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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2000年, 第20卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2000-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    交通经济带的基础理论及其生命周期模式研究
    韩增林, 杨荫凯, 张文尝, 尤飞
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 295-300.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.295
    摘要   PDF (718KB)
    随着生产力的发展,区域经济系统的空间演化与交通运输线的联系日益密切,一种依托交通干线不断集散、融合人口、产业、城镇、物流、能流、信息流的线状空间地域综合体不断生长并迅速发展,我们将这种独特的空间地域综合体称为交通经济带(Traffic Economic Belt)。本文系统阐述了交通经济带的基本概念、基本类型、基本性质,并创建性地提出了交通经济带的生命周期理论。
    Traffic economic belt (TEB) is a kind of belt shaped regional economic organization system which takes the lineal bunch of infrastructure as its development axis.Under a special historical background of itself the TEB emerges, and relying on its laws the TEB forms, develops and evolves.In the course of development of TEB, it is an effective developing way that forms the mechanism of coordinate development of transportation and regional economy, takes the main lines of transportation as main shaft, the cities on the lines as growth centers, and the rationalization and escalation of industrial structure as the purpose of TEB development.Firstly, the paper defines the TEB, which also can be classified into four types:coast oriented, river oriented, road oriented and integrated transport corridor TEB.Based on it, the paper deeply discusses the essential feature of TEB.Secondly, the paper puts forward the life circle theory of traffic economic belt.The authors think TEB is an especial phase in the development of the regional economic system.Just like the typical development process of all organisms, the traffic economic belt also has germination, expansion, mature and decline phase and shows different space time pattern at every phase of traffic economic belt.The development of TEB can be classified into four stages:1.the period of rudiment:the ways of transportation in TEB are very simple and the structure of industry is still rude.The center of economy in the TEB is only embodied by the function of its transportation center; 2.the period of bulge:the ability of transportation in the TEB has been enforced greatly.The industry which is based on abstracting raw material has played an important role in the whole TEB.At the same time, the function of the economic center in the TEB has been enforced and has proliferated along the lines of transportation;3.the period of maturation:at the period, the integrated transport corridor has shaped and the urbanization has accelerated.The tertiary sector has become the most important industry in the TEB.Suburbanization leads the amalgamation between the city and rural when the sub center in the TEB has formed; 4.the period of amalgamation and ruin:on the one hand, with the interaction of centralization and proliferation of the factor of production, the borderline of the hinterland of city has died out.The urban agglomeration with different economic center network has formed based on the integrated transport corridor.At the same time, different TEBS also have amalgamated and interacted; on the other hand, some economic belts come to waste away because of the descending of the ability of transportation.At last the paper points out that research on the life circle theory of traffic economy belt is quite important to the adjustment of development of TEB.
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    长江流域可持续发展能力评价
    陈利顶, 傅伯杰
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 301-306.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.301
    摘要   PDF (257KB)
    阐述了可持续发展能力的概念和特点,提出了可持续发展能力评价的指标体系和方法。并以长江流域7省1市为例,从自然和经济的角度评价了长江流域各省市90年代以来可持续发展能力的动态变化。评价结果表明:90年代以来,长江流域各省区人工资本积累能力、人力资源和科学技术资源支持能力总体上为持续上升趋势,但各省区增长的速度略有差异;而自然资源的支持能力为不断下降趋势,同时人口压力还在不断加大;环境资源支持能力各省区变化趋势差异较大,反映出各地区由于对环境治理的重视程度和环境投资的差异。在此基础上提出了加强长江流域可持续发展能力建设的基本途径。
    The Yangtze River basin covers about 1.8 million km2, taking about 15.5% of total area of China, and about nine main administration regions are situated in this region.It goes through the central China from west to east.Since its rich land resource and water power resource, it plays a significant role in China’s national sustainable development.The population within the major nine administration regions in 1997 is about 0.47 billion, the gross national product reaches 3?017 billion yuan(RMB) and the total grain yield is about 199 billion kg.They are respectively 38.4%, 39.2%, 40.3% of the total amount of China in 1997.However, due to natural eco environmental difference among the lower, the middle and the upper parts of the Yangtze River basin, much difference on social, economic, cultural aspect is still remained for different administration regions.Thus, some practical difficulties are faced to realize sustainable development for the whole basin.In this study, based on analyzing the characteristics of sustainable development and concept, a reasonable approach and index for assessing sustainability based on society, economy, technology, resource and ecological conservation was proposed.From the real meaning of sustainable development, the authors take the viewpoint that the sustainable development can be considered as a process or re lay competition between different generations.Normally, when the present generation leave enough resource, or capital for the next generation, the social and economic development process will be sustainable.Otherwise it will be unsustainable or destructive if the present