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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第12期 刊出日期:1997-12-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    自然资源与城市的区位——兼论大河发展轴的经济机理
    盛科荣, 樊杰
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1415-1422.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1415
    摘要   PDF (1089KB)
    基于新经济地理学的研究方法,构建模型研究了偏在性自然资源对非资源型制造业区位选择行为和城市区位特征的影响机理。研究发现,当资源型制造业的规模较小、自然资源的位置较为偏僻、资源型制造业产品的运输成本较小时,城市—工矿区模式将成为区域空间结构的均衡状态;当资源型制造业的规模较大、自然资源的位置靠近区域的中心、资源型制造业产品的运输成本较高时,资源型城市是均衡状态。研究还表明,自然资源对城市区位的影响受控于偶然因素和路径依赖效应。接着基于研究成果完善了陆大道先生提出的大河发展轴的区位条件和经济机理的解释。最后进行了总结并对区域开发实践提出了建议。
    Based on the methods of new economic geography,a spatial model is built to explore the effects of natural resources on non-resource-based manufacturing location choice behavior and thus characteristics of urban location.The results show that,when the resources-based manufacturing is small,the location of natural resources is remote,and the transportation costs of resources-based manufactured goods are small,the mode of city-industrial and mining areas will be the equilibrium state of regional spatial structure.When the resources-based manufacturing has a large scale,the natural resources located near the center of the region,the resources-based manufactured goods are characterized by high transport costs,resources-based city becomes an equilibrium state.The study also shows that circular causation of demand and path dependent effects play an important role in natural resources shaping urban location.Then,based on the research,the economic mechanisms of big river development axis proposed by Mr.Lu Dadao are completed.Finally,the paper is concluded and recommendations on China’s regional practice are suggested.
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    欧洲多中心城市区域的研究进展和应用实践
    马学广, 李贵才
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1423-1429.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1423
    摘要   PDF (859KB)
    以"多中心城市区域"(PUR)为代表的城市群体空间的发展已经成为欧洲空间发展与规划的重要特征,以"多中心发展"为目标、"城市区域"为单位的欧洲"多中心城市区域"研究和规划取得了大量的研究成果。PUR的研究以城市密集地区形态—功能的多中心性之间的契合关系为重点,探讨这一类型区域的动态发展模式及其多中心性、互补性、连通性、协同性和外部性等属性特征,并且在PUR的定量测度上进行了较多卓有成效的工作,同时在以ESDP为代表的欧洲空间规划中获得了广泛的应用。虽然对这一领域的研究已经取得了丰硕的研究成果,进行了一系列的实证研究和数量分析,但由于PUR概念本身的模糊性、原型区域的局限性以及政策实施过程中出现的地方性问题等因素的存在,使得这一理论概念和规划策略的研究尚需进一步的深入,其应用价值尚需进一步的观察和评估。对西方尤其是欧洲PUR研究成果的吸收和所存在问题的反思构成了主要研究内容。在对欧洲PUR的研究基础、属性特征、定量测度和研究应用等多个方面引介和评论的基础上,提出了加强对城镇密集地区的研究、强化PUR各种属性的定量实证分析以及借鉴和吸收欧洲PUR研究与规划思想等一些适用于中国城市群空间规划中获得了广泛的应用。虽然对这一领域的研究已经取得了丰硕的研究成果,进行了一系列的实证研究和数量分析,但由于PUR概念本身的模糊性、原型区域的局限性以及政策实施过程中出现的地方性问题等因素的存在,使得这一理论概念和规划策略的研究尚需进一步的深入,其应用价值尚需进一步的观察和评估。对西方尤其是欧洲PUR研究成果的吸收和所存在问题的反思构成了主要研究内容。在对欧洲PUR的研究基础、属性特征、定量测度和研究应用等多个方面引介和评论的基础上,提出了加强对城镇密集地区的研究、强化PUR各种属性的定量实证分析以及借鉴和吸收欧洲PUR研究与规划思想等一些适用于中国城市群空间规划与研究的借鉴与启示。
    The Polycentric City Region(short for PUR) development has turned out to be the most important issues of European spatial development and planning,and got numerous research achievements under the objective of polycentric development and with the unit of city regions.Polycentricism at metropolitan or regional level comes in many different forms,as illustrated in European Union POLYNET project.PURs all display symptoms of polycentricism,yet their spatial arrangements are vary greatly.Some are characterized by a fairly even distribution of sized cities more or less equally across space(e.g.the Randstad Holland,RhineRuhr,EMR Northern Switzerland),others take the shape of a larger urban agglomeration surrounded by several smaller centers(e.g.the Paris Region,Greater Dublin and South East England),and again others are perhaps best characterized as something in between(Rhine Main and Central Belgium).There existed three modes of polycentric development: centrifugal,incorporation and fusion mode,which can also be regarded as typology of evolutionary mode.The research of PUR emphasized on the relation between morphological polycentricity and functional polycentricy,the investigation on the property features of this kind of space,such as polycentricity,complementary,connectivity,synergy,externalities and geographic range,and on the measurement of the property features above mensioned.There are also existed many problems during the research process on the ambiguity of concepts,limitations of the empirical cases,and local affairs around policy implementation process,which made it be necessary to further promote on the research of PUR theoretical analysis and planning policy.The main contents of the article constituted by the absorption and reflection of European PUR researches.It brought forward the reference and inspiration about Chinese city clustering regions research on strengthening the research of city clustering regions,intensifying the quantitative empirical analyses of PUR property features,and absorbing key ideas in European PUR research and planning based on the introduction and review of the research background,property features,quantitative measurement and planning applications of European PURs.
