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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2009年, 第29卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2009-07-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    经济转型与中国省区能源强度研究
    贺灿飞, 王俊松
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 461-469.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.461
    摘要   PDF (1350KB)
    分析了在经济转型背景下中国能源利用强度变化,强调经济转型背景下经济全球化、市场化和区域分权对能源强度的影响。中国省区能源消费差异显著,沿海省区能源效率较高,能源强度较低,而中西部省区,尤其是能源资源富裕的省区能源强度偏高。统计分析结果表明,伴随经济转型的市场化、经济全球化以及分权化等制度性因素是影响能源利用强度的重要因素,中国省区技术水平、产业结构、自然条件以及能源消费结构与消费倾向同样显著影响中国能源利用强度。但是高能耗省区与低能耗省区的能源利用强度因素存在一定的差异。在高能耗省区,积极利用外商直接投资、技术创新等可以显著降低能源强度。
    China is the second largest energy consumer in the world. With the rapid growth of energy demand, China's energy intensity has been considerably declining during the period of transition. Energy intensity is, however, by no means equal across Chinese provinces. The coastal region on average consumes energy more efficiently than the interior regions. Statistical results reveal that globalization, marketization and decentralization are important factors influencing energy intensity. While the provincial technique level, industrial structure, natural resources and energy consumption structure also significantly influence the energy intensity. However, the impact of these factors on high-energy intensity and low-energy intensity provinces are different. It is important to induce foreign direct investment and technique innovation in decreasing energy intensity in high-energy intensity provinces.
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    过去20年中国耕地生产力区域差异变化研究
    方修琦, 殷培红, 陈烽栋
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 470-476.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.470
    摘要   PDF (2180KB)
    依据县域农业统计数据,以单位耕地面积的粮食产量作为衡量耕地基本生产力的指标,对比分析了1985~1987和 2002~2004两个时段的耕地生产力空间变化情况。结果表明:① 过去20年全国大部分地区耕地生产力普遍提高,在农牧交错带及其以西地区耕地生产力增加幅度尤为显著,这些地区耕地生产力的提高对全国粮食总产量增加具有重要意义;② 受中国降水空间分异影响,耕地生产力的东西差异依然显著,农牧交错带耕地生产力最低;农牧交错带以东,自西北向东南耕地生产力逐渐增高,耕地生产力区内差异在2002~2004年已表现得不明显;农牧交错带以西,耕地生产力相对增长速度明显快于东侧和农牧交错带;东部地区,由于北方耕地生产力增幅明显,以温度为主导的南北差异已经缩小。
    Based on the statistic data of agriculture in county-resolution for the time period of 1985-1987 and 2002-2004, the changing regional distribution of grain productivity in China in recent 20 years has been examined in this paper. It is found that, 1) grain productivity indicated by grain yield per unit cropland has increased in most parts of China, especially in the west to the farming-grazing transitional zone, which has played more important role on total grain yield increase in the past 20 years in China. 2) the differences of a grain productivity dominated by rainfall between the eastern and western China have remained obviously up till now. But the south-north difference of grain productivity dominated by temperature in the eastern China has reduced for the sensitive increase in grain productivity in the northern China. The lowest grain productivity zone is located in the farming-grazing transitional zone where the precipitation is 250-400 mm. East to the lowest zone, grain productivity has raised gradually from the northwest to the southeast which may be divided in higher grain productivity zone and the highest grain productivity zone. But the gradation of grain productivity in the east became less obvious in the period of 2002-2004. West to the lowest zone, named the lower grain productivity zone, the relative increase of grain productivity was faster than that in the lowest zone and east to the lowest zone. 3) The area of cultivated land has expanded obviously in the western China, where the grain productivity is lower but increased fasty. While high quality cultivated lands reduced. There are positive impacts of climate change on the increase of grain productivity in Gansu and Xinjiang region, the middle-east of Inner Mongolia and Northeast China, where the temperature has risen significantly and the precipitation in most regions of western China has increased slightly in recent 20 years. 4) The regions, of which the grain productivity ranks the top and bottom in China, both have the higher decrease of the cultivated land and the multi-cropping index as well. The average annual decrease of multi-cropping index is more than 1%-2%. The reduction of multi-cropping index went with the decrease of the cultivated land in the middle-down stream and the southward region of the Changjiang River of the highest grain productivity region implies the lost of the highest quality cultivated lands and the increase of food security risk. While in the lowest grain productivity region, especially in ecological sensitivity regions, such as the region along the Great Wall and the western Sichuan, the implement of the policies for recovering forest and grass in the cultivated land is attributed to the decrease of cultivated lands and it would benefit to ecosystem health and soil protection.
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    基于公司层面的物流网络组织——以南方物流公司为例
    宗会明;周素红;闫小培
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 477-484.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.477
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    基于公司层面的物流网络组织——以南方物流公司为例
    宗会明, 周素红, 闫小培
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 477-484.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.477
    摘要   PDF (954KB)
    物流网络组织是近代经济地理学和交通地理学关注不多的领域。在全球生产网络理论兴起的今天,基于公司层面的物流网络的组织应成为地理学研究的重要内容,需要借鉴其他学科的相关理论和方法。本文构建了基于战略网络、空间网络和运营网络的物流网络组织的理论框架,以开展对微观层次(尤指公司层面)的物流网络组织的研究和理解,并以南方物流集团为案例,进行了实证分析。研究发现:物流组织的战略网络包括两种,一种是物流公司与客户的合作联盟,一种是物流公司与物流公司之间的合作联盟,战略关系管理是物流公司的重要发展战略;空间网络一般呈现总公司-分公司-办事处的等级结构,空间网络的选址受到市场导向因素、公司经营战略和企业运营成本等因素的影响;运营网络是一个由运输、仓储、报关、配送等多个过程组成的流程,受物流业务外包程度的影响,参与主体对信息的共享是运营网络的一个重要的特征。
    The organization of logistics network was a neglected field in terms of both modern economic geography and transport geography. Freight transportation has been dominantly the focus of geographers dealing with maritime, port and rail transport issues. The scholars in China also paid attention to these fields. But in fact the enduring growth in the movements of goods and innovations in the associated networks of logistics and freight distribution represent a dynamic part of economic globalization. The aim of the project is to find the attributes of the logistics network on the firm level in urban China. This study intends to develop a microscopic understanding of the organization of logistics industry in urban China, the new economic giant of the globalizing world. It designs a framework which consists of the strategic network, spatial network and operational network for understanding the firm’s logistic organizations, which are placing the issue of freight distribution as a central concern of human geography, much beyond the traditional focus of transport geography. The framework borrows the theories from the economy science, social science, transportation geography, economic geography and management science. Then it takes the South Logistics Enterprises Group as a study case. The research was carried out through interviewing with managers of the case firm for three times. It is observed that the strategic networks of logistics firms in China cover two types: one is the alliance between logistics firms and their customers, and the other is the alliance between logistics firms with other small or middle-sized traditional logistics firms. The alliances are founded on the base of total trust, which is formulated in the cooperation of long period. The logistics firm takes the key relationship management as the most important task. A spatial network with a hierarchy structure is identified: headquarter—branch firms—offices. The underlying mechanism can be termed as three types: customers-oriented, strategic-oriented or cost-oriented. For instance, the network often adds a new branch for the key customers under the customers-oriented strategy. Among of these three factors, customer-oriented is the most important one most of the base and branches are set according to the requirement of their customers. Moreover, the operational network depends on the outsourcing system, including procedures of transportation, material management, information transfer and so on. An information shared platform and a creative operational network contribute to the efficiency of the customers’ supply chain. Besides the creative of network, the high technology is also helpful to the efficiency, such as communication technology, Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), modern Logistics Information System, GPS, and Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). As technological change and globalization are moving forward, flows, circuits and the associated paces will receive further attention, since they are essential for the global network economy.