generation consume much resource and leave less for the next generation.Therefore, the evaluation indices for sustainability of a region comprises of seven aspects:man made capital accumulation, human resource capacity, scientific and technological resource supporting ability, natural resource supporting ability, environmental capacity and supporting ability, population pressure and social development administration level.Based on the above evaluation indices, a case study focusing on assessing sustainability from natural and economic aspects was carried out in the Yangtze River basin.The results indicate that since the 1990s, the man made accumulation capacity, human resource capacity, scientific and technological supporting ability in all the administration regions in the Yangtze River basin are in a sustainable growth, however the increase rate is quite different for different regions.In general, the supporting capacity of natural resource for sustainable development is gradually decreased and the population pressure is becoming higher since the 1990s.The supporting ability of environmental resource for sustainable development is changeable for different regions in the Yangtze River basin.Based on the above results, some basic measures for enhancing the sustainability of whole Yangtze River basin are suggested.The most importance is that while enhancing sustainability for individual administration regions, strengthening the cooperation between different administration regions and different departments on optimism utilization of the common resource in the Yangtze River basin will be imperative.
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    基于GIS农田土地质量评价与立地分析——以京郊房山区良乡为例
    聂庆华, 包浩生, 王海英
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 307-313.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.307
    摘要   PDF (1208KB)
    为揭示农田利用可行性,提出农田立地概念,建立农田评价体系,以京郊房山区良乡为例,基于GIS技术评价农田质量,分析农田立地,综合评价农田,为划定基本农田提供客观依据;根据农田评价评分数值分布,通过模糊稀疏度算法模型,实现农田自动分等定级,减少了界定农田等级指标的主观性。
    Agricultural land evaluation is defined as evaluating land resources suitability for crop growth and analyzing the feasibility of land use for agriculture.Agricultural land evaluation system is perfected based on quality and site of farmland in order to be accustomed to the farmland protection.This system is designed as a gradation framework which includes ⑴the suitable types of farmland, ⑵the suitable orders of farmland,⑶the value classes of farmland use, and ⑷land resources units.In this paper, the evaluating unit is farmland plot which is used in town area and shown on land use map with one to ten thousands scale.Corresponding to the different gradation of agricultural land evaluation system, the different factors evaluating farmland are chosen.In the light of the above mentioned agricultural land evaluation system, with Liangxiang, a town of Fangshan District, Beijing, as an example, the operating pattern evaluating the suitable types and orders of farmland is put forward based on GIS technique.Firstly, according to the national criteria of farmland fertility drafted by China Ministry of Agriculture and the land evaluation framework published by FAO, the agricultural land quality reference frame is established, which is composed of four kinds of factors including soil fertility, environment condition, engineering and management of farmland.Then farmland units which is fit to cultivation are separated by “Reselect” command of PC ARC/info based on the land quality reference frame.Secondly, the selected farmland units are evaluated further.The farmland quality is evaluated by employing the fuzzy closeness algorithmic technique, and the farmland site is assessed adopting the model of factor scoring sum, then the possibility and feasibility of agricultural land use are revealed, and the prime farmland is confirmed.The data of farmland quality factors come respectively from the datum of Fangshan soil general survey, Liangxiang topographic map and land use map.The power value of selected factor is determined by using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP).Finally, according to the value distribution of farmland total score, the farmland grades are classified automatically by comparing the values between the fuzzy sparseness and closeness, which is realized by Visual Basic Programs.Based on the datum distribution patterns in Liangxiang farmland evaluation maps, some conclusions are shown as the follows:⑴The values distribution patterns of farmland quality are decided by the geographic distribution of soil types.The evaluated values of farmland quality are high, which is from 0.81 to 0.97(Fig.1).It is fully proved that the farmland is excellent in Liangxiang.⑵The values distribution patterns of farmland site show that the site high value is scattered in the northwestern area of Jing-Shi highway and the site low value is distributed in the developing area of Liangxiang town planning (1996-2010).The variation range of farmland site values is large, which is from 0.04 to 0.87(Fig.2).And the distribution patterns of Liangxiang farmland summing up values are similar to that of farmland site values.The variation range of farmland summing up values is from 0.21 to 0.90(Fig.3).⑶Compared with the distribution of Liangxiang prime farmland (1996-2010)(Fig.4) which was drawn by Fangshan House-Land Administrative Bureau, the datum distribution patterns of the farmland evaluation summing up values in Liangxiang is acceptable.The conclusions of Liangxiang farmland evaluation are practicable.