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    1956~2000年中国地表水资源状况:变化特征、成因及影响
    张强, 孙鹏, 陈喜, 陈晓宏
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1430-1436.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1430
    摘要   PDF (1497KB)
    系统搜集了中国590个雨量站和383个水文站1956~2000年长序列月降水量与月径流量资料,及1978~2000年全国各省、自治区的旱涝受灾与成灾面积、灌区面积、已建水库库容等数据资料,全面分析了地表径流时空演变特征以及农业旱涝灾害的时空分布特征,并分析了其原因及可能影响,研究结果表明,中国北方降水减少,其中山东和黄河中游地区的降水量减小最显著。另外,冬季降水增加明显,而春秋季降水减少明显,极易导致春秋旱灾;北方地区降水减少是造成地表径流量减小的主要原因,农业灌溉进一步加剧地表径流量减小,南方径流量的增加主要是由降水量增加引起的;降水时空分布不均匀造成水资源分布不均,进而造成大部分地区农业受旱涝灾害面积呈增加趋势,其中旱灾受灾面积远大于水灾的受灾面积;农村水利基础设施(灌区、水库等)能提高地区的抗旱能力,但是对洪涝灾害的影响没有旱灾那么明显。节水灌溉技术的推广应用是北方地区在水资源短缺的前提下保证农业生产稳定的重要措施。
    Changes of water resources in China are the key scientific problem in terms of sustainable development of agriculture and social security.Based on long-term hydro-meteorological dataset,i.e.daily precipitation data from 590 rainfall gauging stations and monthly streamflow from 383 hydrological stations covering 1956~2000 over China,water resources in China are thoroughly evaluated.Impacts of human activities,the agricultural irrigation in this study,on water resources are also analyzed.Besides,the data concerning the flood-and drought-affected and the flood-and drought-destroyed agricultural fields are also collected and analyzed with Mann-kendall and Kriging interpolationaim to discuss the implications of precipitation changes and streamflow variations on agriculture in China.This study produced important and novel conclusions: ① decreasing precipitation is found in north China,particularly in the Shandong and the middle Yellow River.The south China is dominated by increasing precipitation.In addition,decreasing precipitation is prevailing in spring and autumn which may easily cause droughts in spring and autumn.The winter is characterized by increasing precipitation.② Decreasing surface streamflow is the result of decreasing precipitation.The agricultural irrigation further intensifies the decreasing magnitude of streamflow in north China.This result further corroborates the tremendous human influences on water resources in north China.③ Uneven distribution of precipitation leads to uneven spatial patterns of water resources over China.Agricultural activities in China are mostly under the risk of drought and flood hazards.Drought hazards may play the dominant role in the loss of agricultural production.④ the irrigation facilities are urgently calling for great concerns.Besides,water-saving agriculture is also the major effective way to mitigate water shortage due to climate changes and intensifying human interference with water resource system of China.
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    2008年五大事件对中国入境旅游的影响——基于本底趋势线模型高分辨率的分析
    孙根年, 周瑞娜, 马丽君, 王泰然
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1437-1446.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1437
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    依据旅游本底趋势线理论和月指数距平方法,对2008年五大事件对中国入境旅游的影响进行了高分辨率的定量分析,结果发现:①在五大事件的影响下,2008年中国24个省区入境旅游出现了负增长,其中,广东、四川等省区损失游客67.6~294.5万人,山东、海南等省区损失量小于5万人次;四川、西藏等省区损失率在50.0%~76.7%,安徽、吉林等省区损失率为1.6%~4.6%。②由于事件的性质、发生的时间和持续期不同,对各省区入境旅游影响差异较大,金融海啸共损失游客1 254.86万人次,汶川地震损失游客178.47万人次,奥运入境限制及"奥运抽水"损失入境游客215.02万人次,藏独事件损失游客115.55万人次,南方雪灾损失游客42.41万人次。③五大事件对入境旅游的影响,存在着较大空间差异。南方雪灾的影响集中在南方受灾省区;藏独事件对西藏及北京、上海旅游影响较大;汶川地震影响范围遍及全国,但对四川及其周边省区影响最大;北京奥运会期间,全国大部分省区入境客流量减少;金融海啸影响的时间长范围广,全国31个省区均受到不同程度影响,东部沿海地区入境客流量损失较大。在本底趋势线模型的基础上,定量分析了。
    According to the Tourism Background Trend-line Theory and monthly index anomaly,this article quantitatively analyzes the impacts of the five important events on the Chinese provincial Inbound Tourism in 2008.The following findings are gained: 1) under the influence of the five major events,24 provinces’ tourism has shown a negative growth.Among them,some provinces such as Guangdong and Sichuan,Beijing and Zhejiang decreased as many as 676×103-2 945×103 tourists while Shandong,Hainan,Qinghai,Chongqing,Anhui and Jilin decreased less than 50×103 tourists.As to the tourists loss rate,Sichuan,Tibet,Gansu and Qinghai are highest,from 50.0% to 76.7%,while Anhui,Jilin,Shanxi,Heilongjiang,Tianjin and Ningxia are lowest(1.6%-4.6%).2) The five events have various influences on each province because of their different characters,occurring time and last-periods.Financial crisis has resulted in 12.55×106 tourists’ decrease in total and the earthquake in Wenchuan has decreased 1.78×106 tourists.Tibetan separatist incidents also decreased 1.16×106 tourists while the Snow storm in the southern China decreased 0.42×106 tourists.3) The five events have influenced different areas in China.Snow storm mainly affected some provinces in the southern China and Tibetan separatist incidents have more effects on the Tibet,Beijing and Shanghai.The earthquake in Wenchuan affected the most parts of China,especially on Sichuan province;During Beijing Olympic Game,most provinces attracted less inbound tourists;financial crisis has lasted for a long time,which affected all the 31 provinces in varying degrees while the eastern coastal provinces of China suffered most seriously.According to the tourism background trend line theory,this paper quantitatively analysizes the influences of the five important events on Chinese provincial Inbound Tourism in 2008.
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    世界金融地理层级性研究
    傅雪莹, 陈才, 刘继生, 梅林
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1447-1453.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1447
    摘要   PDF (938KB)
    金融全球化使各国金融系统联系日益密切深入,但世界金融体系在不同地域巨大差异性仍然存在。从经济地理学的视角出发,指出世界金融地域系统呈现出层级性的特征,通过理论分析并运用计量方法证实了世界金融系统层级性这一规律的客观存在。在计量基础上把世界金融体系划分为4个层级,结合实际深入探讨了每一层级的特征,并从金融学和地理学理论角度探索了世界金融地理层级性产生的内在机理,指出世界金融体系内部联系及整体演进均与世界金融地理层级性特征息息相关。正确掌握与运用这一客观规律,不仅有助于推动本国金融系统的健康发展,而且能使之对经济的快速发展和社会稳定发挥积极而持续的促进作用。
    Financial Globalization is integrating the world financial system,however,the territorial differentiation of the world financial system is still very obvious.From the economic geography perspective,the world financial system presents the feature of tiers.This article has proved the existence of the tiers of world financial system by theoretical analysis and quantitative methods application.The world financial system is divided into four tiers through quantitative analysis and the features of each tier are pointed out.The countries and regions of the first tier have highly developed and extremely active financial systems.In the second tier,the financial system is comparatively sound and closely related to the real economy.Thus individuals and enterprises in the second tier are able to access to the financial services easily.The financial system of each country of this tier has its own distinguished advances comparing with other countries,however,to the whole financial system there is still some way to the first tier.There are no any developed countries that could be found in the third tier.Instead,the third tier almost composes of the emerging countries.The inadequate development of the financial system of the third tier leads to inefficiency and cumbers the economic development.And each country of the tier has its own obvious shortcoming in the financial system.The internal differentiation of this tier is notable.The financial system of the fourth tier is underdeveloped,which consists of unsound institutional environment,small-size and inefficient banking system,undeveloped financial market and a narrow range of financial instruments.Therefore,it is rather difficult for the individuals and enterprises to obtain the supports from financial system.The industry development and consumption expansion are limited by the poor financial system in the fourth tier.Furthermore,the mechanism of the geographic tiers of the world financial system is discussed.The financial system is a complicated system,and is a sub-system of the whole socio-economic system.Generally speaking,the synergy of humane geographic environment and the nature of financial system induce the differentiation of financial system on the geographic distribution.At first,the different development levels of different countries lead to the different demand for finance.Furthermore,in this article the geographic boundary or the border between countries also divides the world financial system.Finally,the heterogeneity of the financial market information on space and time causes the geographic differentiation of financial system objectively.The process and the path of financial globalization are deeply influenced by geographic tiers of world financial system.The pattern of present international financial system is also shaped by the geographic tiers of world financial system.