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    区域综合运输成本的空间格局研究——以江苏省为例
    吴威;曹有挥;曹卫东;梁双波
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 485-492.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.485
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    区域综合运输成本的空间格局研究——以江苏省为例
    吴威, 曹有挥, 曹卫东, 梁双波
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 485-492.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.485
    摘要   PDF (1092KB)
    在宏观尺度上,区域综合运输成本是区域综合交通可达性和客货运规模的函数。以县域为基本研究单元,地理信息系统技术为主要支撑,通过对综合交通可达性和客货运规模的综合集成,在宏观层面上对江苏省综合运输成本的空间格局进行计算和分析。结果表明:江苏省综合交通可达性、客货运输量及综合运输成本均呈南优北劣态势,其中可达性双核格局特征明显,客货运输量岛状分布特征突出,而综合运输成本在区域南部呈双核结构,在区域北部呈岛状结构;从分区域角度看,三指标皆以苏南为优、苏中次之,苏北较差,但各指标的分区域均衡性特征略有差别,可达性及综合运输成本均衡性皆以苏北为优,苏中居中,苏南较差,但客货运输量均衡性苏北较差,苏南次之,苏中稍好。
    In macroscopic, regional comprehensive transportation cost is relative to regional integrated transportation accessibility and the scale of passenger and freight. With the formation of some relative conception, choosing the counties as the basic research units and GIS as the support technology, from the macroscopic view, the comprehensive transportation cost in Jiangsu Province is calculated and its pattern is analyzed in this paper. The result shows that the southern Jiangsu Province is superior to the northern one in all three indices—the integrated transportation accessibility, passenger and freight scale, and the comprehensive transportation cost. But there are some differences among three indices about the spatial structure. It takes on "dual-nuclei" pattern in integrated transportation accessibility, and "islands-shaped" pattern in passenger and freight scale, and both the two patterns are showed in the comprehensive transportation cost, i.e., "dual-nuclei" pattern in south and "islands-shaped" pattern in north. In the economic statistics, Jiangsu Province involves three areas, the southern, the central and the northern of Jiangsu. The southern Jiangsu is the best one in all the three indices, and the central Jiangsu is better than the northern Jiangsu. As to the equilibrium among three areas, the northern Jiangsu is better than the central Jiangsu, and the southern Jiangsu is the worst areas in the integrated transportation accessibility and comprehensive transport cost. In the passenger and freight scale, the central Jiangsu is the most balanced one; the northern Jiangsu takes the second place. With those results, some measures are proposed to decrease the comprehensive transportation cost in central and northern Jiangsu Province, and its imbalance within southern Jiangsu Province. Also, some relative focus needing more attention is put forward.
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    北京老城商业空间演替过程研究——以1996年到2006年内城南北剖线变化为例
    周尚意;纪李梅
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 493-499.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.493
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    北京老城商业空间演替过程研究——以1996年到2006年内城南北剖线变化为例
    周尚意, 纪李梅
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 493-499.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.493
    摘要   PDF (1200KB)
    城市商业空间变化是城市经济地理学研究的主要内容之一。随着城市的发展,其老城不再是城市唯一的商业区和商务区布局地。在唯一性地位丧失后,老城的商业空间特性将发生变化。本研究选择北京老城的一条南北剖线进行实地调查和历史资料整理。结果显示,1996到2006年的10年间,商业中心地空间格局发生了演替,同时出现了专门化的商业区。本研究以中心地理论、柔性专门化概念和中心城市演变理论来分析商业空间演替原因。本研究在前人研究基础上,探索用"职能数"划分商业区等级,用同类店的"线密度"划分专门化商业区。本研究的另一探索是用野外景观调查法弥补文献资料的不足。① 北京老城商业空间的演替可以从商业中心地的覆盖范围变化来分析。自1996到2006年,调查剖线上二等商业中心地的覆盖范围减小,连续的专门化商业区出现。② 剖线上中心地格局变化的原因主要是交通的发展。③ 柔性专门化布局趋势促使调查线上专门化商业区的出现。城市扩展,城市边缘新型商业业态与老城商业业态的竞争,导致高档专门化商业区向高级商业中心地的靠拢,也顺应了老城高级中心地职能提升的需要。由于数据资料的原因,仅取南北纵向的街面上的店为分析对象。由于未获得各业种在北京城市的分布状况,因此只能绘出剖线附近的中心地等级变化,目前的结论尚不能推断老城其他地区商业空间演替的情况。
    The change of urban commercial area is one of the most important study topics of urban economic geography. With the development of a city, the old city is no longer the only area that works as commercial and business districts. The loss of uniqueness of the old city will lead to a series of changes of the commerce in the old city, including the changes of commercial space. This paper takes a north-south line from Jishuitan to Xuanwumen in the old city of Beijing as a survey transect, makes field investigation and orders the historical data, and try to find the trend of the hierarchical structure changes of commercial space in the old city of Beijing in the decade between 1996 and 2006, and finds that some specialized commercial centers appear at the same time. This study uses the Central Place Theory, the concepts of Flexible Specialization and the Central City Evolution Theory as the main theories for the analysis of the reasons of commercial space succession, and takes transact research and the method of landscape records as the main methods of data acquiring. Apart from borrowing methods from other researchers, this paper tries to use the index of "function number" for measuring the grade of commercial areas, and use the index of "lineal density" for measuring the degree of specialization of commercial areas. Two months fieldwork helps giving the location of each enterprise in statistic data exactly, and explores to make up for the defect of data from historical document. The conclusions of this paper are: 1) the succession of commercial space in the old city of Beijing can be analyzed from the change of the coverage of commercial centers. In the decade between 1996 and 2006, the coverage of the second grade of commercial centers gets smaller; some seriate specialized commercial centers emerges; 2) the main reason of the change of the central place pattern and the coverage decrease of the second grade of commercial centers is the transportation development of the north-south traffic line; 3) spatial flexible specialization motivates the appearance of specialized commercial centers in the survey transect. The urban expansion expands the difference between the type of commerce in the central city and on the periphery; the competition between the new commercial forms at the urban edge and in the old city gets intensive. Therefore the specialized commercial areas with luxury goods draw close to the high-grade commercial center. The appearance of specialized commercial centers is also in conformance with the need of the upgrade of the central place functions. Two shortcomings of this paper are: 1) only the shops and stores along the north-south street are concerned, and that near the crosses are not concerned, which are along the east-west streets; 2) because of the lack of the commercial enterprises distribution in the whole city of Beijing, only the hierarchical change in the transect can be described, and the conclusion now can not infer the succession in other parts of the old city.