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    柴达木盆地绿洲区划及农业利用评价
    张永涛, 申元村
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 314-319.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.314
    摘要   PDF (760KB)
    分析柴达木盆地绿洲形成条件,首次进行柴达木盆地的绿洲区划。根据绿洲区划原则和指标体系将柴达木盆地绿洲划分为2个区、4个亚区和13个小区。在绿洲区划基础上,对柴达木盆地绿洲农业利用进行评价。
    This paper analyses the formative condition for oasis in the Qaidam Basin and carries out the oasis regionalization at first time in the Qaidam Basin.According to the regulation and index system for oasis regionalization, the authors divide the oasis in the Qaidam Basin into 2 oasis regions, 4 oasis sub-regions, and 13 oasis mini-regions.On the basis of oasis regionalization, the paper gives the evaluation for agricultural suitable using of oasis in the Qaidam Basin.
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    长江中下游黄棕壤中若干元素的环境地球化学特征
    洪松, 陈静生, 周智强, 王少平, 龙泉, 郑泽厚
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 320-325.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.320
    摘要   PDF (756KB)
    在长江中下游黄棕壤上采集129个土样,测定了其中14种元素(13种微量元素和Fe)的全量含量,比较了不同岩石上发育的黄棕壤元素含量的差异,分析了其剖面分布特征。讨论了目前农业生产中广泛关注的5种微量元素和Fe的有效态含量在黄棕壤剖面中的迁移分布及其影响因素。
    A total of 129 samples were collected and the environmental geochemical characteristics of 13 kinds of trace elements and Fe in the yellow brown soil were studied, which has the largest distribution area in zonal soils of middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.The main results are as follows:(1) Pb、Ni、Cr、Hg、Co、V、Mn、F and Fe are relatively high in total contents, As 、Se 、Cu、 Zn and Cd are moderate or little lower.The available B、Cu、Zn and Mo are all insufficient.(2) Most of trace elements have their highest total contents in the subsoil and their highest available contents in the epipedon.(3) The sequences of total contents of trace elements in the yellow brown soil are basalt soil > limestone soil > granite soil.(4) The positive correlation between the contents of total and available Zn & Mo arrives to significance or extreme significance level in the yellow brown soil of Hubei province.The positive correlation between available contents of B & Mo and pH of the yellow brown soil is proved to be extreme significance.But for Fe & Zn, the negative correlation is also the same level.The contents of available B、Mn、Cu、Zn and Mo have significant or extreme significant positive correlation with the organic matter content in the soil.The authors think it necessary to plough deeply and apply organic fertilizer to improve the contents of available trace elements in the yellow brown soil.
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    坡面侵蚀过程中细沟水流动力学参数估算探讨
    张科利, 张竹梅
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 326-330.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.326
    摘要   PDF (214KB)
    细沟侵蚀是坡面侵蚀的主要方式,在坡面侵蚀产沙及其输移过程中占有重要的地位和作用。通过放水冲刷试验,测定并研究了坡面细沟中径流的水力要素特征及其相互关系。试验中坡度采用6°,10°,12°和15°共4级,径流流量变化控制在40~500ml/s之间。结果表明,黄土陡坡上细沟径流的流速、过水断面宽度,以及径流深都能表示成径流量和坡度的函数。在确定坡面细沟流各水力要素间关系指数的基础上,探讨了用径流量和坡度因子估算细沟径流水力参数的方法。经用实测资料验证,在实验土壤及流量、坡度条件下,用文中提出的方法估算的细沟径流深具有一定的精度。
    Soil erosion has been a worldwide environmental problem.Soil erosion results in not only degeneration of soil productivity, but also floods and pollution of water resources.Soil erosion and its controls have been studied extensively.A major field of these is the soil loss prediction which enables the planner to predict the average rate of soil erosion.With the development of computer technology, soil erosion prediction has shifted from empirical models to theoretical models.But it is difficult to measure the hydraulics needed in construction of process-based model.In this study, inflow experiments were conducted on the loess slope to determine hydrodynamic characteristics of flow in rills, and friction coefficients on the steep slope conditions.All experiments were conducted in a 5-m-long, 0.5-m-wide, and 0.7-m-deep flume.Slope steepness can be manually adjusted to 6?, 10?, 12?, 15? and 20?.To let water infiltrate tested soil freely, natural sands was packed into the flume about 0.3 m in depth before soil was filled in, and than tested soil was filled and adjusted to reach a bulk density of 1.17 g/cm 3.Inflow water was added from the top end of the flume and inflow volumes, controlled with a watergauge, were designed as 40, 60, 100, 200, 300 and 500 ml/s respectively.Throughout each run the following data were collected:mean velocity, depth of runoff, section shape of rill, and sediment samples.Each run consisted in 30-min duration and two replications of each of five slopes were assigned.Experiments results show that hydraulic geometry of rill on the loess slope, which are the mean width of cross sections, mean velocity, mean depth of flow, could be related to discharges and slope gradient in power relations.Manning roughness coefficient ranges from 0.035-0.071 with an average of 0.0536.Based on the relationship of hydraulic characteristics to discharges and slope gradients, a method to determine hydraulic coefficients of flow in rills are proposed.Data from experiments show that the predicted flow depth of rills using the method in the paper is close to the observed one.
