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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1997年, 第17卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1997-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    北极中心海域海冰特征、积雪及变质过程
    效存德, 秦大河, 任贾文
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 289-296.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.289
    摘要   PDF (1143KB)
    根据我国首次北极地区的考察观测资料,分析了北冰洋88°N~90°N考察路段上海冰形态和雪层剖面特征,划分出3种海冰形态类型和相应的积雪分布形式,指出了不同积雪分布形式下雪深测量、雪层剖面观测以及雪坑采样的适宜性。海冰上覆积雪的积消过程表现为缓慢的积累和快速的消融,雪深空间分布与降水来源有极大的关系。遥感监测和雪层剖面观测证明北冰洋海冰上覆积雪无明显“年积累”大于“年消融”的区域,属于季节性积雪.
    Based on the observation of sea ice cover and measurement of snow depths and stratigraphies during China’s First North Pole Scientific Expedition (from Apr. 24 to May 6, 1995, Beijing time), three types of surface features of sea ice and correspondely three styles of snow distributions in the central Arctica are classified. It’s considered that the classification will help the siting of snow depth measurement, stratigaphic observation and snowpit sampling. The snow cover is slowly accumulated during the long Arctic winter, approximately from September to early May next year, while its ablation show abrupt from south to north. By the end of Augest, the snow cover is almost totally removed. The spatial distribution of snow depth is characterised by a south north decreasing trends, which is thought to result from the remote vapor sources, i.e., that the major vapor over the Arctic regions is transported from the mid latitude. The stratigraphy of the snowpits is characterised by the extensively existed depth hoar at the lower part of the pits, which is obviously a signal of the beginning of the long Arctic winter. The present of infiltered ice adhere to sea ice surface at the end of the ablation season indicate that the annual accumulation is approximately equals to the annual ablation near north pole.
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    山西木本植物区系地理成分的比较分析
    张峰, 上官铁梁
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 297-303.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.297
    摘要   PDF (618KB)
    山西有木本植物463种,隶属于166属70科,种属的区系地理成分类型多样,以北温带成分占优势,它们是构成山西植被的主要建群种或优势种。对山西及邻近地区植物区系地理成分的多样性指数、PCA排序和类平均聚类的结果表明:山西与河北、北京、山东等省市木本植物区系地理成分较为相似,而与河南、江西、内蒙古3省区有较大的异质性.
    There are 463 species of xylophyta, belonging to 166 genera and 70 families in Shanxi, China. The floristic geographic composition types of the genera and the species are abundant, in which the temperate compositions (including North Temperate, Old World Temperate, Temperate Asia & Central Asia) are dominant, they are constructive or dominant species of vegetation in Shanxi. Moreover, the floristic geographic compositions of xylophyta of Shanxi, Hebei, Beijing, Shandong, Henan, Jiangxi and Inner Mongolia were studied by using diversity index, principal component analysis and group average method, respectively, and the results indicated that the floristic geographic composition of Shanxi was considerablly similar to that of Hebei, Beijing and Shandong, however, the floristic of Shanxi was comparatively different from that of Henan, Jiangxi and Inner Mongolia.
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    秦岭与黄土区现代辽东栎林孢粉组合
    赵景波, 岳应利, 岳明
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 304-309.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.304
    摘要   PDF (584KB)
    根据秦岭太白山区冷湿辽东栎林和陕北黄土区温偏干型辽东栎林的孢粉分析,讨论了这两类栎林的孢粉组合特点及其定量判别问题。资料表明,这两个地区辽东栎林的乔木、灌木、藤本、草本花粉和蕨类孢子组成、含量均有明显差异,据此能够对它们进行定量判别.
    On the basis of sporo-pollen analysis of different Quercus liaotungensis forests in the Qinling Mountain and loess areas, the differences in the composition and quantitative distinction between two kinds of oak forests are discussed in the paper. The material shows that the charateristics of sporo pollen assembledge of Quercus liaotungensis in the Qinling Mountain are: the pollen content of trees and oak is low, the moist resistant composition among pollen grains of bush and herb is dominant, and the sporo-pollen content of vine and pteridophyte is high. The characteristic of sporo pollen of Quercus liaotungensis in loess areas are: the pollen content of trees and oak is high, the pollen of drought endurable composition among the pollen grains of bush and herb is main, and the sporo pollen content of vine and pteridophyte is small. According to characteristic composition, we can distingwish two kinds of Quercus liaotungensis forests.