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    基于区域密度函数的区域空间结构与增长模式研究——以京津冀都市圈为例
    孙铁山;李国平;卢明华
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 500-507.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.500
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    基于区域密度函数的区域空间结构与增长模式研究——以京津冀都市圈为例
    孙铁山, 李国平, 卢明华
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 500-507.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.500
    摘要   PDF (489KB)
    区域密度函数是分析区域空间结构及其变动趋势的有效工具,但其在实证研究中的应用尚比较少见。现有研究大多使用单中心密度函数,研究局限于单中心城市区域。探讨了适用于多中心城市区域的区域密度函数的形式,并进一步将其应用于对京津冀都市圈空间结构特征及区域增长模式的分析。使用探索性空间数据分析方法分析区域人口密度分布发现,京津冀都市圈具有多中心空间结构特征。分别应用单中心和多中心区域密度函数分析京津冀都市圈空间结构与增长模式,单中心密度函数的分析显示京津冀都市圈的主要中心城市尚处于向心集聚的发展阶段,而多中心密度函数的分析则显示京津冀都市圈呈现集聚与扩散并存的空间发展趋势,并且不同层次的中心城市表现出三种不同的增长模式,分别为去中心化扩散、中心增长型扩散和向心集聚。由于多中心区域密度函数综合考虑多个中心对区域人口密度分布的影响,因此能更准确地反映京津冀都市圈人口密度分布的变化趋势。
    The study of regional spatial structure and growth patterns has been of interest to those concerned with regional planning and analysis. Spatial structure can be defined in various ways, and one major perspective relates to investigating the distribution of population densities. The population density function, which has been applied widely within the context of an urban area, can be extended to analyzing regional spatial structure and growth patterns. However, most of the empirical studies so far conducted have employed the density function based on the monocentric model, which is not appropriate for modeling the modern metropolitan region that usually takes a polycentric form. This study first discusses the form of polycentric regional density function, and then applies it to the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan region. The polycentric density function is assumed to be an aggregate of the individual monocentric density functions of the various regional urban centers. Through the exploratory spatial data analysis of the population density distribution, we find that the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan region does have a polycentric spatial structure with four regional density centers: Beijing, Tianjin, Baoding and Shijiazhuang. We test the most commonly used monocentric regional density function form, the square root negative exponential density function, and the results show that it is basically applicable to our analysis. Then we apply both the monocentric and polycentric density functions to study the spatial structure and growth patterns of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan region during the period from 1990 to 2000. The analysis with the monocentric density function shows population still concentrate into the major urban centers of the region, while the analysis with the polycentric density function finds the coexistence of concentration and dispersion of population in the region, and reveals three different growth patterns of the urban centers at the different levels, which are the dispersion pattern through decentralization, and growth and the concentration pattern. The study shows the polycentric density function, taking the effects of the multi-urban centers on the regional population distribution into consideration, can reveal the regional growth patterns more accurately and is more suitable to the analysis for the polycentric urban region.
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    浙江省新型工业化地域差异及其机理研究
    吴一洲;吴次芳;王琳;罗文斌
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 508-514.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.508
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    浙江省新型工业化地域差异及其机理研究
    吴一洲, 吴次芳, 王琳, 罗文斌
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 508-514.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.508
    摘要   PDF (1224KB)
    新型工业化对浙江县域经济发展提出了更高的要求,研究通过实证的方法,建立新型工业化水平评价体系,并借助ESDA-GIS空间分析框架,对浙江省县级行政单元新型工业化差异的空间格局进行分析,结果表明浙江省域范围内新型工业化综合发展水平呈现 "浙东北高、浙西南低"的格局;并具有增长极带动下的区域整体发展特点;地区发展空间差异显著,在空间上体现出两极"俱乐部趋同"的集聚态势;各县级行政单元自身的工业化水平组合特征不均衡,各项指标非平行发展,呈现出轻加工型产业特征下,规模经济与内部结构空间差异基础上的整体集约化水平低下。
    The stratagem of new-type industrialization has been taken action in the 16th congress of the Chinese Cornmunist Part.The new-type industrialization policy is a scientific solution based on the summarization of the experience and lesson derived from the process of industry all over the world. After the long-term rapid growth, the economy cardinal number incresed rapidly, if we still keep on the traditional mode of development, the supply of resources and the durability of enviroment will become frustrations that can not be overcome. And new-type industrialization emphasized high science and technology content, good economic benefit, low resources consuming, little enviroment pollution and human resources sufficient application. New-type industrialization puting higher demands on county-level economy development in Zhejiang. This paper builds up a new-type industrialization evaluation system, based on the Principal Compnoent Analysis. There three principal compnoents: first is industry size and technology factor; second is industry process and structure factor; third is environment protected and low energy sources consuming factor. After calculating the compositive scores of every administrative district,the paper makes use of ESDA-GIS frame work to analyze spatial difference of new-type industrialization of county area in Zhejiang. Spatial analysis needed in New-type industrialization research for the observed spatial values are not independent each other,i.e.,(or) they do not follow the same distribution,and(or) there is a trend along different directions. The Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA),which based on the computing spatial autocorelation and spatial heterogeneity,is also used to detect the geographical dynamics of Zhejiang regional disparity patterns. There are significant positive spatial autocorrelation (Moran’s I) of New-type industrialization level in Zhejiang. Moran’s I Scatter plots and LISA (Local Indicators of Spatial Association) cluster maps are used to test the local pattern of the New-type industrialization development. The result illustrates that the spatial pattern of new-type industrialization comprehensive level in Zhejiang is more advanced in northeastern region than southwestern region; and the region development is mainly driven by the growth poles, such as Hangzhou, Ningbo, Wenzhou, Taizhou; there is prominence spatial difference between region development, and the two-side club (high level club and low level club) convergence exists in the growth of industrialization in Zhejiang. The region around Hangzhou bay and region of Wenzhou & Taizhou, had become the high level club convergence, and the southwestern region maybe in the "general poor trap", the self-factors parallel combination of counties’ industrialization is not in equilibrium, and the general intensive level is low based on the light industry and spatial differences of size and structure. Based on the analysis of new-type industrialization spatial difference pattern, the paper puts forward some suggestions: industry regional organization should change to cluster of international industry, in order to accelerate the development of poor districts; improving the ability of region innovation and making region development balanced the development of central urban in undeveloped district; enhancing basic infrastructure services and using the stratagem of point-axis spatial development pattern; strengthening region correspond mechanism in order to promote the flow of elements and optimizing the industry distribution.
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    城市工业空间增长的多智能体模型
    杨青生;黎夏
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 515-522.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.515
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    城市工业空间增长的多智能体模型
    杨青生, 黎夏
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 515-522.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.515
    摘要   PDF (410KB)
    城市工业及基本就业空间的增长,是城市空间增长的动力源。有效模拟和预测城市基本就业空间的增长,对城市整体空间增长和城市系统的调控有着重要的作用。以城市工业及基本就业空间增长的决策主体——工业企业商和政府决策者,作为多智能体,通过多智能体之间的交流、竞争和协作,多智能体和环境间的交互作用,决定已存在工业区位的迁移和新工业空间区位的选择,形成城市工业及基本就业空间增长的动态微观模型。以珠江三角洲东部城市快速发展的樟木头镇为例,采用提出的方法模拟了该地区1988~2004年的工业及基本就业空间增长,获得了良好的模拟结果。
    Industrial development and employment growth are the important driving forces for urban growth. This paper simulates urban industrial spatial evolution by integrating Multi-agent systems (MAS), cellular automata (CA) and GIS. In this study, an agent-based system is developed based on CA to simulate complex urban systems by incorporating human factors and physical factors. Human factors are incorporated into the model by agents' decision actions, which embody uncertainties and complex behaviors in the simulation process. Government organizers and industrial investors are considered to be agents, which decide industrial spatial evolution in this model. Government agents and industrial investor agents are used to make decisions for determining the choice of new industrial locations and existing industrial allocation by considering a series of complex physical and economic factors. Urban industrial spatial development is shaped by interactions, competition, collaboration among different agents and between these agents and the environment.The agent-based modeling technique was applied to the simulation of the spatial evolution of industry in the Zhangmutou town of the Pearl River Delta in 1988-2004. The comparison analysis indicates that the proposed model has much better performance than pure CA models in simulating complex urban development in micro-levels. It is because the human and social factors can be well incorporated in the simulation process.
