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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2001年, 第21卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2001-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国农村转型与耕地保护机制
    蔡运龙
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.1
    摘要   PDF (866KB)
    我国农村和城市的发展都处在转型时期,对土地的需求将进一步扩展,而开发边际土地的余地已经有限,未来耕地和食物安全的形势将更趋严峻,因而保护耕地成为我国的基本国策。但实际上由于缺乏保护机制,耕地仍在继续向效益更高的其它土地用途转移。因此,保护耕地的根本大计在于建立机制。保护耕地的经济机制是提高农业的比较经济效益,耕地生态服务功能的价值实现至关重要;在政策管理机制方面,要强化政府在耕地保护中的作用,规范土地管理行为,明确独立于市场的政府土地管理目标,并以法律形式固定的规划作为实现目标的手段;城市发展要加强内涵集约度。
    The rural development of China is undergoing transformation.The arable land is transforming from in support into limited.The peasant living is transforming from survival into comparatively well off.The economic institution is transforming from planning into market.The manner of land use is transforming from extensive into intensive.The rural and agriculture are transforming from exploitation into support by urbanization and industrialization.The relationship between rural and urban is transforming from difference into harmony.The agricultural economy is transforming from closed smallholder towards globalization.Therefore, demand for cropland will further increase, but the development of marginal arable land is limited.The shortage of cropland and the situation of food security will be further serious in the future.Among various factors threatening the sustainability of cropland, occupation on cropland by urbanization and industrialization is outstanding.This has made Chinese government and society heavyhearted.Therefore, the central government has paid great attention to cropland conservation and regarded it as a basic national policy.However, this basic national policy has not been implemented thoroughly in practice because the mechanisms of cropland conservation have not been established.The lower comparative benefit of agricultural land use is the major reason why cropland has continuously been occupied by urban development.Therefore the comparative benefit of agricultural land use must be raised in order to conserve cropland.The mechanisms of cropland conservation also include strengthening the role of government in cropland conservation, regulating land administrative behavior of government, identifying land administrative objects of government instead of market object, and implementing objects of government by means of land use planning in legislation manner.The development of urbanization and industrialization should be towards internal land development rather than external land expansion, and stress the intensive utilization of stock land in cities.
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    可持续发展系统评价的属性细分理论与应用
    徐中民, 程国栋
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 7-11.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.7
    摘要   PDF (216KB)
    如何依据系统理论建立区域可持续发展系统评价的指标体系,在指标体系结构清晰明了的同时又能全面地反映可持续发展系统的结构和功能,是目前国际上可持续发展系统评价研究的前言问题之一。在分析目前国际上和国内广为应用的指标体系的结构特点的基础上,针对目前可持续发展定量衡量中以系统理论为指导的评价体系结构过于复杂,指标找寻困难,不易操作的问题,详细介绍了目前国际上流行的系统评价属性细分理论和其特点,并以张掖地区为例进行了实证研究。
    The system aspect of sustainable development implies concern about a total system composed of the many natural and human subsystems, while the long-term aspect of sustainable development implies concern even about of these systems.Obviously it is a practical impossibility to develop and use an indicators set that include s indicators of sustainability from every system in the total system.Realizing that a drastic restriction to a manageable number of indicators is essential, we face the difficult task of defining a set of indicators that can provide a picture of the sustainability of the total system and essential subsystems.The theory of fundamental orientations of the sustainable development systems produce a train of thought to solve the problem.The basic orientors are to be serve as a checklist to make sure that essential aspects of sustainability are not overlook.Systems must be compatible with their system environment and its characteristic properties in order to be viable and to exist sustainably.The environmental properties can, therefore, be viewed as imposing certain requirements and restrictions on systems, which orient their functions, development and behavior.There are various ways of determining fundamental environmental properties.Six fundamental properties of system environments are found:normal environmental state, resource scarcity, variety, variability, change and other systems.Corresponding to the six fundamental environment properties, there are six environment-determined basic orientors (existence, effectiveness, freedom of action, security, adaptability, and coexistence), plus the system-determined basic orientors (reproduction, psychological needs, and responsibility), these orientors of system and their relationship form the fundamental structure to assess the sustainability of a system.As a minimum, the sustainability of three essential systems would have to be considered corresponding to sustainable development systems:the human system, the support system, and the nature system, furthermore, their individual contribution to sustainability of the total system has to be assessed.Finally, the paper takes Zhangye Prefecture as a case to assess the sustainability of total system from 1978 to 1995.At the same time, summarizes the advantage and disadvantage of the theory of the fundamental orientations of sustainable development systems.