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    太湖流域全新世气候海面短期振荡事件及其对新石器文化的影响
    于世永, 朱诚, 王富葆, 李弘
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 331-336.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.331
    摘要   PDF (649KB)
    太湖流域埋藏古树、泥炭、贝壳堤和新石器文化遗址,14C年代频率变化揭示了全新世气候海面波动与文明兴衰的时间耦合关系。本区降水量的明显增加始于8kaB.P.,7.5~4kaB.P.总的看为高海面和新石器文化发展时期,但其间有相对的海面波动,即:7~6.5kaB.P.为高海面期、6.3~5.6kaB.P.为低海面期、4.5~4kaB.P.为低海面期、3.8~3.5kaB.P.为高海面期。从文化断层、埋藏古树、泥炭和自然层型剖面对比看,本区7kaB.P.以来还至少出现过9次特大陆地水灾频发期,由此使得本区新石器文化在高海面和洪涝期择高处而居,在低海面和非洪涝期逐渐向海岸带推进。
    Large magnitude of Neolithic cultural sites in the Taihu Plain provided an exceptional media for the studies of initiation and evolution of human-environment interactions.Neolithic cultures in the region were used to be believed as continuous and were categorized into three consecutive stages:(1)Majiabang Cultures (7000-6000 a BP), (2)Songze Cultures (6000-5000 a BP) and (3)Liangzhu Cultures (5000-4000 a BP).However, archaeological excavations in the region substantiated that the cultural layers of many Neolithic culture sites are discontinuous.Moreover, there are number of fossil trees, peat and shell ridges in the region.They could not only serve as the evidence for floods and/or lake expansion, but also enact as the indicator of sea-level fluctuation.Evidence for changes in precipitation, sea-level and rise and fall of Neolithic cultures from them could offer us a temporal framework by which culture response to climate and sea-level oscillations can be assessed.Fossil trees, peat, shell ridges and Neolithic culture sites in the region reveal the temporal connection between Holocene climate and sea-level fluctuations and rise and fall of Neolithic cultures.The warming climates and increasing rainfall maintain a period of high sea-level that span from 7500a BP to 4000a BP approximately.Meanwhile, the Neolithic cultures develop prosperously conditioned by such optimal environments.However, ice core records show that the Holocene climate is not sustainable stable even in Hypsithermal interval.The cultural interruption, fossil trees, peat and shell ridges in the study demonstrate that there are four fluctuation of the sea-level, that is, 7ka-6.5kaBP high level period, 6.3ka-5.6kaBP low level period, 3.8ka-3.5kaBP high level period.On the other hand, the study found that there are at least 9 extreme deluge periods since 7kaBP, i.e., 6.5kaBP, 6kaBP, 5.5kaBP, 5kaBP, 4kaBP, 3kaBP, 2.5kaBP, 3rd-6th centuries and 12th-19th centuries.Since 2kaBP interval periods between adjacent deluges have been reduced obviously, which has a close relation to human activities.The spatial distribution of Neolithic culture sites in the region demonstrates that sea-level or coastline is a main influence on civilization migration.The sites during Majiabang Cultures mainly distribute in relatively high land of western Taihu Plain owing to high seal level conditioned by warm and humid climates.The human beings have to migrate towards the west high land for agriculture pursuit because of the limited area for human settlement.The sites during Songze Cultures begin to emanate and expanse.Most of them are situated in the eastern Taihu Plain and the north bank of the Yangtze River.The declined sea-level enlarge the area for human settlement, the human beings migrate towards east littoral plain.The sites during Liangzhu Cultures are mainly located in the western Taihu Plain.The area for human settlement in the north bank of Yangtze River is condensed by the increased sea level.