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    学校体系规模调整和空间演化特征的测度与分析——以南京市普通高级中学为例
    卢晓旭, 陆玉麒, 尚正永, 钟业喜, 周永博
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1454-1460.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1454
    摘要   PDF (1071KB)
    基于分形理论和可达性理论,运用学校规模测度技术和地理空间测度技术对南京市2006年和2010年普通高中学校规模和空间布局进行分析。具体方法包括运用Hausdorff维数测度学校规模位序,运用关联维数测度学校空间分布的相关性,运用集聚维数测度学校空间分布的集聚性,运用时间可达性测度技术测度学校的可达性。测度结果显示:①2006~2010年间,南京市普通高中学校规模呈扩大趋势,但体系规模总体均衡,且5 a来规模差异有所缩小;②学校空间布局相关性高,且2006~2010年间的布局调整使空间相关性呈现加强趋势;③学校空间布局表现出集聚的特征,且2006~2010年间的布局调整使主城区学校空间布局趋于均衡(分散),而使郊区空间布局趋于集聚(集中);④无论5 a来趋于分散的主城区学校布局还是趋于集中的郊区学校布局,调整后区域内学校可达性都降低,学生上学时间成本普遍增加。建议教育部门在"十二五"期间进一步采取措施,一方面提高学校办学质量,另一方面在让学生就学更加便捷的前提下实现学校空间布局的均衡,以促进教育公平。
    By making use of the measurement technologies of the scale and geographic space,the analysis on the scale of ordinary senior high schools in Nanjing in 2006 and 2010,which,on the basis of the fractal theory and the accessibility theory,covers the measurement of the scale sequence of school by Hausdorff dimension,the measurement of the correlation of spatial distribution of school by correlation dimension,the measurement of the concentration of spatial distribution of school by cluster dimension,and the measurement of the accessibility of school by the time accessibility technology.It reveals that: 1) in 2006–2010,the scale of ordinary senior high schools in Nanjing shows an enlarging trend,but the scale of school system maintains equilibrium in general with the narrowing scale difference among schools;2) the spatial distribution of schools has a high correlation,and the adjustment of the distribution of schools enhances the spatial correlation of the schools;3) the spatial distribution of the schools is featured with agglomeration effect,and the adjustment of distribution in 2006–2010 leads to the equilibrium(decentralized) trend of the spatial distribution in central city region and agglomeration(concentrated) trend of the spatial distribution in outer suburb;and 4) both in the decentralized school layout in central city region and the concentrated school layout in outer suburb during 5 years,the accessibility to the schools reduces,and the time and cost to the schools generally increase after adjustment.Accordingly,in order to promote the equal access to education,the paper proposes that the Department of Education of China should take further measures during the Twelfth Five-Year Plan(2011–2015),to improve the quality of schools,and make an equilibrium spatial layout of the schools on the premise of more convenience for students,including controlling the unordered growth in school scale,reasonably arranging the school layout so as to improve the accessibility to the schools in various regions,stopping the weak development of schools caused by vicious competition among schools,and taking more measures to promote the equal access to education.
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    城市群空间联系能力与SOM神经网络分级研究——以辽中南城市群为例
    陈园园, 李宁, 丁四保
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1461-1467.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1461
    摘要   PDF (455KB)
    以辽中南城市群为例,通过经济联系强度模型、城市流模型和城市通达性模型,构建系列空间联系能力数理模型,定量分析辽中南城市群空间联系能力的空间分异特征。在此基础上构建了SOM神经网络分级模型,以评价辽中南城市群十个节点城市的空间联系能力。研究表明:①沈阳的经济联系总量最大,沈阳与其他城市的经济联系强度和沈阳距其铁路距离呈S形曲线关系。②依据城市流强度值的大小将辽中南城市群十个节点城市划分为高、中、低三个档次,大连的值最大,营口则显现出作为该城市群中部区域极点的潜力。③沈大高速公路集中了通达性处于前三位的三个城市,辽阳在城市通达性方面显现出显著的优势,四项通达性指标全位居第一。④从SOM神经网络的分级结果看,沈阳都作为独立的一级,表明沈阳的空间联系能力最强,体现了其中心性的地位。
    Against the backdrop of pacing up economic globalization and regional economic integration,the international elements flow more freely and frequently,such as flow of labor,material,funds,technology and information.The tends promote the development of regional society and economy along with the evolution of urban spatial structure,and make the spatial combination among urban agglomerations act more alive with a character of net connection.As the suburbanization develops,spatial diffusion gradually turns into a new study field.The spatial association of urban agglomerations is an abstract concept,which we defined it not only a connection among cities of urban agglomerations but also a connection among urban agglomerations as a whole and outside regions.By applying the economic relation intensity model,urban flow model and urban accessibility model,this article constructes a series of spatial combination capacity model and analyzes the spatial differentiation characteristics of spatial combination capacity taking the mid-southern Liaoning Urban agglomerations as an example.Based on the analysis,the SOM neural network grading model is built to evaluate the spatial combination capacity of the ten node cities.The results shows that: 1) Shenyang has the largest total economic linkage.The relationship between economic relation intensity of Shenyang and other cities,and the distance of railway among them presents the "S" curve.2) According to the value of urban flow intensity,the ten node cities are divided into three sorts—high,middle and low.Dalian′s value is the highest and Yingkou shows its potential as the center in the middle part of city group.3) The accessibility of the top three cities is high along the Shenyang-Dalian Highway.4) The classification result of SOM neural network indicates that Shenyang has the strongest spatial combination capacity and it shows the centrality as a solely class.
