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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2011-02-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    中国海陆过渡带——海岸海洋环境特征与变化研究
    王颖, 季小梅
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 129-135.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.129
    摘要   PDF (379KB)
    海岸海洋是陆地与海洋过渡的地带,位居亚洲与太平洋之交的中国海岸类型丰富,河海交互作用与人类活动影响使海岸海洋环境与作用过程独具特色。河流的贯通作用,使得全球变化与人类活动对河流流域的作用,亦在海岸海洋地区表现出来,并对海洋环境形成显著的影响。历史与现实实例表明,在海岸海洋的开发利用中需重视研究海陆交互过渡带环境特征,尽可能减小人类活动对海岸海洋环境的负面效应。人们应调查研究区域海岸环境特点,探索其动力过程机制,阐明其发展变化趋势,依据自然规律,在阀值极限的范围内规划设计工程与开发利用,才可达到事半功倍与避免灾害的效果,确保海岸海洋的可持续性开发利用。
    Coastal ocean is the transitional zone between the land and the ocean.It extends from coastal Zone to the outer edge of the continental shelves, then continues to continental slopes and continental rises.Approximately matching the region that has been alternately flooded and exposed during the sea level fluctuations of the late Quaternary period, and has covered relatively complete zones with land and ocean interactions.It is an independent environment system which is different from the land and the deep ocean, and is closely related to human living activities.Since ’The United Nations Law of Sea Convention’took effect in 1994, coastal ocean has become a hotspot of the earth sciences domain because of the requirement of maritime sovereignty and resources development.Located on the interaction zone of Asia and the Pacific Ocean, Chinese coast is of various types.The coastal ocean environment and processes are unique due to the river-sea interaction and the influence of human activities.Evolution of China coast reflects the influence of geology, rivers, climate, typhoons, waves, tides, shelf currents, and sea level changes.While tectonics control the broad scale appearance of the coast (either embayed bedrock in emergent regions or plain coast in subsiding regions), rivers dominate the supply of sediment to the sea and help control erosional/accretionary trends.The influence of global change and human activities on river drainage areas also appears in coastal ocean area and affects marine environment remarkably due to the transfixion action of the rivers.The coastal classification was applied to dividing the coast of China into four major sectors.The impact of rivers, waves and tides on coastal processes in each of these sectors varies widely, ranging from river-dominated in the Bohai Sea sector, to wave-dominated in the southern Guangdong/Guangxi sector.The characteristics and problems in the coastal development are analyzed taking the plain coast as an example.The eastern coast has been a living and multiplying place of China for a long time.However, the characteristics of the environmental system of the land-ocean transitional zone have not been well understood.The contemporary large scale development induced a series of problems.The negative effects such as seawater pollution caused the decline of precipitation and freshwater quality, with frequent red tide disasters, and endanger human life.Therefore, more attention should be paid to the study of the environmental characteristics of the land-ocean transitional zone.It is very important to understand the variability of the environmental factors and to standardize the development activities.Historical and realistic examples show that people should investigate the environmental features of the study area, explore the mechanism of its dynamical processes, illustrate the trend of its development, and design projects within the threshold limits to avoid human-induced disasters.
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    天然湿地土壤产甲烷菌及其影响因子研究进展
    刘德燕, 丁维新
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 136-142.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.136
    摘要   PDF (650KB)
    综合评述了天然湿地产甲烷菌种类、主要产甲烷途径的空间变异及其影响因子。温度不仅可以改变产甲烷菌群落结构和功能,也可影响产甲烷菌功能发挥,目前有关温度对湿地土壤甲烷产生的影响机制有待揭示。以乙酸为底物的产甲烷菌大多生存于维管束植物生长的湿地,H2/CO2还原则为苔藓泥炭沼泽甲烷产生的主要途径;在pH<4.7的偏酸性湿地中,自由态乙酸可以降低乙酸发酵型产甲烷菌活性,而氢营养型产甲烷菌和部分其他微生物可能具有自身的弥补机制。还提出今后中国沼泽湿地产甲烷菌和甲烷排放有待加强研究的主要内容。
    The spatial variability of predominant methanogenic archaea, main pathways of methane production and their influencing factors in natural wetlands are reviewed.Temperature could not only directly alter the community structure and function of methanogenic archaea, but also might affect the supply of substrates for methanogens, which in turn indirectly regulate the function of methanogenic archaea.The underlying mechanism of temperature on methane production in natural wetlands is not to be understood clearly.Acetoclastic methanogens generally live in wetlands vegetated with vascular plants, while reduction of H2/CO2 or hydrogenotrophic methanogensis is the main pathway for methane production in peatland where few vascular plants is present.The presence of free acetic acid in wetlands might reduce the activities of acetoclastic methanogens when pH is <4.7, but hydrogenotrophic methanogens and other microorganisms might have a special mechanism to compensate for decoupling by acetic acid.Meanwhile, we also give hints on future studies from natural wetlands in China.