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    海南岛北部玄武岩上土壤发育过程的定量研究
    黄成敏, 龚子同
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 337-342.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.337
    摘要   PDF (811KB)
    随着土壤的发育,土壤形态亦会出现相应的变化。对海南岛北部玄武岩上发育的不同成土年龄土壤系列的研究表明,土壤形态特征及其定量化指数,如红化率指数、剖面相对发育指数、土层指数、剖面发育指数等能够较好地反映土壤发育程度和土壤发育的相对年龄,其中剖面发育指数的指示效果最好。
    Soil morphology change systematically with soil development.The soil morphological characteristics had been extensively applied in judging the genesis and development of soils derived from unconsolidated parent materials (e.g.tills, loess, and fluvial, alluvial, lacustrian sediments, etc).Rarely, however, had the research on the development of soils from consolidated bedrocks been done by use of soil morphology.The soils developed from basalts erupted in different periods of Quaternary ranging from 0.01 Ma to 1.81 Ma B P, formed a chronosequence of soils in northern Hainan Island, southern China.The study on the soil chronosequence shows that soil morphological characteristics may also be applied in evaluating the development of soils from bedrocks.And the relationship between the quantitative indices of soil development and soil ages is high.Redness rating (RR), relative profile development (RPD), horizon index (HI), profile development index (PDI) as well as solum thickness increase with soil ages, of which profile development index (PDI), owing to PDI consisting of comprehensive soil characteristics and its rational rating system, is best to assess soil development.Meanwhile, it is noticeable that the soil properties used in some quantitative indices of soil development should be cancelled or added while those indices applied to study on soil development in different conditions.
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    鲁西北平原可持续农业发展的机制与途径——以东昌府区为例
    王云才
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 343-349.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.343
    摘要   PDF (296KB)
    以鲁西北平原东昌府区为典型案例,通过动态分析和典型调查,揭示东昌府区农业可持续发展的投入机制、市场机制、科技应用、经营管理和决策调控机制的运行规律。在此基础上,针对性提出了农业可持续发展的产业结构调整;农业市场化、企业化和专业化基地发展,推动农业产业化进程;发展农业科技,提高农民素质,加强农业人力资本建设和建立农业可持续发展的调控机制四个方面的发展对策
    Dongchangfu is a county with the characteristics of Liaocheng and the agriculture area of North China and Huang-HuaiHai region.It has a large population and less developed economy, particularly rural economy is backward.With the development of 50 years in the past, it had formed four characteristics of SARD system of Dongchangfu county.Firstly, gross population is large scale and increasing rapidly, but less educated , population growth is a less efficient procession.secondly, natural resources such as mineral, water and energy are scarce.Land resources are mainly natural resources for people to live by, but they are poor and less-productive.It is the reason of scarce mineral and water resources that rural industries come to step later and accumulate less capital for further development.Thirdly, natural disasters such as drought, flood, saltization and alkalization had been better prevented from, but some of them still did great damages to people, they will have threatened the agriculture and rural development in the future.Fourthly, with the rapid growth of economic, capital and technology inputs are less sufficient, it consumes large resources with large waste.It has formed four paradoxical relations with SARD system:(1) gross population grow so rapidly but cultivated land decrease sustainably, (2) water resources are scarced but demand of it increase rapidly, (3)it has large area of less productive land and can’t sastify the desire of people wanted to produce more, (4) the input of capital and techology can’t sastify the demand of them with the economic rapid growth.The operating mechanics are main contents in this paper.By investigation for one month in the typical region, we studied deeply the rules of mechanics, particularly studied agriculture investment mechanics, the marketing agriculture and technology application and popularization ,mechanics of agriculture business organization and mechanics of macro-decision and regulations.Based on this, we give some measures on the ways to sustainable agriculture:(1)adjusting agriculture structure to promote the development of sustainable agriculture; (2)through marketing, industrization and specialization of rural society to realize sustainable development of agriculture; (3)accelating the application and popularization of agriculture technology,enhancing the quality of farmers and acclerating the construction of agriculture human capical and (4)builidig up the regulating system of development of sustainable agriculture.