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    港口与城市规模关系的评价与比较——以辽宁省港口城市为例
    姜丽丽, 王士君, 刘志虹
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1468-1473.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1468
    摘要   PDF (899KB)
    立足于城市地理学视角,以港口与城市规模关系为切入点,以辽宁省6座港口城市为案例,从宏观和综合的角度考察港口城市的发展程度及发展过程特征。引入RCI指数作为评价港口城市港口与城市规模关系的指标,判断港口城市类型与阶段演进。研究认为:①2008年,辽宁省港口城市包括三大类型,其中,大连市为具有典型港城特征的大区域级门户城市,营口市为特征显著的区域级门户城市,锦州市和丹东市为港口功能显化的区域级临海城市,盘锦市和葫芦岛市为港口功能相对弱小的区域级一般城市;②近10 a间,辽宁省港口城市港口与城市规模关系变化呈现出4方面特征,即大连市由门户城市向典型港口城市类型发展,营口市由典型港口城市转变为特征显著的门户城市,锦州、丹东、葫芦岛和盘锦四市作为港口城市发展缓慢,营口市和丹东市港口与城市规模关系实现了阶段跨越。
    This paper studies the size relationship between port and port-city,and the research objects are the six port-cities of Liaoning Province,China.It tries to study the development level and the evolution characteristics of the port-city from the macroscopic and comprehensive perspective.The RCI index is employed to evaluate the size relationship between port and port-city,and then judge the port-cities′ category and evolution stage.Results show that: for one thing,there are three major port-city categories in Liaoning Province in 2008.Dalian is regional gateway city in large-scale and with the characteristics of typical port-city.Yingkou is remarkable regional gateway city.Jinzhou and Dandong are regional maritime cities which display port functions.Panjin and Huludao are general cities whose port functions are relatively weak.For another thing,in the recent ten years,the evolution of the size relationship shows four sides: first,Dalian is in the stage of developing from a gateway city to a typical port-city.Second,Yingkou has transformed from a typical port-city to a remarkable gateway city.Third,Jinzhou,Dandong,Huludao and Panjin have been developing slowly.Fourth,Yingkou and Dandong have realized the periodical leap-frogging development.
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    广西城市化与环境系统的耦合协调测度与互动分析
    吴玉鸣, 柏玲
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1474-1479.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1474
    摘要   PDF (884KB)
    基于城市化与环境的耦合协调互动特征构建了耦合协调理论模型,对1985~2007年广西城市化与环境系统的耦合度和协调度进行了测度和互动关系分析。研究结果显示:从耦合度的时序来看,1985年以来广西城市化与环境系统基本处于交互耦合的颉颃阶段,1985~2001年城市化-环境耦合系统的耦合度从0.187上升到0.500,系统在演化过程中经历了一个"S"型的周期性变化,跨越了低水平耦合、颉颃阶段,在2001年进入磨合阶段,但之后系统的耦合度又退回到颉颃阶段,并在2007年达到了极小值。从耦合协调程度的时序看,广西城市化与环境系统的耦合协调程度也较低,基本还处于中低水平。这说明广西逐年加快的城市化进程给环境带来了越来越大的压力,需要正确处理和协调快速发展的城市化与日益严峻的环境状况之间的关系,尽快采取措施促使广西城市化与环境系统向耦合协调方向发展。
    Based on the coupling and coordinative characteristics of urbanization system and environment system in Guangxi,taking environment and urbanization as two composite systems respectively,through the quantitative integration measure,the paper aims at probing into the coupling interaction and coordinating relationship of urbanization and environmental system of Karst region in the southwestern Guangxi,China.In order to properly handle and coordinate the conflict between increasingly sped-up urbanization and serious ecological environment,and to provide the theory basis and the practical guidance for realizing environmental coupling and coordinated development,the paper constructs theoretical models of urbanization and environment to measure the coupling and coordinative degrees and analyze the interactive relationship between urbanization and environment of urbanization and environment composite system from 1985 to 2007 in Guangxi.The results show that the coupling degree of urbanization and environment system is low,and the time sequence of the coupling degree in Guangxi is basically at resisting stage from 1985 to 2007.The coupling degree of urbanization and environment system had risen from 0.187 to 0.500 in 1985–2001,and the system had undergone one "S" type evolutionary cycle which went across low-level coupling,antagonist,and then running phase in 2001.The degrees of coupling and coordinative between urbanization and environment system had gradually decreased since 2002,which reached the lowest position in 2007.Besides,the coupling coordination degree of urbanization and environment system is low,which are basically at low stage.This shows that the sped-up process of urbanization system in Guangxi in several years has brought more and more pressure to its environment system,so it is necessary to correctly handle and coordinate the relationship between the rapid developing urbanization and the increasingly severe environmental condition in Guangxi,and the measures should be taken as soon as possible to urge the development direction of the coupling urbanization and environment system coordinately.To change the present situation of lower coupling and coordination degrees of urbanization system and environmental system in Guangxi,and to prevent the continuing growing pressure on the environment,the government,the enterprises,together with the residents,should control their own behavior in order to response to the coupling and coordination system in time.The behavior,including policy guidance and effective implementation,application of environmental technology,the guide of market mechanism,and the strengthen of public environmental awareness,will all influence the urbanization process and the state of the environment improvement through the direct feedback mechanisms,and transform the urbanization and environment to benign coupling coordination and promote sustainable change direction together in Guangxi.