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    基于三角模糊数随机模拟的地下水环境系统综合风险评价模型
    金菊良, 刘丽, 汪明武, 李如忠, 周玉良
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 143-147.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.143
    摘要   PDF (296KB)
    采用随机模拟方法模拟三角模糊数,把三角模糊数及函数间运算简化为普通的实数之间运算,建立基于三角模糊数随机模拟的地下水环境系统综合风险评价模型(ARA-SSTFN)。结果说明:以置信区间形式表示的ARA-SSTFN评价结果,比现有常规方法结果提供评价结果可靠性方面更多信息,能反映受多种不确定性因素综合影响的地下水环境系统综合风险评价客观实际情况;ARA-SSTFN在流域水资源、水环境和水旱灾害等有随机性、模糊性和数据资料不精确等多种不确定性因素综合作用的各种资源环境系统综合风险评价问题中有推广应用价值。
    Influenced by the changes in natural conditions and human activities, groundwater vulnerability assessment, focusing on the vulnerability evaluation inherent to the hydrogeology, has reached a new phase of integrated risk assessment by taking into account the pollution caused by human activities, its negative effects on water environment, as well as the index risk rank and risk importance of groundwater environment.To resolve the problems of the impreciseness, complex implementation and the real number, resulted from the existing approaches to quantitatively describe the risk grade and importance of groundwater environment system, a aggregative risk assessment method for groundwater environment system was established, using Stochastic Simulation and Triangular Fuzzy Numbers (ARA-SSTFN).Based on an overall consideration of the hydrogeology and human activity factors, the proposed model transforms the operations between triangular fuzzy numbers and its functions into the conventional operations of real numbers by using stochastic simulation methods to generate triangular numbers.The result shows that the ARA-SSTFN, expressed by the confidence intervals, provides more reliable information on the evaluation results than the current conventional approaches, and can reflect the actual conditions of the comprehensive risk assessment for groundwater environment system affected by various uncertain factors comprehensively.It is also indicated that the ARA-SSTFN has a clear concept, a simple implementation, and it is sufficiently general to be applicable to the comprehensive risk assessment in various resources and environment systems (e.g., water resources, water environments, and water disasters) as a result of comprehensive effects of many uncertain factors, such as randomness, fuzziness and inexact data.
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    基于情景模拟的上海中心城区建筑暴雨内涝暴露性评价
    权瑞松, 刘敏, 张丽佳, 陆敏, 王静静, 牛海燕, 许世远
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 148-152.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.148
    摘要   PDF (345KB)
    由于城市的快速发展和土地利用覆被变化,由暴雨或台风引起的内涝已成为全球研究的热点。潜在的内涝风险危及建筑及室内财产安全。文章应用简化内涝模型模拟上海市中心城区不同情境下的积水情况,并根据每幢建筑室内进水深度对其进行暴露性分级。然后分析、评价了上海市中心城区建筑不同情境下的暴雨内涝灾害暴露性。研究结果发现:仓储和旧式住宅是最易暴露在内涝灾害中的建筑类型;总体上,杨浦、普陀和徐汇区是政府最需要采取安全措施的区域,长宁和虹口区处于中等暴露性水平;同时,内涝对黄浦、静安、卢湾和闸北区影响很小。研究结果可为地方政府改善内涝风险管理提供参考依据。
    Due to rapid urban development and land use and land cover changes, the waterlogging induced by torrential rain or typhoon in urban areas has been a global hotspot and a potential risk affecting the safety of urban buildings and interior property.This study applied a simplified urban waterlogging model to simulating the inundated water depth in central urban area of Shanghai under different scenarios.And each building was ranked according to its degree of exposure indicated by the inundation depth.Finally, the exposure of buildings to rainstorm waterlogging in central urban area of Shanghai under different scenarios was analyzed and evaluated.The results showed that the warehousing and the old-style residence are the most vulnerable building types when exposed to waterlogging disasters.On the whole, Yangpu District, Putuo District and Xuhui District are the important regions for the government to carry out safety defense, Changning District and Hongkou District have medium exposure rank, and the waterlogging brings little effects in Huangpu District, Jing’an District, Luwan District and Zhabei District.These results will provide references for the local government to improve waterlogging risk management.