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    区域土壤植被系统蒸散发二源遥感估算
    张万昌;高永年
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 523-528.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.523
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    区域土壤植被系统蒸散发二源遥感估算
    张万昌, 高永年
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 523-528.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.523
    摘要   PDF (1573KB)
    针对干旱半干旱复杂地形区地表起伏、覆被不均一、植被稀疏的特征,论文对N'95二源遥感模型中地表净辐射计算方案以及地表反照率、零平面位移、动量粗糙长度、热量粗糙长度、动量和热量的稳定度校正项、土壤表面的空气动力学阻抗等算法有针对性地进行了修改。利用修改后的N'95模型, 选择位于黄土高原的地表起伏大, 植被稀疏的陕甘宁交界区为研究区, 计算了研究区的土壤蒸发、植被蒸腾和土壤-植被总蒸散发; 并利用附加阻抗法计算实际蒸散发的方法对N'95二源模型法遥感估算结果进行了间接精度评价, 比较验证表明N'95二源模型法估算的蒸散发结果合理,精高较高。
    Concerning with the complex characteristics of the arid, semi-arid terrain surface, such as undulating topography, un-unique land use/covers and less vegetated land surface, etc. the N’95 model integrated with remote sensing techniques for the estimation of actual evapotranspiration was modified and improved with the focus on the estimation of the net radiation received by surface considering the influence of slope and aspect to the solar shortwave irradiance and surface long-wave irradiance. In addition to that, albedo, displacement height, roughness length for momentum, roughness length for heat, the diabatic correction factors for momentum and heat, the resistance to heat flow in the boundary layer directly ediately above the soil surface in the original N’95 model were modified with new approaches to enable the application of the model more easier in operation and much accurate in computation in terms of specific terrain surface conditions. The instantaneous evapotranspiration was estimated with the modified N’95 model by using the Landsat ETM+ data for an experimental study site located on the conjuncture area of Shaanxi, Gansu and Ningxia where the terrain surface is very undulating with less vegetation developed, heavy soil and water loss loess plateau. And then the spatial pattern of the instantaneous evapotranspiration was analyzed. Actual instantaneous evapotranspiration of 3033 verification points of the study area was calculated with the extra resistance method to compare with the modified N’95 model estimated, which suggested that the modified N’95 model can be used for the accurate estimation of evapotranspiration in arid and semi-arid rugged terrain area covered by sparse vegetation.
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    基于遥感数据的苏州市热岛效应时空变化特征分析
    徐永明;覃志豪;朱焱
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 529-534.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.529
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    基于遥感数据的苏州市热岛效应时空变化特征分析
    徐永明, 覃志豪, 朱焱
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 529-534.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.529
    摘要   PDF (588KB)
    城市化对于城市环境的一个重要影响是热岛效应。为了研究苏州市20多年来城市化进程对热岛效应的影响,采用遥感与GIS相结合的方法来定量的分析城市热环境的时空变化。根据1986和2004年两个时相的Landsat TM影像提取了研究区的土地覆盖以及亮温信息,在此基础上通过统计分析和GIS的缓冲区分析对这18 a来苏州地区的热岛时空变化及其与土地覆盖变化的关系进行了深入研究。分析结果表明,城市热岛与城区的空间分布之间存在明显的一致性。
    One of the significant environmental consequences of urbanization is the urban heat island (UHI). To study the urban heat island in Suzhou City, remote sensing and GIS technology were utilized to quantitatively analyze the thermal spatial and temporal distribution. Landsat TM images from 1986 and 2004 were selected to derive brightness temperature and land cover maps. Then statistics and GIS buffer analysis were conducted to investigate the thermal pattern changes over a 18-year period. The combined analysis of the temperature images and land cover maps indicates that there is an evident development of the UHI in the 18 years and significant coherence between the urban thermal patterns and urban spatial distribution. This paper also suggests the advantages of remote sensing as an objective and effective method for assessing and understanding spatial characteristics and dynamic changes of urban thermal environment.
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    苏北盐沼DMS、CS_2和CH_4排放通量沿高程梯度的变化
    王进欣;孙书存;王今殊;仲崇庆;邢伟
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 535-539.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.535
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    苏北盐沼DMS、CS2和CH4排放通量沿高程梯度的变化
    王进欣, 孙书存, 王今殊, 仲崇庆, 邢伟
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 535-539.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.535
    摘要   PDF (394KB)
    在中国东部海岸带盐沼沿环境梯度采用静态箱技术原位测定CH4、DMS和CS2气体的通量。结果表明,苏北海岸带盐沼整体上表现为CH4、DMS和CS2气体的源,其中,互花米草带(Spartina alterniflora)排放率最高。CH4、DMS和CS2排放率之间的正相关关系支持DMS是甲烷生产底物的推断。高等植物地上部分是CH4、DMS和CS2气体的重要源,但植物排放这些气体的机制还不清楚。盐沼CH4、DMS和CS2气体的净排放可能与盐沼丰富的有机质含量有关,有机质为土壤微生物提供充足的碳源和能量。
    The fluxes of methane (CH4), dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and carbon disulfide (CS2)) were seasonally measured using static flux chambers over an annual cycle along an elevational gradient of a eastern Chinese coastal salt marsh. To estimate the contribution of higher plants to the fluxes, plant aboveground biomass was experimentally removed and the flux differences between the treatment and the intact were examined. The salt marsh generally functioned as a source for CH4, DMS and CS2, with the maximum occurring at the cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) marsh. CH4 emission rates were positively correlated to those of DMS and CS2, indicating a possible coupling between sulphur and carbon cycles in the study marsh. Comparative analyses showed that higher plants were present as an important source of CH4, DMS and CS2. However, the mechanism underlying plant emissions is not clear. CH4, DMS and CS2 emission rates were positively correlated to soil organic matter content and total nitrogen content, suggesting that the observed overall net emissions of CH4, DMS and CS2 might result from the enriched soil organic matter, which feed soil microorganisms using organic matter as a source for both carbon and energy.
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    基于GIS的安徽省土壤有机碳密度的空间分布特征
    程先富;谢勇
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 540-544.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.540
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    基于GIS的安徽省土壤有机碳密度的空间分布特征
    程先富, 谢勇
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 540-544.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.540
    摘要   PDF (795KB)
    在GIS技术支持下,建立安徽省土壤数据库,揭示安徽省土壤有机碳密度空间分布特征。结果表明:安徽省0~100 cm土体中土壤有机碳密度在0.92~40.97 kg/m2之间,均值为10.39 kg/m2;从空间分布上看,从北向南有机碳密度逐渐增加,有机碳密度大部分在3~19 kg/m2之间,其分布面积占总面积的89.72%;在各土壤类型中山地草甸土有机碳密度最大,而潮土、黄褐土、石质土有机碳密度较小;草地的有机碳密度最大,耕地最小;土壤有机碳密度与海拔高度之间存在高度相关,随着坡度、降雨量的增加,平均有机碳密度逐渐加大。
    Based on GIS technique, soil database and spatial distribution patterns of soil organic carbon density of Anhui was established. The relationships between the soil organic carbon density and land use, soil type, terrain factors were investigated. The results showed that the range of soil organic carbon density is between 0.92 kg/m2 and 40.97 kg/m2 in 0-100 cm profile depth, average 10.39 kg/m2. The range of soil organic carbon density was mainly between 3 kg/m2 and 19 kg/m2, which accounts for 89.72% of the total area. The maximum value of soil organic carbon density is in mountain meadow soil and the minimum is in fluvo-aquic soil, yellow cinnamon soil and lithosol in different soil types. The maximum is in forestland, minimum is in the farmland in different land uses; soil organic carbon density had the high correlation with elevation. The mean soil organic carbon density gradually increased with slope and rainfall. Soil organic carbon density increased from north to south in Anhui Province.