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    氮可利用性对东北不同类型湿地土壤有机碳矿化的影响
    李英臣, 宋长春, 侯翠翠, 王宪伟, 孙晓新
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1480-1486.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1480
    摘要   PDF (915KB)
    2010年6~10月,在中国东北连续多年冻土区,岛状多年冻土区和季节性冻土区采集典型湿地土壤,通过室内分析和模拟试验研究了不同冻土区湿地土壤有机碳矿化及其微生物活性对不同氮可利用性的响应特征。试验设置4个氮处理水平,分别为0 mg/g(N0),0.1 mg/g(N1),0.2 mg/g(N2),0.5 mg/g(N3)。结果表明,培养结束后3种土壤在N0处理下的有机碳累计矿化量分别为5 646 mg/kg,2 103 mg/kg和1 287 mg/kg,与初始土壤有机碳含量、全氮含量和微生物量碳(MBC)呈显著正相关。3种土壤在氮输入后的有机碳矿化速率和累积矿化量都明显低于N0处理,表明氮输入对有机碳矿化产生抑制作用。随着氮输入量的增大,氮输入对不同土壤有机碳矿化的抑制作用有所差异,表现为:不同氮输入对连续多年冻土区土壤累积矿化量影响无显著差异;岛状多年冻土区土壤在N1和N2处理下的有机碳累积矿化量明显高于N3处理;季节性冻土区土壤在N2和N3处理下的累积矿化量明显低于N1处理。培养结束后,3种土壤微生物量氮(MBN)含量随氮输入量增加而降低,MBC/MBN随氮输入量增加而增加;季节性冻土区草甸沼泽土培养结束后的MBN和MBC/MBN都与累积矿化量存在显著相关关系,表明季节性冻土区草甸沼泽土氮可利用性增加可能改变了微生物的组成或结构,进而对有机碳矿化产生影响。
    To examine carbon(C) mineralization and microbial activities of different soil types under different levels of exogenous nitrogen(N) availabilities,three types of soil were collected from continuous permafrost,island permafrost and seasonally frozen ground,and incubated under laboratory conditions from June to October in 2010.The experiment was designed with four N levels,the amounts of exogenous N were 0(N0),0.1 mg/g(N1),0.2 mg/g(N2),0.5 mg/g(N3).The results indicated that the cumulative C mineralization of three types of soil under N0 treatment was 5 646 mg/kg,2 103 mg/kg and 1 287 mg/kg,respectively,which existed positive correlation with initial amount of soil organic C,total N and microbial carbon(MBC) in the end of incubation.The C mineralization rates and amount of cumulative mineralization of three types of soil under N0 treatment were all higher than under N treatment,indicated that exogenous N suppressed soil C mineralization.As the amount of exogenous N increasing,the inhibition of N on cumulative mineralization of different soil types was various.There was no significant difference of cumulative C mineralization of permafrost soil among three N treatments;the cumulative mineralization of island permafrost between N1 and N2 treatment was similar,but was all higher than N3 treatment;the difference of cumulative mineralization of seasonally frozen ground between N2 and N3 treatment was not notable,but was all lower than N1 treatment.After incubation,the values of MBN decreased and MBC/MBN increased along with exogenous N increasing.The cumulate mineralization of seasonal frozen soil positively related with MBN,and negatively related with MBC/MBN,which indicated that nitrogen availability may affect the carbon mineralization by changing microbial structure and composition.
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    阳澄湖水质现状及原因探讨
    桂智凡, 薛滨, 姚书春, 魏文佳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1487-1492.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1487
    摘要   PDF (363KB)
    阳澄湖丰水期和枯水期水质调查结果显示:TN、叶绿素、TP和CODMn丰枯期都呈从西湖区向东湖区递减趋势,且一般枯水期大于丰水期,TP反之;丰枯期水质均较差,为Ⅳ类或劣Ⅴ类,污染物主要为TN和TP;富营养化加重趋势有所缓解,但水体仍呈富营养化状态。氮磷来源分析表明:丰枯期NO3--N、NO2--N与TN以及丰水期PO43--P与TP有显著正相关关系。叶绿素浓度与TN在枯水期有显著相关性,其他时期叶绿素浓度与TN、TP的相关性均不显著。阳澄湖养殖活动和底泥营养盐释放可能是导致上述变化的主要原因。
    Based on the water quality investigation in May(dry period) and October(wet period) 2009,the spatio-temporal variations of water quality and nutritional status in the large,shallow and subtropical Yangcheng Lake were analyzed,and the reasons for the differences in water quality and the emergency of eutrophication were discussed.The results are as following: the concentrations of main water quality parameters including TN,chlorophyll,TP and CODMn decrease gradually from the western part to the eastern part of the lake consistently,and TP in wet period is higher than in dry period while the others are opposite.The water quality are all classified as inferior Class Ⅴexcept of the central area of eastern part which is in Class Ⅳ with TN and TP acting as the primary pollutants though the whole lake in both periods.Although the trend of eutrophication increase has been eased,however,the water body is still in eutrophic state.The major source of pollution nitrogen and phosphorus analysis suggests that the concentrations of NO3--N and NO2--N are significantly positive correlated with TN in both periods,and PO43--P and TP concentrations also shows significantly positive correlation in wet period.Additionally,there are significantly positive linear relationships between the content of Chl-a and TN only in dry period,while the correlation between Chl-a and TN and TP concentrations is not significant in both periods.Farming activities and sediments releasing may contribute to the above characteristics in Yangcheng Lake.
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    2000~2008年内蒙古中部地区土壤风蚀危险度评价
    于国茂, 刘越, 艳燕, 胡云锋
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1493-1499.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1493
    摘要   PDF (1153KB)
    选择内蒙古中部为研究区,以地理信息系统技术与层次分析法为依托,在深入调研风蚀驱动因子的基础上,构建了一个驱动因子相对全面并且实践可行的土壤风蚀危险度模型;基于该模型,综合长时间序列的遥感数据、地面气象台站观测数据,对研究区2000~2008年土壤风蚀危险度的空间分布格局、变化动态及其驱动机制进行了分析。结果表明:在内蒙古中部地区,从东南到西北土壤风蚀危险度呈现逐渐增强的趋势,不同的风蚀危险等级区有着不一样的主导控制因子;在2000~2008年期间,区域土壤风蚀危险程度总体呈现下降趋势;2000年以来风场强度的持续下降及植被NDVI的持续上升是促使区域土壤风蚀危险度下降的控制因子,而气候干燥度在2005年的大幅上升则是当年区域土壤风蚀危险度上升的控制因素。
    The middle part of Inner Mongolia Plateau was got the very attention of many researchers and local governments because of its important geographical position.One of the most important reasons is that it is the region of serious wind erosion.And for this reason,this area was chosen as case study region to evaluate the soil wind erosion.In this paper,a wind erosion risk evaluation model was established by applying of geography information technology(GIS) and analytic hierarchy process(AHP) method to assess the wind erosion risk in this region.A series of wind erosion risk datasets from 2000 to 2008 were then gathered in this study region to analyze the spatial distribution pattern and the temporal process of wind erosion risk in detail.Then,the driving mechanism in wind erosion process,including vegetation coverage,land use,meteorological factors,were analyzed deeply based on the common senses and existing wind erosion model.The main convolutions are as follows: First,from the southeast to the northwest,the wind erosion risk of study area gradually increased.Except the year of 2005,the general trend of wind erosion risk was falling during the whole study period.Second,the change of land system had little impacts on soil erosion risk because of the slight changes of land use and land cover in whole study period.Third,the continuous decline of wind energy intensity and the stable rising of NDVI were the leading factors to decline the wind erosion risk during 2000 to 2008;while the increase of soil dryness is the key driving forces of all 6 factors to increase wind erosion risk in 2005.