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    中国首都圈发展的三大战略
    谭成文, 李国平, 杨开忠
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 12-18.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.12
    摘要   PDF (966KB)
    区域发展需要龙头,城市发展需要区域支撑,建设首都圈是中国南北经济格局协调、带动北京周边地区发展的需要,是首都北京可持续发展、建设成为世界城市的需要。根据首都圈的划分对首都圈关系进行了重构,提出首都圈内4个新关系域:知识经济域、旅游文化域、工业经济域、出海通道网络。为建设发展4个新关系域,结合现实,提出首都圈发展的三大战略:空间联系网络化战略、职能疏导战略、空间结构发展战略,具体包括网络化基础设施、网络化市场体系、劳动地域分工、双核都市圈、世界城市战略等。
    Regional development needs center city, and urban development needs regional supports.Constructing Capital Area is necessary to harmonize south-north economy pattern in China, to drive an area around Beijing to develop, and for Beijing to develop sustained and to add into world city rank.This paper focuses on how China Capital Area develops.Capital Area is reconstructed to four new-relation area in this paper:(1)Knowledge Economy Area.It’s the core of Capital Area, which includes Beijing and Tianjin.The major industries are tertiary industry, hi-tech industry, and low-pollution industry.The Knowledge Economy Area will be the headquarter in Capital Area.(2) Tourism & Culture Area.This area includes Beijing, Baoding, Chengde, Qinhuangdao.(3) Industry Economy Area.It will be industry economy base of Capital Area, which includes Tianjin, Tangshan, Langfang, Baoding, Zhangjiakou, Cangzhou.(4) Out-contact Network.Division and Cooperation will drive Tianjin, Tangshan, Qinhuangdao, Cangzhou to a series of port-cluster with different scale and function in Capital Area.Combined with reality, this paper advances three development strategies:(1) Network Strategy in Spatial Relation.On the one hand, we should construct infrastructure network.Capital Area can works only based on convenient spatial relation between inside and outside of Capital Area.Construction of infrastructure network helps to form good labor division between areas.Of course, communication establishments are included.On the other hand, we should also construct market network in Capital Area.In Beijing, we should plan and build a set of markets with the level of the first rank in the world to enlarge communication with the world.In Tianjin which is the trade center, commercial center, extroversion economy center, we should plan and build regional integrated markets and special markets, like futures market, money market, etc, to enlarge communication and trade in North China.In the other cities, some regional markets should be planned and built to facilitate fluxion of different economy stream.(2) Scattering Function Strategy.First of all, it means scattering industry in Beijing.Industry in Beijing should adapt to the function of Beijing, i.e.political center, culture center, foreign communication center.Tertiary industry and hi-tech industry would be the major industries in Beijing.Heavy industry can be transferred to Tianjin aptly.Mechinery industry can be transferred to Tangshan.Qinhuangdao can develop tourism and culture industry to release the pressure of Beijing.Besides industry scattering, subordination function of politics center can be scattered in Capital Area.(3) Internationalization Strategy in Spatial Structure.It includes three sub-strategies:world region strategy, twin-core Metropolitan Area strategy, and world city strategy.Under the conditions of economy globalization, Beijing needs a strong Capital Area to support developing to add in the first rank of world cities, and in the meantime, Capital Area needs Beijing to drive developing to a world region.
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    我国水平地带性土壤中有机质的空间变化特征
    王秀红
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 19-23.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.19
    摘要   PDF (746KB)
    主要根据全国第二次土壤普查的成果,对我国水平地带性土壤中有机质的含量和胡敏酸与富里酸比值的空间变化特征进行了概括,进而探讨了在不同自然和人为因素影响下,土壤有机质的累积状况与稳定性特征。
    Spatial variation of organic matter content and humus HA/FA in horizontal zonal soils in China is studied based on the data obtained from the second national soil general investigation.The results suggest:1) Indicated by organic matter property, yellow brown earth zone is a unique zone in latitudinal zonal soil spectrum.2) Organic matter content and its variation range decrease from east to west in longitudinal zonal soil spectrum.Soil organic matter content in warm temperate zone is higher than that in its neighboring temperate zones, higher soil humus HA/FA and its bigger range results from the middle temperature and moisture conditions and moderate human influence.3) Appropriately influenced by human activities, organic matter content of fertile soils usually decreases, while that of infertile soil increases, however both of them have a higher HA/FA.4) Soil ecosystem has the different ways of preserving organic matter.For example, the accumulation amount of organic matter is bigger in Northeast China, the forming speed of organic matter is fast in Southeast China, while the soil humus HA/FA or the relative content of inactive humus and humin is bigger in Northwest China.
