation and the structure of international cargo flow in the world in the course of economic globalization; (2) the changes of industrial development model according to demands of sustainable development; (3) the adjustments of national macro-regional structure for reconstruction and exerting of old industrial base in Northeast China. At the same time, it should be fully considered industrial location orientation, industrial centralization orientation and the trends of regional urbanization and urban conformity at present and in the future. Based on the above, the authors considered that the formation and development of the four Metropolitan Economic Circles establish the urbanization structure in Harbin-Dalian TEB in the future. It should be provided several countermeasures for the urbanization to develop orderly in Harbin-Dalian TEB: (1) Propel system and mechanism innovation, accelerate urbanization "from bottom to top". (2)Strengthen the centralization and diffusing of regional central cities in order to urge cities and regions develop conformity. (3)Construct regional harmonious institutions in order to elaborate macro-adjustment function of national policy. (4) Propel the course of regional integration by the development of four metropolitan economic circles according to demands of globalization and regional integration in northeast Asia.
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    南京城市贫困空间调查与分析
    陈果, 顾朝林, 吴缚龙
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 542-549.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.542
    摘要   PDF (1286KB)
    从城市社会地理学的角度,运用城市社会保障资料和典型社区问卷调查和访谈,对南京市城市贫困阶层进行了空间分析,并探讨了产生这一格局的原因和机制。从南京的实例不难看出,中国当代的城市贫困空间,既不同于国外城市的棚户区和边缘化特点,也不同于中国农村贫困户相对集中分布,具有较明显的分散性特征。形成这种城市贫困空间结构的动力机制主要在于中国城市近50年的城市住房分配制度造成了以单位制为基础的社会阶层混合居住的局面。随着城市住房体制改革的逐步完成和住房商品化和私有化进程,中国城市的贫困空间也将呈现相对集中分布的趋势,即贫困家庭向地价低廉的城郊结合带集中,而在城市中心区的外围也将由于房地产开发无法获利而造成旧区的衰退,从而形成贫民区。
    Previous researches on poverty under Chinese state socialism placed a disproportionate emphasis on rural areas. As a result of the social economic restructuring after the implementation of economic reform, the urban social space in China has been undergoing a remarkable transformation and reorganization in recent years. While some social groups become rich earlier, some others are losing their advantages in the social economic system. They are suffering deterioration in living qualities, and form the so-called "urban poor" or "new urban poverty" in transforming urban society. The presence, the living status, the social behavior, and most importantly, the spatial distribution of such a special group of people are playing more and more important roles in the construction of urban space and urban landscapes in China. This article stresses the urban poverty under political transition and economic transformation. This research aims to examine the spatial distribution of urban poverty in China from the perspective of social geography through the case study on Nanjing City. The data used includes government records on social assistance recipients, as well as materials gathered from questionnaire survey and interviews in poor communities. We argue that the "social equity" has disappeared since the economic reform and the ensuing urban transformation in 1984. The economic transition occurring in China is creating new sources of urban poverty populations, which are significantly different from the traditional urban poor comprised of the "three nos" in the socialist era. In this paper we explore the linkages between the transitional nature of state economy and the new urban poverty in mainland China.This paper also analyzes the causes and mechanism of urban poverty. The research shows that the spatial distribution of urban poverty is both different from the "slum" aggregation in other third world countries, and different from the regionally concentrated rural poverty in China. We argue that the decentralized and stochastic spatial pattern of urban poverty in China is driven and precipitated by the state housing allocation policies during the past 50 years. It is suggested that with further implementation of housing reform and commercialization of housing market, urban poverty will exhibit greater spatial concentration, with poor households moving toward the urban fringe areas and gradually forming poor communities outside the urban center. Based on the case study of Nanjing City, we propose a theoretical framework addressing the changes in the structure of economy, current welfare system, and social spatial organization of urban populations to understand the growth of new urban poverty in China. The changing composition and spatial distribution of urban poverty population are discussed.
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    辽代西辽河流域气候变化及其环境特征
    韩茂莉
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 550-556.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.550
    摘要   PDF (1321KB)
    来自14C测年、花粉分析、历史文献记载、考古调查几方面研究证明,辽前期西辽河流域处于气候温暖期,此时流域内发育了黑土层,为农业生产发展提供了条件。而且由植物、动物乃至于流域内的河流、湖泊组成的生态环境也处于良性发展阶段,为辽王朝的崛起提供了基础。西辽河流域的地理位置决定了该地区基本的自然地理特征,气候波动不会超越该地区所处自然地带的局限性,辽代西辽河流域在典型草原的背景上,仍然分布有成片的沙地,且时常存在风沙现象。
    Researches of 14C dating,pollens analysis, historical documents and archaeological investigations prove that the climate of the Xiliao River valley came into the warm period in the first half of the Liao Dynasty.In this period of time, not only the blackland developed, which provided the conditions of agricultural development, but also the ecological environment composed of plants, animals,lakes and rivers in this valley was in positive stage, which provided the base for the rise of the Liao Dynasty. The site of Xiliao River valley determined the characteristics of physical geography of the region and the its climate change could not exceed the limit of its natural zone.Slices of deserts were also distributed over the background of typical steppe in Xiliao River valley.Phenomena of windblown sand were often happened.