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    区域干旱帕默尔旱度指标的修正
    张伟东, 石霖
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 153-158.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.153
    摘要   PDF (355KB)
    帕默尔旱度模式是评估干旱严重程度的重要模型,20世纪引入中国后,安顺清等人相继进行了修正,但是多采用的是单个站点数据进行运算,在研究大尺度的区域时则不适用,文章将各研究区站点数据平均整合,并以辽宁省范围内辽河流域片的7个代表性区域进行建模,以海滦河流域、淮河流域、黄河流域、长江流域的23个代表性区域相关资料为权重因子进行修正,同时利用综合水平衡模型对原帕默尔旱度模式中的水量平衡模型进行替换,经过对修正模式的验证,结果显示符合实际情况,对于区域干旱研究具有实际意义。
    The Palmer Drought Severity Model is an important model to estimate the severity of drought.After being introduced into China in the 20th century, a series of corrections have been made by An Shunqing, etc.This method is used to the operation by the data from single site.We averaged the data of single site and then integrated them.We constructed the model with seven typical sites of Liaohe basin in Liaoning.And we used the data gained from other 23 stations from the Haihe-Luanhe River basin, the Huaihe River basin, the Huanghe River basin and the Changjiang River basin as basic data and relevant data to obtain the weighting coefficient.And we use the Synthetical Water Equilibrium Model replace the former one.After the corroboration, the result accords with the fact, and be meaningful to the research of regional drought.
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    南黄海辐射沙洲邻近海域表层悬浮颗粒物浓度遥感反演
    樊辉, 黄海军
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 159-165.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.159
    摘要   PDF (484KB)
    利用2003年春、秋季南黄海辐射沙洲邻近海域水体表观光谱测量与同步水体取样数据,分析该海域不同季节表层水体遥感反射率光谱响应特性。结合常用水色传感器波段光谱响应模拟,建立春、秋季表层水体总悬浮颗粒物浓度(TSM)与悬浮泥沙浓度(SSC)的最适单波段、双波段(波段比值)和3波段统计反演模式。结果表明,不同季节水体上述3类算法的最优波段均不相同,欲寻求适合所有季节水体的统一反演算法,仅能选择次优波段。通过比较,3种不同反演模式中三波段模式更适于反演近岸水体悬浮颗粒物浓度。
    Two experimental above-water radiance measurement campaigns were conducted during spring and autumn of 2003 in the coastal waters near radial sand ridges area in the South Yellow Sea, with a co-incident water sampling for each measurement.In this paper, response patterns of spectral signature to concentrations of total suspended particulate matter (TSM) and suspended sediment (SSC) in the surface waters were investigated based upon in situ remote sensing reflectance and water sample.The best statistical algorithms, including one-band, two-band or band ratio and three-band algorithms, for TSM and SSC were presented based upon the simulated spectral signature at the wavebands of the major satellite ocean color sensors.The results show that the best performance wavebands of these algorithms in spring were entirely different from those in autumn.This shows that defining TSM and SSC empirical retrieval algorithms suitable for all seasons is to only select the second best performance wavebands.