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    中国干旱半干旱区的环境演变与荒漠化的成因
    林年丰, 汤洁
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 24-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.24
    摘要   PDF (283KB)
    近40年来,中国北方荒漠化的发展速率为0.81%~1.64%/a。以往人们多侧重于对当代气候因素和人为因素的研究,而忽视第四纪环境演变的影响。分析了20000年来气候、风沙、黄土和第四纪环境的演变过程,采用GIS对干冷-温湿-干冷三个气候时段的荒漠化进行了定量的对比研究,并指出10000年来青藏高原的隆升是促使北方干旱和荒漠化的重要原因。自然因素导致荒漠化的时间尺度为万年或千年,人为因素导致荒漠化的尺度为百年或10年。第四纪环境是形成荒漠化的基础,植被、土被被破坏是当代荒漠化发展的直接原因。近50年来,中国北方的气候有向干、热方向演变的趋势,因此,荒漠化的防治将是21世纪中国的一项重大任务。
    In recent 40 years, the developing rate of desertification is 0.81%-1.64% per year in the north of China.The researchers emphasize particularly climate and man-made factors of present time, but over look the effect of environmental evolution on the study of desertification.The authors analyze evolution process of climate, sand blown by wind, loess and environment of Quaternary since 20000 years, and have the study of quantitative and contrast, using GIS on desertification of three periods of time including dry-cold, warm-humid and dry-cold.The result indicates that the important factor to make drought and desertification in north is the uplifting of Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in 10 000 years.The time scale on which natural factors cause desertification is ten thousand years or thousand years, while that of human efforts is only hundred years or decade.Quaternary environment is the foundation of desertification formation and the desertification of vegetation and soil covering is direct cause leading to the present desertifacation.In recent 50 years, climate in the north of China evolves to dry and heat.Thus, desertification protection is an important task for China in the 21st century.
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    渭河流域3100年前资源退化与人地关系演变
    黄春长
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 30-35.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.30
    摘要   PDF (1629KB)
    渭河流域全新世古土壤S0与黄土L0之间的界限,是反映季风气候格局快速转变和土壤资源退化的标志。这个时期的气候干旱化和水土生物资源退化,促使流域上游游牧文化取代定居农业文化,从而造成土地利用方式的巨大变化。在历史上表现为游牧民族的南侵,迫使先周人从泾河中游黄土高原腹地向南迁移到关中盆地西部的周原,即“古公迁岐”。气候干旱化还造成河水断流、沙尘暴频繁发生、严重饥荒、社会动荡和商周之际朝代更替。这是我国北方半干旱区季风环境敏感带、人地关系演变史上的重要事件。通过综合分析黄土剖面土壤资源退化记录,和历史文献中水土生物资源退化的记录,结合已有的14C、TL测年数据和新公布的夏商周年表,确定渭河流域全新世古土壤S0与黄土L0之间的界限为14C年代(3030±80a B.P),历史纪年1150 B.C.,或者3100a B.P.。
    The boundary between palaeosol S0 and loess L0 represents the shift from a phase with strong pedological process to a period of accelerated eolian dust deposition in the Weihe River Basin between the middle and late Holocene.This was caused by an abrupt climatic change from the period dominated by southeastern monsoon to the period dominated by northwestern monsoon.Because of this change, soils have been deteriorated in their fertility, droughts, dust storms, river desiccation and water shortage have been frequent.These affected the nomadism upper and middle reaches, and arable farming of the Predynastic Zhou in the Weihe River Basin.Land-use was, therefore, shifted from arable farming to nomadism in the upper and middle reaches of the basin.Due to the southern migration of the nomadism, the people of the predynastic Zhou of arable farming community was forced to move south to the Guanzhong Basin, and established their capital city "Qiyi" on the Zhouyuan loess tableland.The deterioration of land resouces also caused famine and social instability, and later, the clapse of the Shang Dynasty in the lower reaches of the Yellow River.Due to technical reasons, the S0/L0 boundary has not been precisely dated by 14C or TL dating methods.Each author takes a different age between 3500-2500 a B.P.for the S0/L0 boundary and the abrupt monsoonal climatic change represented.Through stratigraphic studies, with consideration of the dates acquired from the palaeosol and the cultural remains around the S0/L0 boundary in the loess profiles, and the historical events and the newly published historical timetable of the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties, it is concluded that the S0/L0 boundary and the monsoonal change represented could be dated to calendar year 1150 B.C.( 3100 a B.P.) or 14C dating 3030?80 a B.P..This would facilitate the higher resolution studies of the environmental change and the evolution of the human-environment relationship in the Weihe River Basin.It should be noted that there was a period with increased terrestrial dust deposition in the Greenland ice between calendar year 3100 and 2400 a B.P..The change in the atmospheric circulation recorded in Greenland ice could have certain connections with the abrupt monsoonal climatic shift recorded by the S0/L0 boundary in the Weihe River Basin which occupies the southern part of the Loess Plateau.