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    上海近30年来蒸发变化及其城郊差异分析
    杨凯, 唐敏, 周丽英
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 557-561.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.557
    摘要   PDF (641KB)
    统计分析了上海龙华中心气象站和周边9个郊区气象站1970~2000年蒸发资料,结果表明:(1) 近30年来,上海郊区的蒸发变化和气候的冷暖期变化基本一致,20世纪80年代郊区蒸发量总体明显低于70年代;进入90年代增暖期后,郊区蒸发量呈逐渐上升趋势。(2) 市区蒸发状况与郊区出现明显反差,20世纪80年代市区蒸发量高于70年代,90年代以后市区蒸发量总体明显下降,与郊县蒸发量变化趋势相背离。(3) 城郊蒸发量历史资料系列的配对样本T检验表明,近30年来上海地区的蒸发存在明显的城郊差异,城郊蒸发的差异及变化与区域下垫面状况关系密切。
    Based on the observed data of evaporation from 1970-2000 of 10 meteorological stations, in Shanghai proper and its suburbs, by means of some statistical methods, including cumulative anomaly percentage, 5-year running average, t-test for paired samples etc., the spacial and temporal features of evaporation in Shanghai are discussed in this paper. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The climate in Shanghai has significantly changed into the warm type since the year of 1987. In this study, the variation of evaporation in Shanghai suburbs basically accords with the climate change in recent 30 years. Compared with the 1970s, the annual evaporation of the 1980s has generally decreased in Shanghai suburbs. During the 1990s, the annual evaporation of suburbs has increased along with the rising of the air temperature. The trend of cumulative evaporation anomaly percentage for suburbs resembles the figure of sine wave basically during the studied period from 1970 to 2000. (2) On the contrary, the annual evaporation trend for the Shanghai proper is obviously opposite with the trend of suburbs in studied period. Compared with the 1970s, the annual evaporation of the 1980s has increased in Shanghai proper. Although the regional air temperature and precipitation in Shanghai had both increased in the 1990s, the evaporation of Shanghai proper had reversely showed a trend of greatly reducing. The trend for time series of cumulative evaporation anomaly percentage for proper from 1970 to 2000 resembles the figure of cosine wave, which deviates with the trend of suburbs. (3) Evaporation differences between Shanghai proper and suburbs are obvious with 2-tailed sig. value being less than 0.01. The regional distribution of evaporation nearly correlates with differences of regional ground states. Baoshan and Chongmin are located in the estuary of Yangtze River in northeast Shanghai, so the evaporation of the two districts is more than that of the other suburbs due to the high wind speed. It is worth discussing that the results in this paper are based on the observed data, but the processes and mechanisms of evaporation differences between Shanghai proper and suburbs should be further researched though a series of experiments. Otherwise, because the evaporation data for a relative long period are different to obtain from different type of observation instruments (Eφ20 and E601), it is difficult to analyze the long variable cycle of evaporation.
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    天津地区典型土壤剖面多环芳烃的垂向分布特征
    张枝焕, 王学军, 陶澍, 彭正琼, 崔艳红, 吴水平, 叶必雄, 苑金鹏
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 562-567.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.562
    摘要   PDF (746KB)
    天津地区不同环境功能区表层土中均检出萘、苊、苊烯、联苯、菲、惹烯、芴、二苯并呋喃、二苯并噻吩、荧蒽、芘、屈、苯并芴、苯并蒽、苯并荧蒽、苯并芘、苝、二苯并[a,h]蒽、茚并[1,2,3-cd]芘、苯并[g,h,i]苝等多环芳烃化合物,但含量差别显著,南、北排污河污灌区多环芳烃含量明显高于非污染区及北部山区.不同剖面表土中多环芳烃的组成特征也存在明显差别,与非污灌耕地及北部山地相比,污灌耕地和滨海盐土耕地四环以上芳烃相对含量明显较高,而烷基取代物含量明显较低.剖面表层至40cm土壤中多环芳烃含量相对较高,深处含量明显降低,但不同剖面变化幅度存在明显差别,污灌耕地和滨海盐土耕地降低幅度最大,其它剖面变化较小,但剖面深部(>40 cm)芳烃化合物组成特征基本趋于一致.