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    东北漫岗黑土区浅沟侵蚀发育特征
    胡刚;伍永秋;刘宝元;郑秋红;张永光;魏欣
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 545-549.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.545
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    东北漫岗黑土区浅沟侵蚀发育特征
    胡刚, 伍永秋, 刘宝元, 郑秋红, 张永光, 魏欣
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 545-549.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.545
    摘要   PDF (643KB)
    东北黑土区是中国重要商品粮基地之一,沟道恶性扩张,已成为导致该区土地退化主要原因之一。利用全球定位系统和传统方法测量浅沟形态参数,结合地理信息系统(GIS)平台计算流域尺度的沟蚀现状,分析东北黑土区浅沟侵蚀发育特征,并对比分析其与黄土高原浅沟侵蚀发生的地貌因子之间的异同。研究表明,研究区浅沟分布密度0.56~0.93 km/km2,年侵蚀模数达到118~199 m3/km2,浅沟破坏面积占流域面积比例达0.11%~0.19%,浅沟沟壑密度已经达到中度和强度侵蚀,处于快速发展时期;研究区浅沟的临界汇水面积大于黄土高原,分布的临界坡度小于黄土高原,这主要由黑土区坡长坡缓的特点决定。
    With the deepen understanding of soil erosion at spatial scale, gully erosion has been attracted more interest than ever. The black soils in Northeast China is one of the important bases for food supplies, but now the soil erosion, especially the fast expansion of gully erosion, has been one of the most important reasons for soil degradation. This paper made use of Global Positioning System (GPS) to measure the shape characteristics of ephemeral gully(EG), the platform of Geographical Information System to calculate the status of EG erosion, and analysis the geomorphic factors to determine the occurrence of EG erosion. The results show that the distribution density of EG is 0.56-0.93 km/km2, its annual erosion modulus is between 118 m3/km2 and 199 m3/km2, and the proportion of the destroyed area by EG come up to 0.11%-0.19% of the watershed area. These indicated that gully density has reached middle and intensity degree erosion, being in rapid growth stage. It was also found that the threshold catchment area of EG in the study area is larger than that in the Loess Plateau, whereas the threshold slope smaller than that in the Loess Plateau. Meantime, the analyses indicated that the volume of ephemeral gully is determined mostly by its length that is mostly determined by the length of watershed. This means that mostly the length of the watershed determines the volume of ephemeral gully, which undoubtedly provides a referred thought for the construction of gully model.
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    基于落水洞的岩溶半分布式水文模型的构建及其应用
    蒙海花;王腊春;苏维词;霍雨
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 550-554.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.550
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    基于落水洞的岩溶半分布式水文模型的构建及其应用
    蒙海花, 王腊春, 苏维词, 霍雨
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 550-554.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.550
    摘要   PDF (802KB)
    以贵州省普定县后寨河流域为例,设计1个分单元计算产流和引入落水洞计算汇流过程的半分布式水文模型,先采用不同计算方法分单元模拟产流,后引入落水洞,计算落水洞的汇流路径,在单元区间和落水洞注入汇流中采用水箱模型和在地下管道和河道汇流中引入Nash瞬时单位线进行汇流演算,利用1988、1989年的资料对该模型进行参数率定和检验。结果表明:该模型在后寨河流域有良好的适用性,流量总量上趋于平衡,径流趋势一致,对洪峰、洪量控制较好。
    Taken the Houzhai River karst basin in Puding County, Guizhou Province as an example, a karst sinkhole-based semi-distributed hydrological model is established, which includes two part: watershed runoff yield calculation and concentration calculation. The authors adopt different runoff yield calculation models to calculate every grid's runoff yield. In concentration calculation, we firstly analyze the confluence routing of the sinkhole, the water injection into the underground pipeline through sinkhole using single tank model, and other parts of confluence using the two-layer tank model. The concentration of channel and underground pipeline is expressed with instantaneous unit hydrograph.To test the model, the authors choose two-year precipitation processes between 1988 and 1989. After comparing the simulated process with the observed data, we can draw a conclusion that the proposed semi-distributed hydrological model in this paper is reasonable for simulating rainfall-runoff process.
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    土地利用及其变化对松辽流域非点源污染影响研究
    王秀娟;刘瑞民;何孟常
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 555-560.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.555
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    土地利用及其变化对松辽流域非点源污染影响研究
    王秀娟, 刘瑞民, 何孟常
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 555-560.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.555
    摘要   PDF (978KB)
    结合RS和GIS技术,利用输出系数模型对松辽流域20世纪80年代至2000年由土地利用/覆盖变化造成的非点源污染负荷进行模拟。结果表明,近15 a间,由土地利用造成的非点源污染负荷基本呈逐渐上升趋势,其中TN从80年代106.7×104 t上升到1995年110.2×104 t,2000年上升到约112.1×104 t。TP从80年代3.4×104 t上升到1995年3.5×104 t,2000年继续上升至3.6×104 t。就省份而言,黑龙江省一直是TN、TP负荷总量最高的地区,多年平均贡献率分别为37.9%和38.8%。而吉林和东辽河水系则是负荷强度最高的地区,今后应重点加强该地区治理。
    Now, the study of non-point source (NPS) pollution of large and medium-sized basin is still not common. In this paper, spatial-temporal changes of non-point source pollution in Songliao Basin over the last 15 years were studied based on the simulation of its load by export coefficient model. The results indicated that, the non-point load caused by land use change increased year by year. For TN, it increased from 1.07?106 in 1986 to 1.12?106 in 2000, and for TP, it increased from 3.4?104 in 1986 to 3.6?104 in 2000. Heilongjiang Province was the most important contributor, with an average annual contribution-ratio of 37.9% and 38.8% for TN and TP respectively. The region of Jilin Province and the watershed of the Dongliao River are two highest NPS pollution load intensity areas that should be gained more attention in the future, with average annual 1.45 t/km2, 0.05 t/km2 and 2.21t/km2, 0.07 t/km2 respectively for TN and TP. Using the method put forward in this paper, spatial simulation of NPS pollution can be effectively carried out in large scale basin such as Songliao Basin.
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    元谋干热河谷近50年分季节降水变化的DFA分析
    张斌;史凯;刘春琼;艾南山;刘刚才;覃发超
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 561-566.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.561
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    元谋干热河谷近50年分季节降水变化的DFA分析
    张斌, 史凯, 刘春琼, 艾南山, 刘刚才, 覃发超
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 561-566.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.561
    摘要   PDF (289KB)
    运用消除趋势波动分析法(DFA)分析元谋干热河谷1956~2006年分季节降水量变化趋势,对1978~2006年进行滑移分析。结果表明,元谋干热河谷分季节降水量时间序列至少在50 a的尺度上具有微弱的Hurst效应:夏、冬季具有较弱的长期持续性及较强的随机性,春、秋季具有较弱的反持续性。植被生物量和盖度的年际和季节变化所引起的下垫面性质改变,是干热河谷分季节降水量变化的重要原因。元谋干热河谷降水量的变化对当地植被恢复和农业生产活动等具有较强的指导意义。
    The dry-hot valley is a special kind of ecosystem degradation region in Hengduan Mountains. Changes of seasonal precipitation have important influnces on its landscape patterns and agricultural activities. Based on the method of Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), the trend of seasonal precipitation of Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley during 1956-2006 and moving series during 1978-2006 are anlyzed. The results show that there is an obvious Hurst Effect at scale of 50 years as to the time series of seasonal precipitation of Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley—relative weak persistent long-range and relative strong randomness in the summer and winter, relative weak anti-correlation in the spring and autumn. Change of underlying surfaces, caused by the annual and seasonal changes of biomass and vegetation coverage, is contributed to the seasonal variations of precipitation.