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    西峰与段家坡黄土剖面中有机质的特征及古环境信息
    彭先芝, 贾蓉芬
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 36-40.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.36
    摘要   PDF (1063KB)
    对甘肃西峰(X)黄土剖面L1-L6共163个样品进行总有机碳(TOC)和Rock-Eval热解分析,对比分析了西峰和陕西段家坡(D)剖面L5~S5-1层段及其中趋磁细菌的正烷烃与脂肪酸组成。结果显示西峰剖面的TOC与磁化率呈良好的对数关系;两个剖面L5~S5-1层段正烷烃和脂肪酸的分布表明,黄土地区当时古气候偏干冷,黄土高原由西北而东南,古气候呈变暖趋势。西峰剖面从S5-1形成到L5堆积,其古湿度可能有一个突变,即古气候由较湿润突然转变为极干燥,而段家坡地区当时的古气候变化则可能较为缓和。
    The total organic carbon (TOC) were measured and Rock-Eval pyrogenetion were carried out for 163 loess and paleosol samples collected from Xifeng loess section, Gansu Province.Composition of n-alkanes and fatty acid were also analyzed contrastively for L5-S5-1 layer samples of both Xifeng and Duanjiapo (Shaanxi Province) sections.Good logarithmic relationship was found between TOC and magnetic susceptibility, which shows that TOC can also used as paleoclimatic proxy in loess area.It is indicated by the composition of n-alkanes and fatty acid of L5-S5-1 layers of both Xifeng and Duanjiapo sections that it was relatively cold and dry in loess areas then, and the climate might became colder and dryer from southeast to northwest along the Loess Plateau.A more obvious paleo-humidity variation might exist from S5-1 formation to L5 accumulation in Xifeng.
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    淮河流域洪涝变化动力系统研究
    周寅康, 王腊春, 许有鹏, 张捷
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 41-45.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.41
    摘要   PDF (1489KB)
    非线性现象是现代科学最重要的研究课题之一,地理现象无不存在着非线性。目前,地理学对非线性现象的研究多从分形角度开展,对其本质——混沌的研究较少。在先前关于淮河流域洪涝变化序列及其非线性特征研究的基础上,运用混沌理论和微分方程反演理论,对淮河流域洪涝变化混沌动力系统进行了初步研究,重建了一个3维2次非线性模型。研究表明,淮河流域洪涝变化混沌动力系统具有较Lorenz等典型混沌系统更复杂的形式。
    The study of the nonlinear phenomena is one of the most important fields in modern scientific research.It is called that chaos is one of the most important discoveries in the 20th century.It comes into being effect to the geographical research.As a matter of the fact, nonlinear phenomena are everywhere in geographical field.The nonlinear research in geographical filed mainly focuses on the fractal study now, especially on the geometric fractal study.However, chaos which is the basis of the nonlinear phenomena is studied less in geography.It is believed that the chaotic study will be researched gradually and successively with the deepening of the nonlinear study in geography.Based on the flood series of the Huaihe River Basin in the last 500-year period, the nonlinear phenomena of the flood series in the Huaihe River Basin, including fractal features, chaotic characteristics, attractor dimension and Lyapunov indices are previously studied.The present paper analyzes the dynamics of the flood series in the Huaihe River Basin and reconstructs a nonlinear dynamical model which is 3-dimension and second power according to chaotic theory and differential equation method.The research shows that the reconstructed nonlinear dynamical system of the flood series in the Huaihe River Basin is more complex than that of the typical chaotic model, like Lorenz model.It has reasons that the study is only beginning but useful for the nonlinear research in geography.