    A series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon compounds (PAHs) have been detected, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, biphenyl, phenanthrene, retene, fluorine, diphenylene oxide (dibenzofuran), dibenzothiophene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benzfluorene, benzanthracene, benzo-fluoranthene, benzopyrene, perylene, diben[a,h]zanthracene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[g,h,i]perilene, triaromatic-terpane and their homologous compounds, in surface soil samples collected from various profiles with different environment conditions in Tianjin. The concentrations of PAHs are obviously difference in the surface soil samples collected from different profiles. It is relatively high from the sections in wastewater irrigated cropland than in the fresh water irrigated area or north mountainous area. The concentration of PAHs in depth of 30-40 cm in the vertical section is relative high and it is declined with depth in various sections. The chemical composition of PAHs are difference in the surface soil samples from different profiles. The concentration of 4-6 ring aromatic hydrocarbon compounds is relatively high in the surface soil samples from the sections of wastewater irrigated area and alkali soil (plowland) as compared to fresh water irrigated cropland and north mountainous area, but the contents of alkyl-substitute of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon are lower obviously. The concentration of PAHs in all seven profiles shown similar trend declined with depth. However, the range of variation in various soil profiles is difference. The range of variation are relatively high in the soil profile of wastewater irrigated area and alkali soil and relatively lower in others. The constitute of PAHs in the deep part of vertical section (>40cm) are trend consistent in each profiles.
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    基于1:100万土壤空间数据库的有机碳储量估算研究——以中国东北三省为例
    孙维侠, 史学正, 于东升, 王库, 王洪杰
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 568-572.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.568
    摘要   PDF (255KB)
    以最近建成的中国1:100万土壤空间数据库以及《中国土种志》和省级土种志的土壤属性为基础,共收集东北三省736个土壤剖面理化分析数据,估算出该地区土壤有机碳总储量,并分析讨论了土壤有机碳密度在空间上的分布特征。结果表明,东北三省土壤有机碳密度平均为16.13 kg/m2,在空间分布上的总趋势为东北部高,西南部低,密度较高的有机碳主要分布在原始森林、湿地及部分农业耕作区中。土壤有机碳密度最高的土类为泥炭土和沼泽土等土类,最低的为石质土、风沙土等土类。
    Basing on the 1:1 000 000 soil database of China and the data from China's second soil survey, this paper compiles 736 soil profiles in Northeast China to estimate it's organic carbon storage with the method of GIS. This paper also discusses the spatial distribution characteristics of soil organic carbon density. The results show that the average soil organic carbon density is 16.13 kg/m2 in the region. And it's spatial distribution trend is high in northeast and low in southwest. The highest carbon density is mainly in virgin forest soils, marsh soils and part of agriculture soils. The soil types with the highest organic carbon density are peat soils and bog soils, and the lowest are Lithosols and Aeolian sandy soils. In the total area of 7.86?105 km2 soils in this region, soil organic carbon storage in top 0-1m and top 0-20cm are 12.68Gt and 4.63Gt, respectively. The top 0-20cm carbon storage accounts for 36.5% of the top 0-1m storage. Soil organic carbon storage is mainly distributed in dark brown earth, meadow soils and bog soils. But in mountain meadow soils and Lithosols, carbon storage is less.
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    贵州省关岭县土地利用/土地覆被变化及土壤侵蚀效应研究
    万军, 蔡运龙, 张惠远, 饶胜
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 573-579.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.573
    摘要   PDF (1117KB)
    以贵州省关岭县为例,利用1987和1999年两个时段TM影象和相关资料,分析研究区12年间的土地利用/土地覆被变化及其土壤侵蚀风险。发现:(1)研究区土地利用动态变化较大,年均土地利用综合动态指数为1.36%;(2)旱地和草地互相转化比例高,草地开垦为旱地和旱地弃耕为草地的动态变化幅度远远超过旱地和草地最终面积变化的幅度;(3)山区土地利用的空间变化主要体现在垂直方向;(4)研究区裸土面积下降,一部分被植被覆盖,另一部分由于土壤流失殆尽,形成裸露基岩,故植被覆盖率和基岩出露率上升;(5)石漠化程度加剧,其中旱地石漠化发展速度最快;(6)土壤侵蚀形势严峻。
    There is a very serious ecology degradation caused by overuse of land in the Karst area, which is one of the main ecology fragile in southwest of China. This article focuses on a local site—Guanling County, Guizhou province —as a background, and land use/ land cover change as well as its ecology environment impact of the past 12 years in that area is fully researched based on 1987 and 1999 TM images and other relative data. There are some conclusions below: ① Land use has been changed dynamically and obviously, indicated by LUDC (Land Use Dynamic Change) index, which is 1.36% per year; ② The dynamic changes of dry land and grass land are main forms. The dynamic change of reclaimed and abandoned dry land is wilder than that of static change of increased dry land drastically; ③ Land use condition in mountain area is effectively evaluated by the LB (Land Center) index created by the author; ④ The ratio of bare soil is decreased, while the ratios of vegetation cover and naked rock are increased. Besides, the decrease of bare soil is caused partly by the plantation and the soil loss, the latter can make the bare soil turn into naked rock; ⑤ The staggering soil loss contributes the desertification from 22.50% to 26.58%, especially in the dry land where there is a fastest development; ⑥The antierosion life of the bare soil isn't longer than 45.5a by the erosion velocity during 1987-1999 and all the soil will be corroded completely in 86.5a.