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    桂林境外游客结构特征及时空动态模式研究
    张红, 李九全
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 350-354.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.350
    摘要   PDF (603KB)
    通过对桂林境外游客的实地抽样调查,利用Visual FoxPro软件,建立桂林境外游客时间和空间变化数据库,经过统计分析,探讨桂林境外游客市场结构特征、客流量的时间变化规律及其与11个旅游热点城市之间的空间流动模式。
    After a survey of overseas tourists in Guilin, the temporal and spatial change database of the overseas tourists in Guilin is established with the help of the software Visual FoxPro.By statistical analysis, the overseas tourist market structure features, the temporal development rule and the tourist spatial flows between Guilin and other 11 hot tourist cities are discussed.
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    极化效应、新极化效应与珠江三角洲的经济持续发展
    吕拉昌
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 355-361.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.355
    摘要   PDF (857KB)
    改革开放以来,珠江三角洲实施优惠政策和灵活措施,吸引了国内、国外大量资本、技术、劳动力等生产要素,形成了以劳动力密集产品为核心的极化效应,在极化效应的有力推动下,20年来,珠江三角洲经济持续高速增长,取得了很大的经济成就。进入90年代中期以来,受国际、国内宏观经济环境的影响,以及自身发展中问题的出现,珠江三角洲极化效应明显减弱,经济增长速度减缓,经济进入调整期。珠江三角洲20年的发展已积累了相当的经济实力,高新技术产业已有一定规模,以高新技术开发区为核心的增长极核逐步形成;体制改革向深化方向发展;92年以来跨国公司大量涌入,适时发动以技术密集型为核心的产业及地理极化,可以加速珠江三角洲经济的第二次腾飞。
    Since reforming and opening to outside world, the Zhujiang River delta has absorbed an amount of capital, technology and labor forces with favorable policies and adaptable approaches, forming polarization effects with a labor-intensive as a core.Driven by polarization effects, the Zhujiang River delta has undertaken great regional changes, which include:1 the main economic figures increasing rapidly and economic strength becoming stronger and stronger;2 light industry and labor-intensive industry polarization;3 the proportion of second and tertiary industry in GDP increasing while agricultural proportion decreasing.4 rapidly urbanization;5 regional structure adjusted.However, since the middle of the 1990s, the polarization in the Zhujiang River delta has weakened because of some changes from home and abroad, which are:1 with the advantages of favorable policies lost, internal forces weaken;2 stronger competition from Shanghai and Sandong Province; 3 external economic environment changes due to Asia financial crisis and lessening investment from Hongkong and Macao; 4 fierce challenges to light industry and labor-intensive industry because of increasingly product cost.The Zhujiang River delta’s economy has entered into adjusting phase with economic rate and export decreasing as well as labor-intensive industry decentralizing to neighbour area.In order to realize economic continuous development in the Zhujiang River delta, the atuhor think that after 20 years’ high speed development, the Zhujiang River delta has accumulated a great economic strength, its Hi tech industry has taken shape and the growing core of Hi tech development rapidly and with constitutional reform deepening, and many transnational corporation coming into the area, the Zhujiang River delta has some advantages to start the industry and geographic polarization with the tech intensive as core.But, there exists some limitation, such as lack of well quality talents, technology, so some measures must be taken to settle down this problems.