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    喀斯特流域水系分形、熵及其地貌意义
    梁虹, 卢娟
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 310-315.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.310
    摘要   PDF (843KB)
    把分形理论和熵有机地结合起来,系统地研究喀斯特流域和非喀斯特流域的干谷水系、常流水系和地下水系的分形结构及其熵的地貌意义,初步揭示了流域水系的形成与地貌发育演化之间的关系,认为仅利用水系的分维值来分析地貌演化是不够的,还应考虑流域水系的熵值变化.
    Fractal theory has been extensively applied to research the stuctural charater of drainage basin, but it seldom combines with entropy studies karst drainage. This paper studies systematically the fractal character and geomorphological significance of entropy in karst dry valley system, fluvial river system and undergound drainage, and compare with non-karst drainage basin. We think that fractal and entropy are important parameters in hydrogeomorphologic system and could be used to analyse structrual charater of karst drainage and evolution of karst hydrogomorphology.
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    主成分分析对恢复过去植被和环境作用的再分析——以北京坟庄剖面为例
    张佳华, 孔昭宸, 杜乃秋
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 316-322.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.316
    摘要   PDF (683KB)
    从北京坟庄剖面具有14C测年的54个样品原始记录中,选取11个孢粉类型,用主成分分析的方法对该区晚更新世以来的孢粉资料进行再分析,阐明该方法能消除因主观原因对同一孢粉谱的分带差异。对北京多样性的生态环境,用累积贡献率为57%且离散性大响应此环境特征,更好地恢复过去环境.
    Based on the pollen data of Fenzhuang profile from the Late Pleistocene to the Early Holocene, the paper gives a further analysis to subdivide zones of pollen assemblages and changes of paleovegetation and paleoenvironment in this area using principal component analysis (PCA). In the paper 11 pollen types were selected from original records of 54 samples in the profile, then 54?11 matrix was set up. The first factor of PCA indicates the development process intensity of herbs and cold trees, on the contrary, the development process intensities of in Tila and Pinus and ferns (Selaginella sinensis, Polypodium) were restrained. The second factor of PCA indicates the development process intensity of mesophytic herbs and Artemisia+Compositae. In the meantime the development of aquatic plants and hydrophe may be restrained. The third factor of PCA indicates the co development of aquatic plants and mesophytic herbs in Beijing region. From the scatter diagrams of 1,2 and 1,3 factors, 54 pollen samples were divided into 4 types (correspond to 4 zones). In type A (zone 1, over 13000 a B.P.), the vegetation was steppe dominated by Artemisia and Chenopodium, the climate was dry and cold. In type B (zone 2, ca. 13000 a B.P.-11400 a B.P.), the vegetation was dominated by a subalpine conifer forest, aquatic plants increased, the climate was cold and wet. In type C (zone 3, ca 11400-11000 a B.P.), the vegetation was represented by temperate broadleaf tree such as Tilia, the aquatic plant was predominant too, lakes and swamps deceased, the climate was warm and became dry. In types D (zone 4), since 11000 a B.P. trees and aquatic plants developed better at its initial stage, but afterwards they obviously reduced after 10000 a B.P., with subdividing zone of Fenzhuang profile, there were differences in the third zone between Kong and Liu, the reason is that the C type is transitional. Finally the biodiversity in plant communities and complex geographical environment in Beijing area, using great dispersal of accumulative percent of total in PCA, may sufficiently echo this character, for cumulative only 57% from the first three factors.
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    江汉平原湖泊沉积物的化学特征及其与人类活动的关系
    杨汉东, 蔡述明
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 323-328.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.323
    摘要   PDF (627KB)
    通过对江汉平原洪湖、长湖、东湖和沙湖4个代表性湖泊沉积物化学特征的分析,探讨江汉平原湖泊的演化特点及人类活动的影响方式和程度,指出江汉平原的湖泊受人类活动的影响程度已超过自然过程.
    This paper reports the chemical characteristics of sediments in the typical lakes, Lake Honghu, Lake Changhu, Lake Donghu and Lake Shahu, in the Jianghan Plain and discusses the evolutionary features of the lakes in the plain as well as the ways and levels of the influence of human activities on these lake environments. Most of the lakes in the Jianghan Plain are shallow, benefitial to the growth of aquatic plants. Because of the influence of water sources and human activities, the lakes were easily dry, flood and paludified. In recent changes of the lakes, human activities, especially urbanisation and industrialisation, have had greater inpacts on the lake environments. These changes have exceeded natural variability. The chemical characteristics of the lake sediment profiles in the Jianghan Plain show that the growth of aquatic plants has led to enrichment of C and N and a decrease in Al in sediment. Agricultural and domestic waste water which has been input to the lakes and cuased more P, C and N to take part in lake ecosystem, promotes eutrophication and causes P enrichment in the sediment. With urban development and the input of industrial waste water into the lakes, not only C, N and P but also toxic metals were enriched in the seiments. These effect lake ecosystems and change ecological structures. Where urbanisation and industrialisation is devloped to a high degree, if lake resources are not protected, nutrient elements and toxic metals accumulate in the sediment, lake resources are further destroyed, even cause harm to humans.