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    太湖流域地貌与环境变迁对新石器文化传承的影响
    申洪源, 朱诚, 贾玉连
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 580-585.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.580
    摘要   PDF (635KB)
    太湖流域新石器新石器文化是连续发展的一个完整体系。高亢地带利于古文化的连续发展,而地貌和环境演化使得古文化遗址的迁移性不同,遗址往往从地势低洼处就近向高爽处迁移。水位降低、水域面积缩小时,遗址从高向低处迁移。当气候温干,地势高爽时,古人类活动频繁,文化发展。而气候温湿,水域面积扩大时,文化遗址迁移频繁,文化层堆积较薄。
    Taihu Basin, located on the southern plain of the Yangtze Delta, is one of the areas with the most clear-cut prehistoric culture series and prevailing Neolithic culture during 7.0-4.0 ka B.P. based on abundant archaeological finds. The Neolithic culture series that includes Majiabang culture, Songze culture, and Liangzhu culture has been established basically. There are 420 sites in total in Taihu basin, in which 81.2 per cent are the single type of sites. The number of single type of sites reaches 320, which are mainly Liangzhu culture type. The number of overlapped sites is 72, and it is 18.3 per cent of total sites. The number of sites that Songze culture layer overlaps Majiabang culture layers is 24, and it is 40 per cent for total number of Majiabang culture sites and 33.8 per cent for total number of Songze culture sites. The number of sites that Liangzhu culture layer overlaps Songze culture layers is 56, and it is 74.7 per cent for total number of Songze culture sites and 15.4 per cent for total number of Liagnzhu culture sites. Majiabang culture sites are mainly located on the lakes and swamps plain (the number is 31), on the piedmont plain (the number is 11) and on the water net plain (the number is 11). Songze culture sites are mainly located on the lakes and swamps plain (the number is 33), on the protruding plain (the number is 16), and on the water net plain (the number is 10). Liangzhu culture sites are mainly located on the lakes and swamps plain (the number is 145), on the piedmont plain (the number is 84), and on the water net plain (the number is 56). According to correlative research on the accumulation characteristic and types of section, spatial-temporal distribution and geomorphology, the authors draw the conclusions as follows: During 7.0-5.8 ka B.P., terrain of the region was rather undulate owing to downcutting of rivers. Majiabang Sites were mostly located on the center part of hillock, top of brae and upside of valley. During 5.8-5.5 ka B.P., forepart of Songze Culture, sea-level was fall-off and terrestrial area enlarged; during 5.5-5.0 ka B.P., the rivers silted and terrestrial area reduced with rise of sea level. uring 5.0-4.2 ka B.P., terrestrial area enlarged with decline of sea level; during 4.2-4.0 ka B.P., terrestrial area reduced and habitation area of the ancient people decreased sharply due to increase of flood disasters with deterioration of climate. Then, before 4.0 ka B.P., Taihu Lake and the east lakes of it did not come into being. Therefore, the above variation of geomorphology evolution and hydrology affected succession of archaeological culture types greatly, that is, culture developed and number of sites increased with trend of transference to low lands owing to warm and dry climate and higher terrain suited to habitation. On the contrary, the warm and wet climate enlarged water area and went against the development of ancient culture showing frequent transplant of the cultural sites and thinner cultural layers.