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    四川省安县千佛山景区震后泥石流灾害及其判识
    陈兴长, 游勇, 柳金峰, 陈慧
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1500-1505.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1500
    摘要   PDF (804KB)
    汶川地震对千佛山风景区造成严重的影响,直接诱发滑坡10处,崩塌数十处,形成大小堵塞坝4座,由此形成的松散物质总量大于1 700×104m3。2008年雨季有5条支沟暴发泥石流。在泥石流成因分析的基础上,选择流域形状、流域发育程度、沟床纵比降、山坡平均坡降、地层岩性和距发震断层距离6个指标,利用潜在泥石流判识模型,对流域内其余9条支沟进行了判断。结果显示,大部分沟道都具备形成泥石流的潜在条件。2009年雨季研究区全面暴发的大规模泥石流,验证判识的可靠性,表明该模型可以用于灾区潜在泥石流的判识。
    Qianfoshan scenic spot,located in northwest of Anxian County,Sichuan Province,was heavily hit by the Wenchuan Earthquake.Taking the scenic spot as study area,researches on characteristics and discrimination of debris flows following the Earthquake were conducted.Based on remote sensing interpretation and field survey,it was found out that 10 landslides and dozens of rock avalanches and 4 barrier dams were induced by the earthquake,which could provide abundant loose materials for the subsequent debris flows and totaled up to 17 million m3 in the study area.There were 14 branches in this area and most of them were still in its infancy,which favored the formation of flow concentration and surface runoff.Additionally,rainfall is abundant in the area,and therefore 5 debris flows had been occurred during the rainy season of 2008.To study the properties of the other 9 branches,on the basis of cause analysis of debris flows in this area,the watershed integrity coefficient,relative cutting degree,mean channel gradient,mean mountain slope,stratum lithology and the distance of geometrical center to the fault were selected as discrimination parameters.Using these parameters,the 9 branches were discriminated by the Fisher Discrimination Model.Results showed that most branches were potential debris flow gullies.In August 2009,all branches burst out large-size debris flows in the study area,which verified effectiveness and feasibility of the model.However,this model had still room for much improvement.
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    塔里木河干流年径流量变化及其人为驱动因素关联分析
    陈忠升, 陈亚宁, 曹志超, 孙从建, 范煜婷
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1506-1511.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1506
    摘要   PDF (464KB)
    根据塔里木河干流1957~2008年的年径流量监测数据,利用线性回归法,对干流年径流量时间序列变化趋势进行分析,并借助相关分析和主成分分析法甄别影响径流变化的主要人为驱动因素。结果表明:近50多a来,塔河干流的年径流量呈显著递减趋势,与干流来水量变化趋势一致;人类活动自1975年左右开始明显的影响径流量,有效灌溉面积、农业人口、耕地面积和一产比重与径流变化相关程度最强,以引水灌溉为主体的农业经济活动成为影响径流变化的最重要因素;人类活动对径流变化的影响程度沿河道自上而下表现出逐渐增强的趋势。
    According to the monitoring data of annual runoff in the mainstream of Tarim River from 1957 to 2008,the time series variation tendency of annual runoff in the mainstream is analyzed by using linear regression method,and then the connectivity between annual runoff and human social economic activities driving factors is made a thorough inquiry by means of correlation analysis and principal component.The study results are concluded as follows: In recent more than 50 years,the decreasing tendency of annual runoff in the mainstream of Tarim River is prominent,having the uniformity with the inflow volume change tendency of the mainstream.The human activities have been affecting obviously annual runoff since about 1975.At the same time the correlation analysis on annual runoff and human economic activities driving factors indicates that the factors,such as effective irrigated area,agricultural population,cultivated land area and the proportion of primary industry,have been farthest affecting annual runoff.So the agricultural economic activities have been the most important factors to influence the annual runoff change,among them the agricultural bringing in water and irrigation is the most direct factor to interfere with the water resources.The degree of human activities impacting on annual runoff change displays gradually enhanced tendency from the top to bottom along the river course of the mainstream of Tarim River.
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    民族文化重构实践中的身份与地方认同——仡佬族祭祖活动案例
    杜芳娟, 陈晓亮, 朱竑
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1512-1517.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1512
    摘要   PDF (879KB)
    在文化转向思潮的引领下,新文化地理学从注重结果向注重过程转移,更强调地理事象所发生的空间过程及其内化在特殊地域系统中的社会关系。在这一过程中,景观的符号象征意义和表征作用得到重新解读。以民族文化为旅游吸引物的发展背景下,通过对贵州世居民族仡佬族官方祭祖活动的参与式观察和相关群体的深度访谈,发现民族精英为将务川树立为仡佬族族群的中心,重构了"九天天主"及其祭祖仪式和场所,地方意义由此发生了改变‘,小塘石笋’由自然景观变为仡佬族族群的文化中心景观。"仡佬之源"的地方中心性空间策略虽扩大了仡佬族的知名度,提升了地方影响力,但祭祀活动却呈现出精英的"台上"认同与民众"台下"认同的对立。这一分歧的根本原因是当地仡佬族模糊的身份记忆以及仡佬族作为散居族群的文化多元性所致。在仡佬族祭祖的文化实践中,精英通过各种社会关系和权力影响和重构了地方身份认同,而地方的民族身份认同又影响地方意义的重构。文章指出,没有民众的"自下而上"支持,悬置于族群之上的官方主导的文化重构实践具有很大的脆弱性。研究对完善地方感研究中主体性缺失及地方与认同研究中身份认同研究不足具有重要的理论意义。
    With the leading process of the ideological trend of ‘cultural turn’,the main focus of ‘new cultural geography’ has transformed from emphasizing the results of the geographical phenomena to the process,with its spatial process and social relationships which internalized in special regional systems being more emphasized.The meanings and symbolic functions of the landscapes were reinterpreted in this transformation process.Based on the participant observation on the official activities of ancestor worship of Gelao ethnic minority which is one of the native ethnic minorities in Guizhou Province and in-depth interviews with relational groups in Wuchuan County,Guizhou Province,it is found,under the context that the economic development relies on the ethnic culture as the tourism attractions,the ethnic elites reconstructed the Jiutiantianzhu as ancestors of Gelao ethnic minority and the rituals as well as the place of ancestor worship in order to make Wuchuan County become the central place of Gelao minority groups.In the process of reconstruction,the meanings of place have been changed,and the Xiaotangshisun has also been transferred from the original natural landscape into the central cultural landscape of Gelao ethnic minority groups.Although the spatial strategy of the place being centralized as ‘the source of Gelao ethnic group’ enlarges the fame of Wuchuan County and enhances the influence of the area,there is an opposite identity on activities of ancestor worship between official ‘on-stage’ of the ethnic elites and non-official ‘under-stage’ of the common people.The essential reasons for the divarication cover two aspects.One is that the local Gelao people in Wuchuan County have not distinct memory about their ethnic group.The other reason is that the Gelao minority have been scattered so long time that they have already had different culture from place to place.In the process of the cultural practice of ancestor worship of Gelao ethnic minority,the local elites reconstruct the place identity by various kinds of the social relations and powers,meanwhile the local ethnic identity also cause some impacts on the reconstruction of place meanings in another way.It is finally pointed out in the paper that the official cultural reconstruction suspended above ethnic groups would be very fragile without the support coming from the common Gelao people from bottom to up.This study has a great theoretical significance in improving the research on sense of place with the lack of subject,and also in enhancing the study of emphasizing the importance of ethnic identity and place identity.