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    我国东北地区火口湖、堰塞湖水体环境中元素的地球化学特征
    阎百兴
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 329-335.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.329
    摘要   PDF (944KB)
    我国东北地区有许多火口湖和火山活动形成的堰塞湖,这些湖泊中蕴藏丰富的淡水资源。本文系统报道了湖水及湖底沉积物中元素的组成和地球化学特征,探讨了湖水中元素含量的垂直变化和季节变化、沉积物中元素的相关关系和迁移系数。结果发现:湖水中Na、Rb、Cs、K、Be、W、F含量火口湖高于堰塞湖;沉积物中Pb、La含量火口湖高于堰塞湖,而V、Co、Ba堰塞湖高于火口湖。湖水和沉积物中元素含量受汇水区岩性的强烈影响,生物地球化学作用也起了一定作用.
    There are many lakes formed by volcanic activity in northeast China. The water resource is very rich in these lakes. This paper reports systematically some elemental geochemical features and composition in water and sediment in these crater and barrier lakes. We discoved that the contents of Na,Rb,Cs,K,Be,W,F in water of crater lakes are higher than those in barrier lakes. The contents of Pb and La in sediment of crater lakes are higher and the contents of V,Co,Ba are lower than those in barrier lakes. Also the paper approaches the vertical changes and seasonal variation of elemental contents in water, correlation and moving coefficient of elements in sediment.
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    图们江水系陆源污染物输入日本海通量的初步研究
    殷兴军, 朱颜明
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 336-341.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.336
    摘要   PDF (877KB)
    用权重系数概念确定图们江水系陆源污染物进入日本海的主要污染类型和污染因子,得出它属于以有机污染综合指标COD为主要污染因子的有机污染类型。淡水分数判断图们江河口不受潮周循环影响。用零维模型计算其年入海通量为9.055万吨。用排放系数法预测目标年2000和2010年城市污水和工业废水的COD排放量并计算其年入海通量分别为:17.64万吨和45.86万吨.
    In this paper, primary pollution factor and pollution type of the Tumen River in Northeast China are discribed by weighting coefficient method. The results indicate that the river is organic pollution type and primary pollution factor is CODMn. Based on the correlation between CODMn and BOD5 a simple linear regression equation is obtained. The correlation coefficient is 0.9614. CODMn concentration of interface between river and sea calculated by zero dimension model is 12.61 (mg/l). The annual flux of land based sources COD from the Tumen River system into the Japan Sea is 90.55 thousand tons (1993). Regard 1993 as basic year, the annual flux of the objective years, 2000 and 2010, are forcasted by emission coefficient method. The results are 176.4 and 458.6 thousand tons respectively.
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    人口地图编制方法新探
    马永立
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 342-345.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.342
    摘要   PDF (388KB)
    人口地图的编制应针对不同地域的人口分布特征,确定相应的制图单元和表示方法,并拟定相应的人口资料搜集途径和方法。常州市人口图的编制实践说明,城市人口图以多边形的人口密集小区为制图单元,运用多边形分级比值法较为理想.
    Compilation of population map should determine corresponding mapping units and expression method in the light of the characteristics of population distribution in different regions, and work out the appropiate ways and methods for population data collection. The practice of the compilation of Population Map of Changzhou city, proves that urban population map takes polygonal densely populated section as mapping unit, it is ideal to apply polygon grading ratio method.
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    植被冠层多角度遥感研究进展
    高峰, 朱启疆
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 346-354.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.346
    摘要   PDF (1213KB)
    综述了近年来关于植被冠层多角度遥感研究的最新成果,分别讨论了二向性反射的正向模型和参量反演问题在理论研究和实际应用中的新进展。分析了卫星平台多角度遥感的应用前景及面临的困难,指出了未来多角度遥感研究的新方向.
    Multi-angle remote sensing is proposed on the anisotropy characteristic of ground objects. To compare with traditional method of perpendicular remote sensing, it is provided with the capability of obtaining 3D structure of ground object and represents the new aspect of quantum remote sensing. This paper introduces the latest achievements in multi-angle remote sensing of vegetation canopy and discusses the theory and application on forward model and backward model (invertion) of bidirectional reflectance. Finally, the present difficulty and future progress of multi-angle remote sensing are analysed.