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    莱州浅滩表层沉积物重金属分布与区域动力沉积格局关系
    王庆;刘亚龙;徐强;宋传广;仲少云;杜国云;金秉福
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 567-572.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.567
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    莱州浅滩表层沉积物重金属分布与区域动力沉积格局关系
    王庆, 刘亚龙, 徐强, 宋传广, 仲少云, 杜国云, 金秉福
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 567-572.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.567
    摘要   PDF (1779KB)
    通过表层沉积物粒度测试、重金属测试及相关分析、大比例制图,对莱州浅滩及附近海域海底表层沉积物重金属含量分布与动力沉积环境关系进行了研究。结果表明,与区域动力沉积格局对应,浅滩及附近海域表层沉积物各元素含量呈现出中部低、两侧高的马鞍型分布格局,即动力较强的浅滩东北侧低于动力较弱的西南侧,而动力最强的浅滩顶部又低于浅滩东北侧。其中,受浅滩两侧两个潮余环流控制,浅滩两侧各重金属含量均呈现出中心高、周围低的向心状分布格局。但是,重金属含量分布并不完全对应于区域动力沉积格局,且不同元素间有显著差异。
    On the basis of high density sampling, granularity testing, heavy metal content testing and large-scale geochemistry map drawing of the surface sediments, we researched the content and distribution characteristics of heavy metals of surface sediment in the Laizhou shoal and its surrounding region. The results show that(1)controlled by the regional dynamic environment, the content of every heavy metal presents a notable saddle-shaped regional distribution pattern with a low content area with the strongest dynamic processes between two high content areas; (2) controlled by the two tidal residual current circles along the two sides of the shoal, every heavy metal of the sediment samples both in the area northeast to the shoal and the area southwest to the shoal presents a notable centripetal shaped regional distribution pattern with high values in center and low values around;(3) there is significant difference between the heavy metal content distribution and the regional dynamic sedimentation among different metals.
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    基于趋势面分析的男性肺一氧化碳弥散量与地理因素
    何进伟;葛淼;崔致远;王欣;曹利霞;闫燕春;王志奎
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 573-576.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.573
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    基于趋势面分析的男性肺一氧化碳弥散量与地理因素
    何进伟, 葛淼, 崔致远, 王欣, 曹利霞, 闫燕春, 王志奎
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 573-576.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.573
    摘要   PDF (844KB)
    运用相关分析法研究中国健康成年男性肺一氧化碳弥散量参考值与海拔高度、年日照时数、年平均气温、气温年较差、年平均相对湿度、年降水量、年平均风速、年平均总云量关系。海拔高度是影响成年男性肺一氧化碳弥散量参考值最主要的因素。以多元回归分析理论为基础,构造趋势面回归数学模型。应用GIS内插成年男性肺一氧化碳弥散量参考值空间趋势图,知晓中国某地地理坐标,用此模型可估算该地成年男性肺一氧化碳弥散量参考值,从空间趋势图可得任意地区肺一氧化碳弥散量参考值。
    A research is made about the relationship between the normal reference value of 15549 cases of Chinese adult men’s diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide of lung (DLCO) and altitude, annual sunshine duration, annual mean air temperature, annual range of air temperature, annual mean relative humidity, annual precipitation, and annual mean cloud cover in China, which are determined by the way of single breath method, using the methods of correlation analysis. It is found that altitude is the main factor affecting the reference value of Chinese adult men’s DLCO. Applying the method of trend surface model, one model is given out. Applying the spatial analysis of GIS, a distribution map about Chinese adult men’s DLCO can be made. If geographical values are obtained in some areas, the reference value of Chinese adult men’s DLCO of those areas can be reckoned using trend surface model, the distribution map also shows the anywhere of normal reference value of Chinese adult men’s DLCO.
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    基于CLUE-S和Markov复合模型的土地利用情景模拟研究——以江苏省环太湖地区为例
    陆汝成;黄贤金;左天惠;肖思思;赵小风;张兴榆
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 577-581.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.577
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    基于CLUE-S和Markov复合模型的土地利用情景模拟研究——以江苏省环太湖地区为例
    陆汝成, 黄贤金, 左天惠, 肖思思, 赵小风, 张兴榆
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 577-581.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.577
    摘要   PDF (827KB)
    基于江苏省环太湖地区1990、2000年TM影像和2005年中巴卫星遥感影像,综合集成区域DEM、交通图和居民点分布图等,充分利用CLUE-S模型空间模拟特长和Markov模型数量预测优势,应用 CLUE-S和Markov复合模型及GIS分析技术分别对现有土地转移速率发展和根据规划约束对转移概率进行调整的严格保护耕地的土地利用变化情景进行时空模拟,揭示不同情景下的土地利用格局变化。通过模拟得知,江苏省环太湖地区今后确需控制建设用地总量,提高节约集约用地水平,最严格地保护水田等优质耕地。
    Based on the remote sensing image in the years 1990, 2000 and 2005, combined with regional DEM, traffic map, residential area maps and so on, this paper simulated the land use change scenarios through the application of CLUE-S, Markov composite model and GIS, explored the trend of land use change in different scenarios. The results show that CLUE-S and Markov composite model can simulate spatial and temporal land use changes in Taihu Lake rim. In simulation of the future land use scenarios, "scenarioⅠ" assumes that simulation of the land use change scenarios will obey the current land transfer rate. The result shows construction land will increase sharply and paddy fields reduce immensely in 2015. However, the "scenarioⅡ" supposes that land use change scenarios will follow the policy of strictly protecting cultivated land based on the constraints of land use planning, the rate which paddy field and dry land convert construction land will be slow down 50% and 20% from 2005. The reducing rate of paddy fields will less reduce 21.16%, and increasing the rate of construction land will less increased 20.82% in 2015 than the current land transfer rate’s scenario. For future regional land use regulation and management and in order to ensure food security and scientific land use, and promote rational economic growth around the Taihu Lake Region, it is important to strengthen the protection of cultivated land and control the construction land area.
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    从山前砾石看黄河形成与吕梁山隆升
    李建星;岳乐平;徐永;孙蕗;孙勃;王晓勇;白斌
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 582-586.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.582
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    从山前砾石看黄河形成与吕梁山隆升
    李建星, 岳乐平, 徐永, 孙蕗, 孙勃, 王晓勇, 白斌
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 582-586.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.582
    摘要   PDF (966KB)
    野外调查和前人资料表明吕梁山前新生代砾石层特征如下:(1)平行于吕梁山方向砾石层延伸很长,基本与吕梁山如影相随,垂直于吕梁山方向延伸不远,一般不越过晋陕谷地;(2)砾石层在东西向剖面上呈东厚西薄不对称楔形,砾石粒径自吕梁山往外逐渐变细,分选性和磨圆度提高。(3)各地砾石相对单一但因地而异,主要来自毗邻的吕梁山基岩。砾石层空间分布特征、砾石成份与毗邻基岩区耦合关系及典型剖面沉积学研究表明,砾石层是吕梁山前冲积扇相堆积,是吕梁山新生代隆升剥蚀产物,非南北向黄河阶地堆积物。
    Field investigation and previous studies about the Cenozoic gravel beds in the piedmont of Lüliang Mountains have indicated that these gravel beds are characterized by the following: (1) The gravel beds, which always go with Lüliang Mountains but scarcely go beyond the Huanghe (Yellow) River valley, extend further in parallel than in vertical direction of the mountains. (2) The gravel beds show a asymmetric wedge shape (thicker in the east) in E-W direction, and have smaller granularity, better gradation and psephicity in the west. (3) The composition of gravels is relatively unitary but varying in the different locations. It is originated mainly from the bedrock in the adjacent Lüliang Mountains. Based on the study of spatial distribution of the gravel beds, adjacent bedrock's composition and typical profile sedimentology, this paper suggest that the gravel beds could be treated as deposits of alluvial fan facies resulted from Lüliang Mountains's Uplift in Cenozoic Era rather than the terrace accumulation of the Huanghe River in S-N direction.