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    旅游目的地仿生学空间关系研究——以安徽省古村落西递、宏村为例
    徐红罡, 薛丹
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1518-1524.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1518
    摘要   PDF (387KB)
    旅游目的地之间在多重因素的影响之下,空间关系总会呈现出有别于竞争与合作关系的其他形式。研究了旅游目的地空间关系的生态学解释和旅游生态位概念,在此基础上建立仿生学空间关系数学模型,构建旅游目的地仿生学空间关系研究体系,并将新体系实际应用于案例地西递、宏村,最后得出结论:宏村的整体竞争力水平高于西递,且两村于2006~2007年间达到稳定的竞争状态并一直延续到现在。案例分析证明了旅游目的地仿生学空间关系研究对于旅游规划与管理的理论和实践意义。
    In recent years,the researches on the spatial relationship of tourism destinations were halted at three directions: competition,cooperation,and cooperation-competition.However,under the influence of economic,social,and cultural factors,the spatial relationships of tourism destinations always show other different forms.The former relationship classification is so simple that it cannot deal with the complex situations.With a literature review on the domestic and abroad studies,the author found that lots of scholars began to try to explain the relationship in ecological ways.The spatial relationships between two or more destinations are described as competition,predation,symbiosis,and parasitism."Niche",as ecological terminology,has been introduced into tourism study.The purpose of this study is to apply the bionics theory to the tourism destination and to explore new methodology for the spatial relationships of destinations qualitatively and quantitatively.Thus,this paper is composed by three parts: 1) the establishment of the spatial relationship models based on ecological interpretation;2) the construction of a bionics study approach of spatial relationship among tourism destinations;and 3) the application of the new approach to Xidi and Hongcun villages as a case study.After fieldwork,data collection are analyzed,and it is found that the tourism niche of Hongcun Village is bigger than that of Xidi Village,which means the competitiveness of Hongcun is stronger than that of Xidi because of its bionics landscape,business promotion and location advantage.Xidi and Hongcun reached a stable state of competitive spatial relationship in 2006-2007,and they will keep this relationship in future.This study proves that tourism destinations’ bionics relationship approach is better than the traditional ones.It makes a more detailed and comprehensive classification of spatial relationships,which can be applied not only to the large-scale tourism destination,but also to the small-scale scenic spots.When using it,we should pay attention to the choice of niche dimensions and the calculation of tourism niche,which must be based on the reality of cases.More kinds of tourism niche calculation and deeper exploration of the connotation of tourism niche and this new approach are planned to be studied.Through putting both qualitative and quantitative research methods into the bionics relationship,this new approach will be proved to be more useful for the analysis of tourism planning and destination management.
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    天堂寨景区农村社区居民旅游影响感知的差异分析
    韩国圣, 张捷, 黄跃雯, 尹立杰
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1525-1532.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1525
    摘要   PDF (400KB)
    居民旅游影响感知研究中对处于发展初期的成长型旅游的研究偏少。以安徽六安市天堂寨景区农村社区为例在问卷与深度访谈的基础上运用因素分析、多变量方差分析、平均数差异检验研究了居民旅游影响感知的差异。根据研究结果提出了社区居民旅游宣传教育与自然保护政策相关建议。
    Based on evaluation of relevant documents on the residents′ perception on tourism impact,there is few study relating to a developing tourism destination at the primary stage.Based on a case study of rural community in Tiantang Zhai scenic spot,Anhui Province,this study aims to explore the effects of relevant independent variable on the rural residents’ perceptions of tourism impact.Both in-depth interviews and questionnaire survey were used to collect data,and factor analysis,multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA),and Mean Test were used to analyze the data.Meanwhie detailed qualitive data helps to provide convicing interpretation and confirmation to the quantitive findings with fully thick description.The findings indicate that there is significant difference in perceived tourism impact among gender,age,members of village committee,and occupation.The gender variable is significantly different between perceived social costs and community satisfaction while the age variable is significantly different between perceived social cost and nature protection.A significant difference exists in the variable of village committee member between social cost and nature protection.There is significant difference in occupation between nature protection and economic expectation.The results may provide insights for rural resident tourism education and nature protection policies.Also it may provide insights for rural resident tourism education and nature protection policies as follows.Firstly,in order to promote the level of satisfaction,all kinds of tourism benefits for the community from the development of tourism industry should be introduced to the female villagers.Secondly,the possible negative effect of tourism should be explained to common young villagers.Thirdly,all kinds of economical opportunities provided by the tourism industry should be introduced to middle-age villagers and villagers whose occupation are not farmer.Fourthly,tremendous opportunities to handle some significant issues in community provided by the development of tourism should be introduced to elderly persons.