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    松嫩平原西部盐沼的形成与演化
    李取生, 邓伟, 钱贞国
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 362-367.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.362
    摘要   PDF (263KB)
    本文运用环境变迁的理论和方法,较系统地分析了松嫩平原西部盐沼的形成与演变机制。本区沼泽形成的主要控制因素是古河道变迁、新构造运动、风力作用、古气候变化。沼泽残余盐碱化与晚更新世松辽大湖的消亡、河道变迁有关,现代盐碱化则主要是水利工程、植被破坏和气候变化引起的,而且呈迅速加剧的趋势。防治沼泽盐碱化的主要措施是实施水稻和芦苇开发、大规模建立蓄洪区和自然保护区。
    The saline-sodic mires with areas of 578000 hm2 in the western Songnen Plain are one kind of the important land resources and the most prospective landscape.However, they faced to rapid development of salinisation and degradation of ecological function.The study of the formation and changes processes is significant for saline-sodic mires management.In this paper the mechanism of saline-sodic mire formation and development was analyzed systematically using the methodology and theory of environmental change.The genesis of the mire here are:① uneven subsidence of the crust caused by Neo-tectonic movement, ② widespread distributed paleo-river channels and water-logged lands caused by frequently river channel changes since Late Pleistocene, ③ wind erosion resulted in the eolian water-logged land mires, ④ paleo-climate also caused the mire changes.The processes of mire salinisation include historical relic salinisation and modern salinisation.The mechanism of historical relic salinisation is the long term accumulation of salts because of the evaporation in the closed lake basins formed after the disappearance of paleo-Songliao Big Lake, the logged lands formed by river channel changes and eolian erosion.In this area there was a lake as big as 50,000km2 during early Pleistocene and middle Pleistocene.Since late Pleistocene this lake disappeared and formed lot of small closed shallow ponds or water-logged lands because of upward crust movement and sedimentation.For example in Dapushu Lake the total dissolved salt in sediments is as high as 6mg/kg, PH as high as 10.3.The paleo-river channel changes also played substantial role in mire salinisation.Since late Pleistocene about 40 big river channel changes occurred and formed large area of closed lakes.The modern process of mire salinisation is caused by the dwindling of fresh water supplement and damps of the drainage after construction of dams of the rivers and reservoirs.For example in low Taoerhe River reach, the water total salt content floodplain is two times of that in channel because of river dams.The drought and destroyed vegetation also accelerated this process.The effective measures of protection salinisation and mire management are planting paddies, irrigating reds using floods and setting up nature reserves.
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    综述
    计算机网络信息空间(Cyberspace)的人文地理学研究进展与展望
    张捷, 顾朝林, 都金康, 周寅康, 甘萌雨
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 368-374.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.368
    摘要   PDF (980KB)
    探讨由于计算机网络技术迅猛发展而带来的网络虚拟信息空间的地理研究、尤其是人文地理学研究这一崭新问题的研究意义,对国内外研究现状进行较广的综述,并提出近期研究的目标、研究的基本内容、研究方法、近期研究的重点问题。
    Cyberspace is a new phenomenon emerging under the development of computer networks and the related telecommunication, and also an entirely new area for geographical studies with newly transformed geographical spatial organization and new human landscape.Based on the review of recent progresses in research on organization and type of cyberspace, backbone and regional structure of cyberspace, economic geography of cyberspace and social and political geography of cyberspace, it is proposed that the cyberspace is the extension of classic geographical space to some extent.The aim of the geographical research on cyberspace in the near future is:1) to reveal the nature of cyberspace such as composition, organization, type, sense of virtual place, virtual commodity and the connectivity etc, and the reflection of such nature in the physical geographical spatial pattern, 2) the model of spatial connectivity and the spatial interaction of the cyberspace, and 3) the relationship and interaction between the cyberspace and regional social, economical, and cultural geographical background.The key problem is the relationship between the cyberspace and the classic geographical space.The main research contents include:1) the constitution of cyberspace, including the type and the classification of the information and the cyberspace, 2) the indices for description of cyberspace, 3)the type and spatial pattern of the cyberspace, such as theme space, technical space, cultural space etc, 4) spatial interaction of the cyberspace, 5) social and cultural geography of extra cyberspace, 6) human geography of inter cyberspace, 7) aggregation of spatial information and the origin of information harbor, 8)economic geography of cyberspace, including regional effects of cyberspace and the reconfiguration of physical geographical space by cyberspace, 9 ) techniques of cyberspace, 10 ) regional distribution of various types of cyberspace of China.