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    基于遗传算法的理想区间法在洪水灾情评价中的应用
    金菊良, 张礼兵, 魏一鸣
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 586-590.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.586
    摘要   PDF (223KB)
    洪水灾情评价的实质就是建立各洪水灾情评价指标与洪水灾情等级之间的非线性关系,目前在实际评价过程中反映这种关系的信息来源只有洪水灾情评价标准,而后者一般是以区间形式表示的。基于此,提出了基于加速遗传算法的改进理想区间法(AGAIIM)。AGAIIM直接由洪水灾情评价标准样本数据驱动,把利用全部隶属度值信息进行计算的洪水灾情相对等级值作为洪水灾情的评价结果,可避免应用最大隶属度原则进行判断所可能造成的失真,提高了洪水灾情评价的精度。AGAIIM方法直观、简便、通用,可在具有评价标准或具有已知评价指标值及其等级值样本系列的系统综合评价中推广应用。
    Flood disaster loss evaluation is to evaluate the damage degree caused by flood disaster according to flood disaster loss evaluation criterions, existing flood disaster loss evaluation index values and disaster loss evaluation model. The result of disaster loss evaluation, named as disaster loss grade, is of important instructional significance to the flood disaster management. Flood disaster loss involves many factors including the natural environment and social economy etc. There are still no uniform evaluation index systems and grade criterions of flood disaster loss internationally. So evaluation problem of flood disaster loss is still one of difficulties and hotspots of researches on flood disaster. The essential of evaluation of flood disaster loss is to establish the nonlinear relation between flood disaster loss indexes and flood disaster loss grades. Nowadays only evaluation criterion of flood disaster loss, which is expressed by interval concept, reflects this relation information in practical evaluation process. On this basis, improved ideal interval method based on the accelerating genetic algorithm developed by the authors, named AGAIIM for short, is presented in this paper for evaluation of flood disaster loss. The modeling of AGAIIM is the key in this paper, which includes four steps as follows. Step 1 is to create sample series of evaluation criterion of flood disaster loss randomly and to standardize the series named as {x(k,j)|k=1,...,nk,j=1,...,nj}, where nk and nj are the number of the samples and evaluation indexes respectively. Step 2 is to compute the distance D(k,i) between criterion sample x(k,j) and ideal interval of criterion grade, where i is criterion grade value of the i th flood disaster loss grade obtained from evaluation criterion table. Step 3 is to compute relative membership degree values r(k,i) of the sample {x(k,j)} relative to criterion grade ideal interval. Step 4 is to comprehensively evaluate flood disaster loss grade. The computation results of the case study can include four terms as follows. (1) As a new method for flood disaster loss evaluation based on improved ideal interval method and the accelerating genetic algorithm, AGAIIM can describe the nonlinear relation between evaluation indexes and flood disaster loss grades very well. (2) AGAIIM belongs to non-function model evaluation methods, its evaluation process is directly driven by the example series produced from evaluation criterion of flood disaster loss, and flood disaster loss relative grades computed by using all membership degrees information are regarded as evaluation results of flood disaster loss, which can avoid distorting when using the principle of maximum membership degree and can heighten evaluation precision of flood disaster loss. (3)The results of AGAIIM are of real values, so its precision is high. (4)AGAIIM is visual, handy and universal, which can widely be applied to system comprehensive evaluation when evaluation criterion or samples of evaluation indexes and evaluation result values are known.
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    GIS与ANN整合技术在森林资源蓄积量预测中的应用
    丛沛桐, 祖元刚, 王瑞兰, 李翠霞
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 591-596.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.591
    摘要   PDF (270KB)
    基于MO和MATLAB平台,采用地理信息二次开发技术,建立了帽儿山林场老山实验站森林资源蓄积量评估和预测的地理信息系统,该系统整合在GIS平台上整合BP人工神经网络模型,模拟计算老山实验站森林蓄积量。系统具有前后台数据传输功能,并实现了基于GIS的智能分析计算,为森林资源蓄积量的模拟和预测提供了数字化、可视化、智能化方法。
    The platforms of MO and MATLAB was effectively combined, and the evaluation of forest resource reserve as well as the GIS for prediction in Lao Shan Experimental Base was also established by the second development. The historical data is learned and the forest resource reserve of Lao Shan Experimental base is predicted and calculated by the adopting Artificial Neural Network of BP on the platform of GIS in the system. The system possesses the transmission function for database between the platforms and the analysis of GIS intellectual determination is realized. The study also provides the digitalized, visualized and intellectualized research system and method for the simulation and prediction for regional variations.
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    昆明城市建筑物外壁表面热力效应研究——不同季节建筑物外墙壁面表温和近旁气温时空分布特征
    张一平, 何云玲, 刘玉洪, 马友鑫, 李佑荣, 窦军霞
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 597-604.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.597
    摘要   PDF (1212KB)
    文章利用不同季节城市建筑物不同朝向外墙壁面表温和近旁气温的垂直观测资料,分析了外墙壁面表温和近旁气温的立体时空分布特征。得出:城市建筑物外墙壁面表温和近旁气温的立体分布存在显著的季节、朝向、高度和时间差异;温度极值出现的位置、时刻随季节和朝向不同而各异;导致温度日较差呈现显著的变化;而昼、夜平均温度的垂直变化同样呈现较大的季节、朝向和位置的分异性。
    Using observation data of building's external surface temperature and nearby air temperature, spatial-temporal distributions of surface temperature and air temperature were studied. Results indicate that external surface temperature and nearby air temperature show the differences that exist in the various orientations, heights and the notable seasonal variations. For these four orientations (north, east, west and south), external surface temperatures and nearby air temperatures both are higher in the daytime than in the nighttime, and smallest at north surface. These four external surfaces differences in surface temperature and air temperature are larger in the daytime, at lower heights, than in the nighttime, at roof height.