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    黄土丘陵区典型小流域土地利用变化研究——以陕西延安地区大南沟流域为例
    陈利顶, 傅伯杰, 王军
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 46-51.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.46
    摘要   PDF (273KB)

    利用航片解译和景观生态学方法研究了陕北黄土丘陵区大南沟流域在20世纪70年代和90年代土地利用结构的特点和变化,结果表明:从1975年到1997年,梯田、坡耕地、稀疏林地、灌丛面积减少,所占百分比呈下降趋势,而有林地、果园、荒地所占百分比呈上升趋势;梯田、有林地、灌丛和荒地平均斑块面积在增大,而坡耕地、稀疏林地、果园的平均斑块面积在减小;果园和坡耕地分维数在变大,斑块形状趋于复杂化;而有林地、稀疏林地、灌丛、梯田和荒地的斑块分维数在变小,斑块形状趋于规则化;有林地、灌丛、果园、荒地的分离度在下降,稀疏林地、梯田和坡耕地的分离度在上升。说明有林地、罐丛、果园和荒地的地位在上升,而稀疏林地、梯田和坡耕地的地位在下降;全区单位面积的斑块数目在增大,在一定程度上表明农田中地块之间的边界增多,其结果是导致一些土地资源的浪费和不利于土地管理;景观多样性指数和土地利用相对合理指数在增大,但变化较小。1997年与1975年相比,整体上土地利用结构稍有好转,但这种土地利用结构远未达理想状态。


    Land use change to some extent results from the change of land policy and human environmental consciousness.It will lead to profound influence on regional environment, as well as a global change.Loess Plateau, as the most serious area of soil erosion in the world, receives a lot of attention from Chinese government and international society.The soil erosion is mainly attributed to population growth and irrational land use.In this paper, a case study on land use change from the 1970s to the 1990s was carried out in a small catchment in a loess hilly area of northern Loess Plateau through aerial photograph interpretation and using landscape approaches.The results indicate that some changes occurred from the 1970s to the 1990s.This is greatly due to the change of land policy during early the 1980s when a land reform, the household responsibility system was widely started in countryside in China.With the new land policy carried out in countryside, the manner and environmental consciousness of local farmers on land use has changed a lot, which results in land use modification and conversion.① Compared to 1975, areal percentage of terrace farmland, sloping farmland, sparse woodland, bushland in 1997 declines obviously,while the percentage of woodland, orchard and unused land increases.The increase of woodland, bushland and orchard, and the decrease of sloping farmland in steep slope sections are helpful for soil erosion control.② Considering the mean patch area, it is becoming bigger for terrace farmland, woodland, bushland and unused land in 1997 than that in 1975, whereas it is smaller for sloping farmland and sparse woodland and orchard in 1997 than that in 1975.This reflects that with the implementation of household responsibility system in countryside, most agricultural activities are carried out in small group, that induce the patch size of the human-closely-related land use types becoming smaller (excluding terrace farmland), such as sloping farmland and orchard, and the patch size of the human-less related land use types becoming bigger, such as woodland, sparse woodland, bushland and orchard.③ The fractal dimension of orchard and sloping farmland in 1997 is bigger than that in 1975, which implies the shape of patch of these land use types is getting complex, while the fractal dimension is becoming smaller for woodland, sparse woodland, bushland, terrace farmland and unused land in 1997.④ Compared to 1975, the landscape isolation for woodland, bushland, orchard and unused land is decreasing and it is increasing for sparse woodland, terrace farmland and sloping farmland in 1997.⑤ As a whole of the catchment, landscape diversity is becoming bigger and patch number unit area increases.This phenomenon indicates the land use is tending to diverse and landscape become fragmented from whole.⑥ The relative land use rationality index in 1997 is a little bigger than that in 1975, but the difference is very small.It means the land use structure is improved, but it is much below the ideal situation for controlling soil erosion.The increase of relative land use rationality index is mainly due to land use change in steep slope area where the area of woodland, bush land, orchard and unused land increase a lot and the area of sloping farmland is reduced.