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    地震前后灾区旅游地国内游客旅游动机变化研究——以“5.12”汶川地震前后的九寨沟为例
    李敏, 张捷, 钟士恩, 董雪旺, 刘泽华, 程绍文
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1533-1540.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1533
    摘要   PDF (1029KB)
    认清灾害事件对游客动机的影响是灾后旅游市场恢复第一步。根据"5.12"汶川地震发生前(2008年4月27~5月5日)与发生后(2009年5月5~10日)两个时段游客问卷调查数据,采用多因素方差分析等方法定量研究地震对灾区旅游地国内游客旅游动机的影响。研究发现,地震对游客大部分动机影响显著,震后拉力动机重要性下降,推力动机除遗产名气大动机外其余都增强,震后休闲动机比求知动机重要,与震前截然相反。震后旅游地非核心旅游吸引物的吸引力变化幅度呈现距离递增趋势,但核心旅游吸引物吸引力变化不存在空间差异。地震前后游客到访世界自然遗产地最重要的动机都是"亲近了解自然",与旅游吸引力不突显吸引物所激发的动机一样,不受地震灾害的影响。
    Crisis or disaster has increasingly influenced tourism development and tourism demands obviously.Effective tourism marketing has been widely proved to be one of the focusing measurements for tourism market recovery in many destinations which suffered no dramatic tourism attractions or facilities damages by disasters.Then study on influence of certain disaster or crisis on tourists’ motivation is very crucial for after-disaster tourism destination management and tourism market recovery after some disasters.Taking China’s Jiuzhaigou National Park as a case,the authors conducted some quantitatively comparative analyses of tourists’s motivation based on the questionnaire survey data collected in the park before(from April 27th to May 5th,2008) and after(from,May 5th to 10th,2009) the Wenchuan Earthquake on May 12th,2008.And some quantitative analytical methods such as MANOVA analysis has been used to analyze the changes of tourist motivation in the destination.Some research results can be drawn as below: 1) Tourists to Jiuzhaigou were mostly motivated by their desire of "being close to nuture" both before and after the quake.It is important to note that nature attraction of the world natural heritage was the main and common pull motivation for both short-haul and long-haul markets before and after the earthquake.On the other hand,the Wenchuan Earthquake did great influence most of the tourists’ motivations to visit this park—the importance of pulling motivation declined while that of all pushing motivation but "for social status" increased;2) Before the earthquake,tourists’ knowledge obtaining motivation(experience new things and learn about other culture) was more important than that of recreation motivation(enjoy life and enjoy tranquility),while it has reversely changed after the shock.The importance of the social and psychological motivations(for social status motivation "to see famous sights") decreased after the disaster.3) The attraction of non-core attractions in the destination has experienced distance-decay changes,while the attraction of some core attractions in the park showed no changes with distance before and after the shock.Actually,Jiuzhaigou’s tourist market segmentation within central-western China experienced adverse changes.According to the results of MANOVA,there were reverse trends between the midwest(increse) and midwest(decrease) in the change of market share before and after the earthquake.But all of these markets showed no great differences of tourist motivation.It may imply that tourist motivation can play a tiny role in the explaination of the market changes within some adajacent developing regions before and after the quake.Based on previous research conclusion,the authors put forward some differential marketing suggestions for its market recovery.
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    中国天山西部季节性森林积雪雪层温度时空分布特征
    陆恒, 魏文寿, 刘明哲, 韩茜, 洪雯
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1541-1548.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1541
    摘要   PDF (1385KB)
    利用2009年12月27日~2010年4月2日天山积雪站站区内开阔地和雪岭云杉(Picea schrenkiana)林下6次降雪过程后雪层内时间间隔10 min的温度数据,探讨雪层温度变化特征。结果表明,越接近地表雪层温度越高,且在雪层表面形成冷中心和(局部)暖中心;在积雪稳定期林下雪层温度高于开阔地,融雪期林下低于开阔地;林下雪层冷、暖中心出现时间晚于开阔地,其强度也小于开阔地。林下雪层温度振幅小于开阔地,林下温度振幅拐点以上雪层温度振幅随深度和时间的递减率小于开阔地,拐点以下无明显差异。初冬,林下和开阔地雪层均为较小的正温度梯度,随着气温急剧下降,温度梯度逐渐增大,且从雪表向雪底递减,林下雪层负温度梯度出现时间晚于开阔地。开阔地和林下积雪表层正温度梯度最大值分别达到0.95℃/cm和0.82℃/cm,负温度梯度大值分别达到-0.84℃/cm和-0.35℃/cm;但开阔地全雪层日平均温度梯度小于林下雪层。
    The snow temperature under Picea schrenkiana forest crown and on the open ground was observed at Tianshan Research Station for Snow-cover and Avalanche of the Chinese Academy of Sciences from Dec 27,2009 to Apr 2,2010.The spatial and temporal distributions as well as variations of snow temperature were analyzed in details.The results indicated that there is a higher snow temperature near the ground surface,and local cold and warm centre happen at the snow surface layer.The snow temperature under crown is higher than that on the open ground in stable period,which present a contrary trend in snowmelt period;the low and high temperature centre of forest snow appears later and weaker than that on the open ground.Besides,the decreasing rate of snow temperature amplitude with depth and time under crown is lower than that on the open ground above break point,but there is no statistical difference below break point at early stable period.The snow temperature gradient is small and positive,and it increases with air temperature decreasing but decreases with depth from surface down.The negative temperature gradient of forest snow appeases later than that on the open ground.Under crown and on the open ground,the maximum positive temperature gradient of snow reaches 0.95℃/cm and 0.82℃/cm,and the negative temperature gradient reaches-0.84℃/cm and-0.35℃/cm,respectively.Whereas the whole layer snow temperature gradient under forest crown is larger than that on the open ground.
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    基于少量典型样点土壤属性空间分布推测模型中的土壤属性参数敏感性分析
    卢岩君, 秦承志, 邱维理, 朱阿兴
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (12): 1549-1554.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.012.1549
    摘要   PDF (513KB)
    针对基于少量典型样点土壤属性空间分布推测模型中的土壤属性参数敏感性问题,以坡位渐变信息结合典型土壤样点的加权平均模型为例,利用东北地形平缓小流域的土壤表层有机质含量样点集,使用阶乘设计、箱线图分析、扰动分析法和本文新设计的MR指数评价该模型的参数敏感性。结果表明,该模型中土壤属性参数敏感性较大,其大小与典型样点空间分布有关。敏感性主要由应用该模型时采用的坡位分类体系的不确定性引起。该文的分析方法可用于对基于少量典型样点的土壤属性空间分布推测模型进行参数敏感性综合分析。
    Although the typical-sample-based prediction models of the spatial distribution of soil property are promising in digital soil mapping,the sensitivity analysis of the soil property parameter in these models is still lack.This paper presents an attempt to establish weighed average model on a fuzzy slope position based on typical samples for digital soil mapping.The soil samples of A-horizon soil organic matter were collected in a low-relief small watershed in Northeast China.A "factorial design" method was applied to simulating scenarios of modeling point set.The performances of the model under different scenarios were analyzed with box plot.Further,we designed an MR index,which was calculated from the median and the range of the prediction error,for parameter sensitivity analysis based on the prediction performance of model.Both MR index and existing sensitivity index were used in this study.The result shows that the weighed average model is sensitive to the soil property parameter.The sensitivity degree is related to the locations of typical soil sample.The method proposed in this paper is also available for the parameter sensitivity analysis of other typical-sample-based prediction models of digital soil mapping.
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