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    城市生态环境形象设计的生态背景值研究
    禹贡
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 605-609.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.605
    摘要   PDF (719KB)
    城市生态背景值包括自然生态背景值与人文生态背景值。城市生态背景值越高,城市生态环境形象建设与管理的成本就越低。通过城市生态背景值的相关因素分析与量化分等,在选择分析的中国14个特大城市中,生态背景值相差甚远。按综合分值分等,第一等空缺,第二等和第三等分别只有广州市和上海市,第四等有7个城市,第五等有3个城市,得分最低的第六等有兰州市和乌鲁木齐市。按自然生态背景值分值划分,第一等空缺,得分最高的第二等只有广州市,最低的第九等是乌鲁木齐市。按人文生态背景值分值划分,第一等空缺,第二等是北京市,其余为第三等和第四等。文章以城市生态背景值为依据,较为详细地分析了广州市何以在较短的时间内由一个"不适合居住"的城市变为"国际花园城市"的原因。
    Urban ecological background values include two aspects: nature ecological background values and human ecological background values. The higher urban ecological background values are, the lower cost of developments and management urban ecosystem environment image are. The degree of dryness , the temperature in the coldest month, plant productivity, precipitation, daily precipitation and topography are used to measure nature ecological background values. The usual 7 indexes of western society, namely, society moral consciousness, public awareness, choice tradition value, custom habits, knowledge distribution, time budget and, culture and art are used to measure human ecological background values.The paper analyzes the correlative factors of urban ecological background values and grades them. The analysis of fourteen super metropolis of China showes that their urban ecological background values are widely discrepant. According to synthesis score, none of the fourteen cities are measured up to the first grade, one (Guangzhou) to the second, one (Shanghai) to the third, seven(Nanjing,Kunming,Chongqing, Chengdu,Wuhan, Beijing and Xi'an) to the fourth, three(Tianjin, Harbin and Shenyang) to the fifth and two (Lanzhou and Urumqi) to the sixth. According to the natural ecological background value score, none of them are measured up to the first grade either, with only Guangzhou to the second and Shanghai to the third, five(Chongqing, Wuhan, Chengdu, Nanjing and Kunming)to the fourth, three(Xi'an, Shenyang and Tianjin) to the sixth, two (Harbin and Beijing) to the seventh, one (Lanzhou) to the eighth and one (Urumqi) to the ninth, and the fifth grade is vacant. According to the human ecological background value score, none is measured up to the first grade, with only Beijing city to the second, seven(Shanghai, Nanjing, Kunming, Xi'an, Harbin, Guangzhou and Tianjin) to the third and the other six(Chengdu, Shenyang,Lanzhou, Urumqi, Chongqing and Wuhan) to the fourth. On the basis of urban ecological background values, the paper analyses in detail why Guangzhou city that has ever been an "unlivable city" could win the title of "international garden city".