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    黄河中游土壤侵蚀与下游古河道三角洲演化的过程响应
    张丽萍, 朱大奎, 杨达源
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 52-56.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.52
    摘要   PDF (210KB)
    根据黄土高原土壤侵蚀的周期特点,结合华北平原古河道、古三角洲的演化过程,应用泥沙输移的过程响应,分析了晚更新世以来黄河中游黄土高原土壤侵蚀与下游古河道、三角洲演化的关系。在人类历史之前,黄土高原土壤侵蚀基本上遵循自然生态环境演化规律,强烈侵蚀期发生在干冷向温湿气候转化的过渡期,在强烈侵蚀的初期是古河道形成期,强烈侵蚀的中期是三角洲进积期,黄河下游河流改道、三角洲横向扩展发生在强烈侵蚀的衰退期。人类历史时期,土壤侵蚀的外营力迭加了人为作用,破坏了地质历史时期的规律性,土壤侵蚀强度越来越强,基本上按照旱涝变化频率而演化。干冷期降雨不均匀系数增加,土壤侵蚀加重,径流量较少,河床以淤积为主,是古河道形成期;正常年黄河泥沙输移比接近于一,是三角洲进积期,温湿期降雨量增加、径流量加大,下游河流改道,三角洲横向发展。
    The Yellow River has been an integrated drainage system since it linked up in the middle pleistocene.Serious soil erosion of Loess Plateau in the middle reaches has caused the river bed deposition in the lower reaches and the delta change in river outlet.It is the main reason that sediment content in the Yellow River has occupied first place in the world rivers.In the late Pleistocene and early and middle Holocene epoch period, Loess Plateau soil erosion law basically abided by the law of natural ecological environment evolution.Intense soil erosion main occurred in the transition period between loess accumulation and soil formation on the base of polycyclic climatic variation Palaeochannels of the Yellow River lower reaches main developed in the early period of intense soil erosion.The middle period of intense soil erosion was river outlet delta development period.Lower reaches river diversion centralizing happended in the late period of intense soil erosion.In the human history period, as the development of human history, soil erosion continuative occurred and soil erosion intensity became more and more serious because human irrational action destroyed natural vegetation and accelerated soil erosion.Loess Plateau soil erosion evolution law basically abided by the frequently of changes between drought and excessive rain.In arid period, rainfall was not fairly well-distributed, and the calamity of drought and excessive rain became frequent, soil erosion became more serious.However, amount of runoff were less, river bed were silted up, and palaeochannels developed.In the year of rainfall being fairly well-distributed, the Yellow River sediment content and delivery ratio were close to one, the deposited velocity of river outlet delta increased.In the warm and humid period, runoff content increased, lower reach river diversion frequency became higher and higher, river outlet delta developed in transverse.
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    基于雷达卫星图像的黄淮海平原城镇体系空间结构研究
    王心源, 范湘涛, 邵芸, 郭华东, 王长林, 刘浩
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 57-63.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.57
    摘要   PDF (1418KB)
    基于雷达卫星ScanSAR遥感图像分析,根据中心地理论,对黄淮海平原不同地貌、水文等要素影响下的城镇体系空间结构进行研究。结果表明:1)利用雷达遥感对结构信息的灵敏反应和雷达卫星ScanSAR合适分辨率,在图像上直接显示出建成区的分布和范围,直观反映出城镇相对等级,这也表明雷达遥感在城市地理研究中的应用潜力;2)黄淮海平原城镇空间结构深受自然条件特别是地貌尤其是水文(河流、古河道、湖泊)的影响,城镇体系可划分为5种类型区;3)发展了河流影响下的中心地体系由六边形向五边形或四边形演化的构建模型;4)无论六边形还是五边形的中心地体系,本区体现了理论上对中心地间的距离构建法则与实际情况的良好关系,实证了克氏的中心地理论在黄淮海平原重要农产区的某种存在。
    Differ from optical remote sensing, Radar remote sensing has the ability of imaging all-time, all-weather and penetration to cloud and dry sand and soil.Besides penetration, Radar can also detect micro-relief, building, vegetation distribution, surface roughness and water content sensitively, thus is superior to other remote sensing means for these studies.It has become one of the most important techniques for earth observation.Canadian Radarsat was launched in 1996, and is the first commercial operating SAR system.It has seven kinds of beam mode and twenty-five imaging modes, of which ScanSAR mode can obtain images with swath of 300 km (Narrow) and 500 km (Wide), and resolution of 50m and 100m.It conforms to analyses of regional urban geography.Based on central place theory, the spatial sturctre of Hrban system of Huang-Huai-Hai Plain is studied by using Radarsat ScanSAR narrow mode mosaic image.spatial structre of The results are:1) Radarsat ScanSAR data are suitable for automatic extraction of building-up area and has meaningful potential for urban geographic study.2) The urban system of Huang-huai-hai plain, which is deeply influenced by physical factors, especially hydrographic factors( such as river, paleochannel and lake), can be divided into five categories.They are:urban system of equal distance between central places on fluvial fan region by Mt.Taihangshan; hexagonal urban system in central part of Hebei plain; pentagonal urban system in Huanghe River fluvial fan; quadrilateral urban system in the vicinity of Huaihe River system; and scattered new towns in the places of rolling hills in central and southern in Shandong Province.3) A evolution model of central place system from hexagon to pentagon and to quadrangle governed by river is suggested.4) No matter hexagonal or pentagonal urban systems, this study has demonstrated that there are good relationship between the model of distance structure of central place and the real -life instance.