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    中国主体功能区划面临的基础理论问题
    丁四保
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 587-592.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.587
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    综述
    中国主体功能区划面临的基础理论问题
    丁四保
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 587-592.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.587
    摘要   PDF (1168KB)
    国家的主体功能区划给地理学提出了许多重大的理论问题。功能区不同于以往的差异区,是外部性视角下的产物,强调的是一个区域对于其他区域的作用,而不是它们之间的差异性。提出了外部性定义下区域"空间作用"的特征,以区别于人们通常提到的"空间相互作用",也讨论了"相互作用"概念的模糊性。提出,对"地理运动"的考察可以证实外部性和空间作用,但是这个考察将遇到方法上的困难,因此成为主体功能区划面临的一个重要的基础理论问题。主体功能区划面临的另一个基本理论问题是如何划分不同空间规律作用下的区域边界,强调自然综合体的区域边界遵循的是区域分异规律,而经济发展空间过程遵循的是中心地理论,两者不能混淆。"资源环境承载力"是一个消极的概念,容易忽视人类文明的进步,也没有涉及地表生态环境与地下矿物资源的关系。与资源环境承载力相关的问题是,主体功能区划的价值目标是要实现人口的合理配置。针对这个目标,从理论上讲,过去和现在形成的人口配置基本符合环境承载力的地理格局,从实践上讲,迁移人口会遇到国际政治、国内就业机会、城市体制、民族地区等诸多障碍。
    The plan of the Essential Function Region System of China advanced some grand theoretical issues in geography. First, the article considered the function region is the result of view of externality, and is different from the disparity regions in the past. The function region is stressed the act of the region to the others but not the difference between the regions. The auhur pointed out the character of the spatial act defined by externality, which distinguished the interactive act, and the faintness of the concept of action. It is pointed out, the geographical movement is the key to approve the externality and the space action. But it is difficulties to be approved because the difficult of the research means, which is the one of the grand theoretical issues faced with the Essential Function Region System. The another theoretical issue is how to plot out the boundary of the regions by difference space rule. It is evident that a natural territorial complex followed a region by differed rule and the process of economic development followed a rule of central place theory. It could be not confusion. Furthermore, the article considered the carrying capacity of resources and environment is a concept of passive viewpoint in which the advancement of the human civilization is ignored and the relations between the eco-environment on earth’s surface and the mineral resources under earth’s surface is not involved. The third theoretical issue is, related to the concept of carrying capacity, that is rational population be regarded as the object of the division plan. The article pointed out the population ration is accord with the geographical situation of carrying capacity basically in the history and in current theoretically, but in the fact, population transference could meet with many obstacles such as the international politics, the absent of opportunity of employment in developed area, the city management system and the regions of minority.
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    论文
    时间地理学研究最新进展
    柴彦威;赵莹
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 593-600.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.593
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    综述
    时间地理学研究最新进展
    柴彦威, 赵莹
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 593-600.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.593
    摘要   PDF (774KB)
    近10年来,伴随着GIS技术的结合及对虚拟空间行为的研究,时间地理学在经历了一段低迷发展期后,又进入了全新的发展阶段。时间地理学不仅对早期的理论假设、空间表达方式进行了修正,以至于有人提出"新时间地理学"的概念,而且其实践应用领域也得到扩展,在城市交通规划、女性研究、城市空间结构及通讯技术使用的应用范围逐步扩大。
    Time geography is a powerful conceptual framework for understanding the constraints on human activity participation in space and time. However, it entered a downturn during the 1980s owing to methodological shortages and technological restricts. The last decade has witnessed a resurgence of time geography as researchers have improved methodology and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) develops rapidly, which broaden its application.The improvements of methodology can be concluded from four aspects: the redefinition of activities, the consideration of emotions, individual preferences, and the modification of behavioral objects. "New time geography" has been introduced which includes virtual interactions because virtual space behavior becomes as important as physical space behavior. Researchers extend the theory to include virtual interactions by introducing two new time-geography objects, which are portals and message windows, and identifying their relationships in space and time. Emotion and preference while traveling and undertaking activities in urban space, neglected in the past, have been taken into account recently and added into the presentation of space-time path in the form of different colors. In addition, assumptions of behavioral objects are modified to extensive ones including attention to vulnerable groups, especially women. Since the development of methodology, new methods of collecting spatial-temporal data, managing behavior data and representing behavior patterns have been promoted by combining with GIS. The resent development of location-aware technologies (LAT) and location-based services (LBS) provide excellent means for data collection about subjects. The principles of object-orientation have potential to manage and explore these available data, which is intensive and time consuming previously. Furthermore, it is GIS-based geo-computation and three-dimensional geo-visualization methods that make time-geographic construction more feasible than ever before. As a result, time-geographic perspective is so powerful for the analysis of human activity patterns and movements in urban space that its applications have been widened in urban transportation planning, feminine research, urban spatial structure, information and communication technologies, etc. This paper also reviews recent development of time geography in China briefly and summarizes the shortages of Chinese research in order to inspire related studies in China.
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    论文
    欧美城市滨水区研究的新视角:政治生态学转向
    王晓文
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 601-606.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.601
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    综述
    欧美城市滨水区研究的新视角:政治生态学转向
    王晓文
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 601-606.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.601
    摘要   PDF (833KB)
    欧美城市滨水区的再开发实践促进了滨水区研究的多维观察与思考,其中一个重要共识就是:在全球化与新技术革命的推动下,城市滨水区的变化是一个具有高度复杂性的现象,不仅涉及自然生态环境,更有着经济、社会和政治层面的深刻内涵;同时,还反映着从社区、地方到国家、甚至全球尺度的社会政治变迁。因此,研究发生在滨水区范围内各种变化的同时需要关注更大尺度的一些因素,需要对发生在城市中的自然生产、社会网络关系模式及政治经济结构等进行重新审视。欧美学者基于政治生态学空间与社会关系、尺度的政治学等视角对城市滨水区变化的思考,无疑为城市滨水区研究提供了一种新的理论工具。
    Urban waterfronts, where land and water meet, have always been interesting and complex spatial locations, and are generating considerable debate about their role in urban restructuring processes. The study of urban waterfronts transformations is especially important at this time not only because of the role of urban waterfronts in economic restructuring, but also because intense changes are occurring in port cities that involve major human interventions in the non-human environment. In more than 40 years passed in Europe and America, and the re-development of waterfront has advanced the multi-dimensional investigations and speculations on urban waterfronts. Thereinto, a vital enlightenment and understanding can be achieved that the change of waterfront is a very complex phenomenon, involving not only ecological environment, but also economic, social and political dimension,and imaging the social and political transformation from local to national to global scale. When studied with attention to broader transformative processes as well as the changes that occur within the scale of the urban waterfront, we allow for new insights into the production of nature, patterns of social relations, and political-economic configurations in cities. The paper focused on the political ecology of waterfronts in Europe and North America, and emphased on the myriad influences that different scales of social and environmental policy development and implementation, planning decisions, infrastructure funding, investment and ownership practices, and public engagement, for example, exerted on the social and ecological processes that occur in urban waterfronts. As with relatively small geographic areas where research was conducted, there is concern about urban waterfronts as places where 'everything happens’actually. The problems that focusing on a microcosm can cause in terms of research analysis, and avoid an understanding of urban waterfronts as static or essential spaces. Urban waterfronts are not study of objects where research attention is focused solely on what occurs within the terrain of urban waterfront areas. Rather, urban waterfronts are as one scale out of many scales and as places that are connected with decisions and phenomena that occur at varied scales. By researching transformations on urban waterfronts we can trace the way that urban waterfronts are constituted by different and variable scales, such as levels of governmental social and environmental policy or private investment practices. New political-ecological approaches that incorporate scalar analyses offer a solution to the dilemma of making conclusive observations about social and ecological occurrences within single geographical areas. Instead, an emphasis on the relational and fluid connections between and within scales of analysis provides a new method by which to analyze the re-production of spatial areas. Then we study the changes that occur within the scale of the urban waterfront, with attention to broader transformative processes, and allow for new insights into the production of nature, patterns of social entanglement, and political-economic configurations in cities. Moreover, political ecology research has embraced the complexities found in these relationships and fluidities, which offers an alternative to research that focuses solely on 'cause and effect’ analyses. In sum, political ecology offers a new and innovative theoretical and methodological approach to the study of urban waterfronts that differs from previous analyses of urban waterfronts.