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    苏北盐城海岸带景观格局时空变化及驱动力分析
    欧维新, 杨桂山, 李恒鹏, 于兴修
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 610-615.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.610
    摘要   PDF (696KB)
    利用RS、GIS手段研究分析了盐城海岸带景观格局的时空变化及其驱动力因子。结果表明:在1983~2000年间,景观斑块数量倍增,平均斑块面积大幅度减小,景观基质构成由比重势均的人工、自然景观变成了以耕地、水域为主的人工景观;海岸带景观异质性整体上有减弱的趋势,主要表现为多样性指数降低、破碎化指数增大、分维数减小,而在空间和类型上又有异于整体的表现;自然地理条件、人口增长、经济收益差异、政府政策是导致盐城海岸带景观格局变化及其区域差异的主要驱动力;随着滩涂围垦利用等人类干扰的不断增加,海岸带景观生态环境保护与经济开发之间的矛盾将愈发突出。
    Variation of landscape pattern can provide key information of human activity effects on landscape and consequently has received much attention in recent years. Most of the past works mainly focused on the whole landscape pattern rather than the inner variation of landscape, and on urban area, watershed, forest and wetland rather than coast as objects. In China, the analyses of landscape change in the Liaohe River delta, the Yellow River delta and the Zhujiang River delta have been conducted at a spatial scale of county although some works have been done concerning the features of coastal landscape at a spatial scale of nation. The study area in this paper, the coastal zone of Yancheng (CZY), lies in the middle of Chinese coastal zone, where shoal area of 4 570 km2 can be found. CZY is one of the best-preserved land resources in Jiangsu Province and also in china. Moreover, it is a base of biodiversity conservation. With the population growth, there has been increasingly serious conflict between reclamation and biodiversity conservation in this region. In order to analyse the changes of landscape pattern, four sections in CZY have been selected from north to south and they are the section of salt industry and aquatic production in the abandoned Yellow River delta; the section of breed aquatics and rare bird conservation in Sheyang County; the section of agricultural and elk conservation in Dafeng City; and the section of integrated agricultural development in Dongtai City. The paper mainly deals with the spatial-temporal variation and driving force of the landscape pattern of CZY with the technique of remote sensing and GIS employed. The results indicate: (1) In the 17 years (1983-2000), the number of patches increased significantly but the average area of patch decreased remarkably. The landscape matrix had changed from the station that the natural landscape and the artificial landscape were on an equality to just the latter were dominant. (2) Coastal landscape heterogeneity degraded, resulting in the decrease of diversity index and increase of fractal dimension index, dominance index and fragmentation index. As far as the landscape heterogeneity in the different regions and different landscape types concerned, there was another condition different from the whole coast landscape. (3) It was by the main driving forces of natural geographical condition, population increase, and economic income and government policy that the variation and regional discrepancy of coastal landscape patterns in Yancheng were induced. (4) With the increasing disturbances, such as inning and reclamation of the coastal shoal, the conflict between exploitation and ecological environment protection would be more and more serious. That means a deeply study on the sustainable land use in the coast zone is in need.
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    吉林双辽地区风沙堆积古温度研究
    李丰江, 邓金宪, 温泉波, 陈广善, 李军敏
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 616-619.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.616
    摘要   PDF (718KB)
    文章根据吉林双辽地区风沙堆积物中的Fe3+/Fe2+值,计算了风沙堆积时的古温度及其变化,结合堆积物的定年数据,建立了该区76.9±6.0~17.8±1.4 ka B.P.期间温度波动旋回。结果表明:这一地质时期吉林双辽地区年均温度变化于1.13 ℃~8.70 ℃之间,整体较现在为低,应为末次冰期影响所致。该研究得到的松辽平原末次冰期的温度数据,为系统建立松辽平原晚更新世古气候年表提供了重要基础资料。
    Paleotemperature has been calculated in Shuangliao area of Jilin based on Fe3+/Fe2+ values in the aeolian sediments of this region. Combining with the data of thermoluminescence dating, the fluctuation cycle of paleotemperature has been established in this region from 76.9±6.0 ka B.P. to 17.8±1.4 ka B.P. The results indicate that the paleotemperature of this region changes greatly with the minimum value 1.13℃ and the maximum value 8.70℃, but most values are lower than that of today. It can be concluded from the lower paleotemperature and age data that this region was greatly influnced by the last glacier period. This research quantitatively presents the temperature data of the last glacial and provides important information of Late Pleistocene climate condition in Songliao Plain.
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    旅游目的地区域(TDD)及其空间结构研究——以西安为例
    杨新军, 马晓龙, 霍云霈
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 620-626.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.620
    摘要   PDF (962KB)
    在对国内外相关研究进行综述的基础上,以西安为例,对旅游目的地区域(TDD)进行了界定。以"一日游"旅游行为基准给出了西安旅游目的地区域范围,即以250 km为半径,相当于单程旅行2.5小时的通达范围。并发现西安TDD对周边地区旅游客源产生了明显的截流效应。分析了主要旅游景点(3A以上)的空间分布特征,认为呈现集聚分布,有利于旅游资源组团式开发。运用洛仑兹曲线,发现西安市出行的5条主要旅游路径利用强度存在严重不均衡。文章结论主要包括:TDD的核心表现为旅游区、旅游节(景)点和旅游路径三种空间要素,其中对旅游目的地区域发展影响较大的两个要素是高级别景区与旅游路径,二者决定了区域旅游产业的规模、空间分布和旅游流向。随着区域旅游一体化的推进,客观上要求以西安为中心的关中旅游热点地区要逐步打破地区壁垒,共同开拓市场,优化旅游景点组合,打造旅游精品群,以促进旅游业的持续发展。
    Tourist spatial structure is a complicated topic. In this paper, based on the study progress in China and foreign countries, some "spatial models of tourist system" are proposed by single factors, such as behavior, tourist zoning, tourist attractions and tourist flow. Then taking Xi'an as an example, Tourist Destination District is defined and analyzed. By using "One-day Tour Circle", the range of TDD in Xi'an is proposed, including the district with 250 km as a radius (2.5h traffic-time distance). Based on zoning of TDD in Xi'an, the distribution of high-grade tourist spots (up to 3A) is analyzed. That agglomeration of high-grade tourist spots is convenient to develop tourist attraction cluster, which is concentrated on Xi'an urban built-up area and its adjacent districts. By the analysis of Lorenz curve, serious disequilibrium of different tourist routes in TDD of Xi'an is concluded, which indicates that different routes has different intensities of utilization, agglomeration of visitors in the eastern routes has strengthened the capacity of destinations such as army ruffian and Huaqingchi spring. Main conclusions in this paper include: two components are very important to the sustainable development of regional tourism, which are tour nodes and travel paths respectively. Scale, spatial distribution and tourist flow of tourism industry is strongly influenced by tourist spatial components, especially spots and routes. With the integration of tourist market, redisplay of tourist routes and connection with strong and weak tourist spots, the best tourist products can be brought out. Improvement of competition of tourist products is the key of TDD.