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    快速城市化地区景观组分在地形梯度上的分布特征研究
    喻红, 曾辉, 江子瀛
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 64-69.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.64
    摘要   PDF (842KB)
    采用地形位指数综合描述深圳市龙华地区的地形差异,并在此基础上,利用无量纲的分布指数对景观组分的空间分布特征进行半定量分析。结果表明,地形位指数可以综合地反映地形条件的空间分布和差异信息。分布指数用于描述某种组分的实际分布与标准分布的差异,可以排除面积的干扰,为各种比较分析创造了条件。研究时段内龙华地区景观组分在地形位梯度上整体分布格局的复杂性显著增加。人为景观改造活动主要表现为一种中尺度土地利用结构调整行为,并有助于对不同地形条件下的土地利用进行更加严格的分工,地形差异则是大尺度景观整体格局形成的基本骨架。
    Terrain niche was used to describe the terrain difference of the Longhua area in Shenzhen special economic zone, and nondimensional distribution index was used to semiquantitatively analyze the spatial distribution characteristics based on the remotely sensed interpretation maps of landscape elements.Distribution index can describe the difference between the actual distribution and the standard distribution of a landscape element, excluding the disturbance of the area therefore availing kinds of comparative analyses.The complexity of holistic distribution pattern on the terrain niche gradient of the landscape elements significantly increased from 1988 to 1996.Land use and structure regulation activities on Meso-scale are the main human transformation activities, which contribute to finer division of land use of different terrain conditions.The different terrain conditions frame the landscape pattern in the large scale.
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    海岸线空间分形性质探讨——以江苏省为例
    朱晓华, 王建, 陈霞
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 70-75.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.70
    摘要   PDF (997KB)
    根据分形理论,借助于GIS技术的支持,以江苏省海岸线为例,对以往研究少有涉及的海岸线空间分形性质进行了初步探讨,包括不同比例尺下海岸线长度的分形标定、不同潮滩分界线是否具有分形性质等,在江苏省海岸线长度的分形标定中取得了实际应用,由此获得了对海岸线分形性质及其分维意义的一些深入认识。
    According to the fractal theory and with the aid of the technology of GIS,the spatial fractal characteristic of the coastline is studied in this paper Generally speaking,two problems are discussed,one is about how to demarcate the lengths of coastline in different scales,the other is about whether the fractal characteristic exists or not for the different boundaries of tidal flat In a word, some meaningful conclusions are drawn as follows: (1)The fractal characteristic exists for the continental coastline of Jiangsu Province, and its fractal dimension is 1 0696 (2)It conforms to the exponential correlation between different lengths(L) and scales (k) It conforms to the formula lgL(k)=(1 029lgk +2 9544 for Jiangsu Province’s continental coastline (3)The fractal characteristic exists for different boundaries of tidal flat,and the differences of fractal dimensions indicate the differences of comparative intensity of erosion and deposition in the tidal flat (4)It is found that the reciprocity between mainland and sea,as well as the lithology and substantial makeup,may affect the value of coastline’s fractal dimension,except geological tectonics,etc In a word, the formula which is useful to calculate the coastline’s lengths of Jiangsu Province in different scales is given in this paper for the first time,and natural attributes of Jiangsu Province’s coastline which is affected by the reciprocity between mainland and sea are explained by the fractal theory, thus, the cognition about the significance of coastline’s fractal dimension is deepened, so done the cognition about some geographical phenomena
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    研究报道
    厦门市产业结构特征与跨世纪发展构想
    陈月英, 刘云刚
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 76-80.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.76
    摘要   PDF (213KB)
    厦门市在经历了改革开放后的一段高速增长之后,产业发展环境和发展方式已经发生了很大变化。通过分析厦门市产业结构现状和产业跨世纪发展的基础优势,并在此基础上提出了厦门市新世纪主导产业发展构想。
    Xiamen is one of the special economic zones in China and belongs to Fujian Province. After its economy has been developing at top speed since the policy of reform and opening up, Xiamen’s industrial structure takes on the characteristics as below: On the whole, the industrial structure is changing from secondary industry, tertiary industry and primary industry to tertiary industry, secondary industry and primary industry in order of industrial development, which shows that industrial structure is developing highly and economic development is in the period of industrialization speed up; industry has nine special departments that make up the prop industries with tourism and high technology industry has laid foundation for further development; since the policy of reform and opening up, the investment from foreigners has been playing the more and more important role in pushing forward industrial development. With the changes of market environment and policy environment, the conditions of industrial development have changed a lot when it is going beyond the century. Xiamen has an advantage in geographical situation near Taiwan and bordering on the sea in the east, in rich agricultural resources and resources of tourism and in perfect infrastructure and the environment of economic development. On the basis of the analysis of the situation of Xiamen’s industrial structure and its dominant condition of the industrial development, and according to the law of industrial development, this article puts forward the conception of the industrial development of Xiamen when it is going beyond the century. The conception is that leading industries that include high technology industry, manufacturing industry of mechanical and electrical products, chemical industry and tourism will drive further improvement of industrial structure. In order to realize the conception, this article also raiss the countermeasures of developing leading industries.