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    问题讨论
    关于广东有无冰川发育条件的讨论
    刘尚仁, 覃朝锋, 彭华
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 375-380.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.375
    摘要   PDF (990KB)
    因为“冰臼”一词尚未得到地学界认可,建议继续用“冰川壶穴”来替代“冰臼”。由于生成冰臼(冰川壶穴)与壶穴的水动力条件和地貌形态相似,所以单从形态难以区分广东河床上的壶穴或冰臼,只有确定广东是否发育过第四纪冰川之后,才可能确定广东是否有冰臼。本文从气候、地貌和生物角度证实广东未出现过第四纪冰川环境,并认为所谓:①水应力集中一点生成冰臼;②花岗岩坚硬不能生成壶穴;③二、三百万年前生成冰臼等冰臼论观点是不成立的。
    After tens dictionaries of Chinese and Chinese-foreign language are looked up, there is not nearly the “bingjiu” Its English is moulin or glacial pothole.term in it, it is reflected that the term is still not approved by most geonomist, to substitute “bingchuan huxue”① for “bingjiu” continually is proposed.Owing to waterpower condition and geomorphologic shape growing moulin and pothole are similar, so from form only distinguishing the pothole or moulin on the riverbed are difficult, only if fixing there is glacier in Guangdong, the moulin can just be fixed in Guangdong.It is confirmed that environment of Quaternary glacier in Guangdong appeared not from following angles of climate, landform and organisms etc.:Inferred annual mean temperature was higher than 6℃ in glacial epoch at the highest peak-Shikengkong its elevation was 1902m in Guangdong, the coldest annual mean temperature was 13℃ ± in the glacial epoch inferred by sporopollen data in Jiexi and Fengshun; there is not the glacial landform in the middle-low mountains of Guangdong and there is not the document report on established palaeo glacier remains; the plant fossil in Early Pleistocene Zhanjiang Fm.is Bauhinia-Diospyros-Myrica-phyllites-Rhus combination, today there are still a large number relict flora.The following moulin theory on mechanism for the formation and conservation of moulin is untenable:(1) moulin grows where water stress concentrates at a point; (2) pothole can not grows on the river bed of granite and sandstone bedrock; (3) moulin grew before (200-300)×104a and can be conserved so far.
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    研究报道
    吉林省“出海”通道及其开发战略研究
    丁四保
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 381-385.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.381
    摘要   PDF (209KB)

    “出海”通道对于吉林省来说是经济对外开放和经济地域布局的重要因素。文章描述了“出海”通道的现状,对不同通道做了运输成本的比较分析,提出通道“闲置”的结论并阐述了其深层次原因,在此基础上讨论了通道与省区产业开发的战略。


    Jilin Province is a hinterland province.The distance to the sea port is a cost of the province economy.In fact, some years ago there was a terrible barrier on the corridor to the sea ports of Liaoning and Hebei provinces.The province had to find border cross, such as Tumen River (Hunchun) and the inland river, cross (Daan Port).Much investment has been inputted, but the cargo flow of export is fewer and fewer.The reason is the volume of export is fewer and fewer.The reason is the volume of export corn produced in the province has been limited.So we can see a contradictory between the economic (productive) structure and the demand of development of foreign trade of the province.It correctly views that the corridor to the sea is a very important issue of “open to outside” and the territorial structure of economy of province as Jilin.The paper pointed out another issues about the industry structure of the province, Showed the current situation of corridor and the transit costs between vary lines has been comparied, the paper presented the conclusion and analysed what elements undermined and discussed the strategy mentioned industry development and construction or improvement of transport corridor of Jilin Province.

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    长春地区稻田甲烷排放量的估算研究
    闫敏华, 华润葵, 王德宣, 马学慧
    地理科学. 2000, 20 (4): 386-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2000.04.386
    摘要   PDF (712KB)
    1995~1997年3年的实验研究中,用静态箱法和气相色谱仪对长春地区不同水管理方式稻田的甲烷排放进行了采样和测量工作,1996年和1997年逢晴天还同步进行了地面实验基地的卫星遥感数据(TM和NOAA—AVHRR数据)的接收工作。根据测算的稻田甲烷排放通量和用遥感数据提取的水稻种植面积,估算出区域尺度的稻田甲烷排放总量。3年来的研究结果显示,长春地区水稻种植面积为17.7212×104hm2,稻田甲烷平均排放通量为2.984mg/(m2·h),长春地区稻田甲烷总排放量为0.0203Tg/a。用灰关联方法分析了稻田甲烷排放的影响因子,建立了以水稻植被指数为参数的淹灌稻田的甲烷排放通量估算模型
    The fluxes of CH4 emission from rice fields were measured by the method of static chamber in Changchun area in 3 consecutive years.The research results show that the mean flux of CH4 emission was 2.984mg/(m2·h) and the total amount of CH4 emission was 0.0203 Tg/a from the rice fields in Changchun area.Estimation of methane emission is a new application field of remote sensing.The estimating method of rice methane emission is as follows:1) TM and NOAA AVHRR data are used to measure rice area and to predict its change tendency; 2) rice NDVI values are got during various rice growth phases based on remote sensing of rice condition of growth; 3) the optimum correlation factor is elected according to gray system theory; 4) empirical formula between rice NDVI and CH4 fluxes of rice field is set up; 5) rice methane emission is estimated by rice area and NDVI.The method is used to estimate methane emission of rice field for the first time in Changchun area in 1996 and 1997.The results are acceptable after examination.
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