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    当代景观生态学的进展和展望
    肖笃宁, 李秀珍
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 355-364.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.355
    摘要   PDF (1238KB)
    通过近年来国内外景观生态学的最新成果及前沿领域的概括分析,如生态空间理论与景观异质性研究、景观系统分析、景观变化模型与未来景观规划、最佳生态土地组合以及景观与文化关系等,进而就景观生态学发展中的一些重要问题,如景观生态学的理论框架、人类的生态作用、景观生态建设、景观规划等问题提出了自己的见解.
    This essay is based on two important landscape ecology congresses the authors attended in 1995. It summerized the recent development of landscape ecology at home and abroad, and introduced some advanced fields in the subject, such as spatial ecology, future landscape planning, optimum land use arrangement, as well as landscape and culture etc. The authors also gave his own opinions on some theoretical and practical problems, such as frame works of landscape ecology, landscape stability and bearing capacity, ecological effects of human activity, agricultural landscape construction and planning, as well as urban landscape structure and residential environment etc. To make this new discipline more applicable in our country, much work should be done on the cooperation among different sciences and government departments.
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    高速公路客流空间竞争系统分析——以沈大高速公路为例
    栾维新, 王淑琴
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 365-371.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.365
    摘要   PDF (555KB)
    分析了形成高速公路客流的直接腹地和间接腹地等基本条件,探讨了高速公路客运站设置与铁路枢纽,以及公路客运和铁路客运间的分流关系,建议客运管理部门从数量、质量、效益等方面协调运营部门与旅客间的对立统一关系,达到增强高速公路客运空间竞争能力的目标.
    Taking the expressway between Shenyang and Dalian as an example, the authors analyse the spatial competition system of expressway passenger flow. Based on the analysis of main conditions such as direct and indirect hinterland which influence the passenger flow, the atuthors probe mainly into the influence of the distribution of passenger railway stations between Changchun and Dalian which run parallel with the Sen-Da (Shenyang-Dalian) expressway on the formation of expressway, and the flow-division relation between expressway and railway which is restricted by such factors as traffic speed, ticket price and comfort degree, etc. Finally, the authors suggest that passenger administrative department coordinate the unity and opposites relation between the traffic operation department and passengers in respect of quantity, quality and beneficial result, etc, and by which increase the spatial competitive ability of expressway passenger traffic.
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    山东省旅游资源开发潜力评价研究
    李新运, 郑新奇, 范纯增, 余锦
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 372-376.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.372
    摘要   PDF (532KB)
    从资源价值、旅游效益、开发条件等三方面选择12个因素建立山东省旅游资源开发潜力评价的指标体系,用层次分析法确定指标权重。在专家单指标评分的基础上,对全省17个地市的旅游资源进行了综合评价,并分区论述开发优势.
    This paper establishes the index system of exploitation potential evaluation of tourist resources in Shandong Province according to 3 aspects of resources value, tourism benefit and exploitation conditions, totally 12 factors. The index weight is determined by using analytic hierarchy process (AHP). On the basis of consulting grading of single index, comprehensive evaluation of tourist resources is carried out for 17 districts and cities of the whole province. The exploitation potential of tourist resources of physiographical landscapes, water area scenes, historic sites and buildings in the districts and cities is obtained. Exploitation superiority is discussed according to different regions.
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    《地理科学》引文统计分析
    陈桂香
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (4): 377-382.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.04.377
    摘要   PDF (864KB)
    运用引文分析法,分析了《地理科学》1987~1996年发表的学术论文的引文情况。结果表明:《地理科学》篇均引文数为8.6条,高于国内平均水平,但远低于国际水平;期刊自引率为4%,低于国内自然科学大部分学科的期刊自引率;引文语种以中文为主,占79.7%;引文类型以期刊为主,占52.5%;被引频次最高的中文期刊是《地理学报》,英文期刊是《Quaternary Research》;引文半衰期为6.3年,文献老化速度慢。根据分析结果,就如何提高《地理科学》引文的数量和质量,提出了几点建议.
    The references in Scientia Geographica Sinica published from 1987 to 1996 are analysed by using citation analysis method. The results of statistical analysis show that the mean reference number for each paper is 8.6, being higher than the average level in China, but lower than the international level; the self cited rate is 4%, being lower than that of the journals of most natural subjects in China; Chinese references occupies 79.7%, and periodicals, books and special references make up 52.5%, 43.9% and 3.6% respectively; the periodicals with the highest cited frequency are Acta Geographica Sinica in Chinese periodicals and Quaternary Research in English periodicals; the semi declining period of Scientia Geographica Sinica is 6.3 years. According to the analysis results, some suggestions are put forward for increasing the quantity and quality of the references in Scientia Geographica Sinica.
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