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    长春市城市地域结构体系研究
    王祁春, 李诚固, 丁万军
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 81-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.81
    摘要   PDF (862KB)
    本文应用城市地理学、城市经济学及城市规划等理论,采用实证研究方法,以城市地域结构的历史、现状及未来演变为研究主线,在对长春市地域历史演变轨迹分析的基础上,分析了长春市城市地域结构的现状特征及存在的主要问题,对未来长春市城市地域结构的调整及优化提出了设想方案。
    The paper applies the theories of urban geography, urban economies and urban planning, makes use of practical demonstration research, approaches urban area structure history, status-quo and the future evolution The paper present a future tentative idea on the adjustment and optimization of the area structure in the city of Changchun, as well as the analysis of its area structure character stics and the existing major problems, which is based on general survey of Changchun’s area historical evolution orbit
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    从地名看开疆文化在海南岛的传播扩散
    朱竑
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 89-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.89
    摘要   PDF (1026KB)
    开疆文化是一种开发、开拓边疆的文化。开疆文化的传播是通过众多文化要素的逐渐渗透、传输而实现整体状况改变的。开疆文化在海南的传播扩散及其历史影响则又可以从地名等文化要素的演变中得到反映,进而从一个侧面印证开疆文化在海南岛的传播、扩散及影响。
    Frontier pioneering culture is a form of culture that develops and reclaims the border areas, which brings along the border area’s development, promotes its progress, changes its backward condition It explicates the frontier through the joint efforts of dismissed government officials and station troops historically and by means of farm reclamation in modern times Its spreading depends on gradually infiltration and transmission of many cultural factors, including the place name So the spreading situation and the historic influence of the frontier pioneering culture can be reflected by the evolution of all kinds of cultural factors, such as the place name Because place names are often thought as a special cultural landscape, which may be seen and realized It is a condensation and retaining of regional culture on the surface Many cultural information could be found in one place name It’s usually thought as a valuable cultural fossil The studies on Hainan place names is believed to provide convincing historic evidences for the spreading and diffusion of the frontier pioneering culture in Hainan Island, and verified the process from one side The paper analyses the function of verification to the spreading and diffusion of frontier pioneering culture by place name through the following aspects: the concept of frontier pioneering culture, the relationship between frontier pioneering culture and Hainan place name, the structure characters of Hainan place names,and the place name reflection of the kinds of exploitation in every time since the year of 1949
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    新仙女木事件在热带湖光岩玛珥湖的记录
    王文远, 王文远, 刘嘉麒
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (1): 94-96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.01.94
    摘要   PDF (798KB)

    湖光岩玛珥湖沉积物总有机碳、总氮、总氢、生物硅等有机地球化学指标以及AMS14C年代明确地指示了新仙女木事件在中国南方地区的存在,它不仅表现为降水的显著减少,而且表现为气温的降低,显示了凉干的气候环境,反映了季风系统在很短的时间内进行了大规模重组,夏季风强度显著减弱的事实,这为西北太平洋低纬度区存在YD事件提供了新的来自于陆地的证据。


    Maar Lake recorded paleoclimate changes like a natural gauge The morphological features of Maar Lake ensue to homogeneity of detritus input and high-resolution record of paleoenvironmental variations The research of Maar Lake will play an important role for reconstructing paleoclimate history Maar Lake Huguangyan is located in Leizhou Peninsula, the southern China, near Pacific Ocean in the east and South China Sea in the south, where which is intersect site of eastern southeast monsoon and southwest monsoon and sensitive to climate change The sediments from Maar Lake Huguangyan have been recovered The concentrations of biogenic silica, total organic carbon, total nitrogen and total hydrogen inferred from the sediments of Maar Lake Huguangyan provide a climate record of the last deglaciation with century resolution The records fully demonstrate the Younger Dryas event is well documented in the southern China, which occurred synchronously with that recorded in Greenland, and point to the cool and dry climatic conditions during this period, because of the remarkable decrease of precipitation and temperature These results suggest the rapid reorganization of atmospheric circulation in monsoon climate system in short time, and reflect that the intensity of the summer monsoon was reduced during the Younger Dryas period

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