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    论文
    黄山风景区旅游干扰对植物群落草本层的影响
    巩劼;陆林;晋秀龙;南伟;邢慧敏
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 607-612.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.607
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    研究报道
    黄山风景区旅游干扰对植物群落草本层的影响
    巩劼, 陆林, 晋秀龙, 南伟, 邢慧敏
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 607-613.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.607
    摘要   PDF (742KB)
    采用平均高度、平均盖度,平均物种数等单项指标及物种丰富度指数,物种多样性指数和重要值等综合指标分析了不同干扰强度对草本层植物高度,盖度,物种多样性及物种组成的影响。结果表明:旅游干扰对草本层高度的影响明显,游径边缘干扰强度最大地段草本层植物高度明显降低;旅游干扰对草本层盖度影响不明显,虽然随干扰强度的降低,草本层盖度有所上升,但不同干扰强度下盖度差异并不显著;旅游干扰增加了物种的多样性,游径边缘干扰强度最大地段物种数最多;同时干扰也对草本层物种组成产生了一定影响,随干扰强度增加,耐践踏植物及伴人植物比例增加。旅游干扰对植物群落草本层植被影响的空间范围大约在距游径10 m以内。
    Impacts of tourism on vegetation play an important role in recreation ecology studies. Huangshang Mountain is a famous scenic area in China. It is inevitable for tourism development over long period of time to bring negative influence on environment. In order to understand the effects of tourism disturbance on vegetation in Huangshang Mountain scenic area, field survey was made in main routes and areas of Huangshang Mountain. The effects under different intensities of tourism disturbance on the height of plant, the cover of vegetation, the species diversity and species composition in herb layer was analyzed by followed indicators: the average height of plants, the average cover of vegetation, the average number of species, species richness index (Margalef index) D, species diversity index (Shannon-Wiener index )H’ and importance value . The conclusions are as follows: Tourism disturbance bring an obvious impact to the plant height in herb layer. The plant height decreased evidently at the trailside where there is the largest disturbance. The plants are about the same height in other further sites. The impact of tourism on vegetation cover is not great. With the increase of disturbance, there is a little rise in vegetation cover, but the change is not evident. The disturbance raises the diversity of species. There is the highest amount of plant species in the edge of trails, but the highest values of Margalef index and Shannon-Wiener index occurred in 5m away from the trails. There is a variation in species composition of community under various intensities of tourism disturbance. With the increase of tourism disturbance, the number of plant species that are more tolerant to trampling increased and the proportions of anthropochory species show the same trend. The effects of tourism disturbance are not the same in three districts in Huangshang Mountain scenic area. The different effects can attribute to the difference of environmental condition and the intensity of tourism disturbance in three districts, although the difference in effects of tourism disturbance is not evident. The spatial extent of tourism influence is about in 10m away from the trail in Huangshang Mountain scenic area.
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    论文
    中国旅游业发展空间差异的综合评判
    杨建明
    地理科学. 2009, 19 (4): 613-618.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.613
    摘要   PDF (0KB)

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    研究报道
    中国旅游业发展空间差异的综合评判
    杨建明
    地理科学. 2009, 29 (4): 613-618.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2009.04.613
    摘要   PDF (736KB)
    从旅游收入、游客人数、旅游交通和旅游接待设施4个方面寻找评价旅游业发展空间差异的相对性指标,构建了一种中国旅游业发展空间差异的综合评判模型。评判结果表明,在31个省级行政区中,旅游业的发达程度具有从沿海向内陆、从东、南部向西、北部逐渐减弱的趋势,这与从沿海向内陆逐步对外开放的步伐以及经济发展的客观规律是一致的。研究还表明,旅游业最发达的地区是北京、上海和天津传统直辖市,这与以往认为广东省居于旅游业发展之首的结论有所不同。
    The spatial disparity of tourism development is one of the major issues in the study of regional tourism development. As defined by geographical location, tourist resources, social and historical culture, economic growth, traffic condition, fundamental infrastructure, and so on, the development of the tourist industry in China has manifested a great regional disparity, on which many studies have been carried out during the past decade. The review of the previous studies, however, suggests that there exist at least two deficiencies in the correlated studies. Firstly, there is little attention has been paid to the difference of population numbers and areas by the regional comparison of tourism development. Secondly, the indicators used to express the regional difference in tourism development are usually the single factors, such as tourist arrivals or tourist receipts. As the population numbers and areas in 31 provincial level districts in China are very different, and the tourism is a very complex socio-economic phenomenon, it is necessary to find out some relative factors that can really reflect the tourism development, with which the regional disparity of tourism development can be synthetically assessed.Through the analysis of the relative factors concerning the tourist receipts, tourist arrivals, tourist traffic, as well as tourist infrastructure, 4 indicators such as average tourist receipts per resident, tourist density, road net density, as well as tourist bed density were selected and calculated in this paper for establishing a synthetic model, with which the regional disparities of tourism development in China have been analyzed. The assessing results indicate that, of the 31 provincial level districts in China, the developing degree of tourist industry has generally decreased from coastal areas to the inland, and from South East to North West, this is consistent with the trend of Chinese opening pace that expands gradually from the coastal to the inland districts, and conforms to the objective laws of economic development as well. The most developed districts in tourism locate mainly in eastern coastal areas, including the municipalities Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, as well as provinces Zhejiang, Jiangsu and Liaoning. The districts Chongqing, Shandong, Fujian, Guangdong and Hainan take second place in tourism development. They occupy also the location in coastal areas except Chongqing City. The tourist development in the northern and western parts of China, including Jilin, Heilongjiang, Neimenggu, Gansu, Ningxia, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Xizang districts, is the weakest in China. The rest districts, concentrate principally on middle and southeastern parts of China, show middle and relatively weak development in tourism. The research demonstrates also that the most developed districts of tourist industry in China are traditional great cities such as Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin, this conclusion is obviously different from that of the previous studies,which suggested that the Guangdong Province has ranked the first place in tourism development in China.
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