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    综述
    土地利用/覆被变化的环境效应研究进展与动向
    于兴修, 杨桂山, 王瑶
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 627-633.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.627
    摘要   PDF (908KB)
    土地利用/覆被变化产生的环境问题已引起人类社会的广泛关注,深入研究这些问题具有重要的理论和实践意义。在简要回顾土地利用/覆被变化对大气环境、土壤环境和水环境影响已有研究的基础上,结合中国研究的实际,分析了中国土地利用/覆被变化的环境效应研究中存在的问题,并对今后的研究趋势做了讨论。
    It is very important both to theories and practices to study the environmental effects of land use/cover change, which has been paying more and more attentions by human. About the impacts of land use/cover change on atmosphere, soil, water and biodiversity, progresses are reviewed and inadequacies in past studies are also discussed. In the past time, lack of united indicator system for estimate, poor precision of experiments , single factor or single process static studies are main problems of researches on the environmental effects of land use/cover change. Based on them, this paper presents some contents, especially soil and water environmental effects should be further studied, such as processes and mechanism, different temporal and spatial scale and so on. Furthermore, it is pointed out that dynamic methodology should be used to conduct integrated impacts assessment of land use/cover change on environments. To evaluating those effects, it is necessary to develop a physically-based distributed model, which should integrate remote sensing and geographical information systems with mechanism of hydrological cycle and soil erosion models. Moreover, interdisciplinary cooperation and exchanges should be enhanced in order to improve the understanding of the land use and land cover change dynamics and their relationships with the environmental change.
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    湿地生态系统碳储存和温室气体排放研究
    刘子刚
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 634-639.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.634
    摘要   PDF (822KB)
    湿地生态系统是地球上重要的有机碳储库, 湿地植被和土壤碳储量丰富、碳密度高。湿地还是CO2、CH4和N2O等温室气体的源和汇。近百年来,由于土地利用,特别是农业开发和泥炭开采,导致大面积湿地被排干,并排放大量温室气体。多项研究表明湿地保护和恢复能促进碳积累和减少温室气体排放,通过对国内外有关文献的分析,针对近年来科学界普遍关注的湿地生态系统碳储量、碳平衡和土地利用对温室气体排放的影响、湿地与全球气候变化关系等方面的问题进行了初步探讨。
    Wetland ecosystem is an important carbon pool in the world. Wetlands have the highest carbon density of all terrestrial ecosystems. Wetland soils and peat are long-term reservoirs for carbon. In terms of greenhouse gases, wetlands can either be sources or sinks of carbon dioxide(CO2), methane(CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). There are influence of many factors the carbon cycle process in wetlands. Drainage of wetlands significantly increases CO2 emission. Some researches show that wetland protection and restoration are helpful to carbon accumulation and GHG reduction. So protection of wetland carbon stock can mitigate global climate change. According to some new results of the studies on the relationship of wetlands and the global climate change, this paper put it emphasis on wetland carbon stock, carbon balance and influences of land use on GHG emission in wetlands.
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    书评
    一部水环境污染管理研究的新作评王晓燕编著的非点源污染及管理
    王宁
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (5): 640-640.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.05.640
    摘要   PDF (111KB)
    目前世界范围内,水环境污染已成为一个倍受关注的问题。其中非点源污染的严重性随着点源污染控制能力的提高而逐渐显露出来,由于非点源污染、尤其是农业非点源污染危害的广泛性及控制的复杂性,使水环境污染研究越来越受到重视,成为国际环境问题研究的热点之一。美国、日本等国研究表明:即使点源污染得到全面控制之后,湖泊水质的达标率仍仅为42%。
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