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    西江水体有机碳含量变化及悬浮物碳同位素的意义
    魏秀国, 李宁利, 沈承德, 郭治兴
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 166-171.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.166
    摘要   PDF (364KB)
    以西江马口断面水体为研究对象,讨论其有机碳含量、悬浮物同位素组成(δ13C、Δ14C)与环境之间的关系。西江马口断面有机碳含量呈现季节性变化,其中颗粒有机碳(POC)含量范围介于0.13~4.98mg/L之间,溶解有机碳(DOC)含量范围介于0.98~4.17mg/L之间,DOC/POC比值为1.34,远低于世界多数河流之比值。近年来马口断面悬浮物POCδ13C的变化范围介于-21.3‰~-26.1‰之间,随时间出现整体性漂移现象,表明流域生态环境整体改善。POCΔ14C变化范围介于-132‰~-425‰之间,与取样期间的流域降水过程及土壤的侵蚀相关。
    This paper presents data of a 8-year time series of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and isotopic composition (Δ14C, δ13C) of suspended sediment at Makou section of the Xijiang River.We also discuss the sources of suspended sediment, using natural 14C method.The results of organic carbon concentration show temporal variation.Among them, POC content ranges from 0.13 mg/L to 4.98 mg/L with the average value of 1.35 mg/L and DOC content range from 0.98 mg/L to 4.17 mg/L with the average value of 1.86 mg/L.The content of DOC is slightly higher than that of POC in most cases, indicating that POC produced by mechanical erosion is not dominant, while DOC resulting from decomposition of organic matter was dominant in the Xijiang River.The DOC/POC ratio is 1.34, higher than that of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River and the Huanghe (Yellow) Rivers.In recent years, suspended POCδ13C ranges from -21.3‰ to -26.1‰, showing drift phenomenon with the time, and indicating the overall improvement of the ecological environment in the Xijiang River basin.The suspended sediment Δ14C values ranges from -132‰ to -425‰, whose variation were closely related to soil erosion produced by precipitation during the sampling period.The deeper soil erosion contributes more to "negative" suspended sediment POCΔ14C value and aged organic carbon; while the shallow soil erosion contributes more to "positive" suspended sediment POCΔ14C value and young organic carbon.
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    不同胸径胡杨径向生长的合理生态水位研究
    叶茂, 徐海量, 龚君君, 安红燕
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 172-177.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.172
    摘要   PDF (360KB)
    借助树木年轮水文学的方法,分析不同胸径胡杨在不同地下水埋深条件下其径向生长量的变化特点和规律。研究结果表明:随着地下水埋深的增加,不同胸径胡杨径向生长量均呈现明显降低趋势,其对地下水埋深变化响应的灵敏度降低幅度呈现先增加,后减少的趋势。3个胸径等级的胡杨径向生长灵敏度最大值对应的地下水埋深为分别是3.3、7.4、7.9m。说明,不同生长阶段的胡杨径向生长量变化对地下水埋深变化响应的敏感性存在差异。可以认为这3个地下水埋深是不同胸径等级胡杨径向生长水分胁迫的合理生态水位。
    Based on the methods of Dendrohydrology, this paper analyzed the sensitivity change and trend in the ring width growth of the Populus euphratica with different truck diameter grades under different groundwater depths in the lower reaches of Tarim River.The results show that, with the increase of groundwater depth, the ring width of the Populus euphratica with different trunk diameter grades also has a deceasing trend.The regression equations of groundwater depth and the ring width of the Populus euphratica with different trunk diameter grades is:y=-0.0135 x3+0.2882 x2-2.011 x+6.1356 (truck diameter of 4-10 cm);y=0.008 x3-0.093 x2-0.264 x+5.276 (trunk diameter of 10-30 cm) and y=0.0556 x3-1.2008 x2+8.1323 x-5.547 (trunk diameter of 30-50 cm).Those relationships are significant (p<0.01).With the increase of groundwater depth, the Sk of the ring width change of the Populus euphratica decreases firstly and then increases.When the Sk with trunk diameters of 4-10 cm, 10-30 cm and 30-50 cm are up to maximum, the responding groundwater depth is 3.3 m, 7.4 m and 7.9 m, respectively.We can draw a conclusion that the three groundwater depths are regarded as rational groundwater with water stress of Populus euphratica with different truck diameter.
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    沙盖黄土丘陵坡地土壤理化特性随地形变化规律研究
    张丽萍, 王小云, 张赫斯
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 178-183.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.178
    摘要   PDF (365KB)
    在陕西神木县与内蒙古东胜市交界的饮马泉小流域,选择有代表性的坡面进行地形剖面和土壤层垂直方向的系统采样。每个样品进行了粒级、土壤质量含水量、土壤有机质测试。经数据的分析模拟,得以下结论:①土壤粒级构成和物理性粘粒含量特征,可以指示研究区土壤的沙化程度和演化趋向,其具有向西北更干旱粗化方向过渡的倾向。②土壤水分随地貌部位的变化规律比较明显,在峁坡顶部和上部,垂向上具有自上而下增加的趋势,而在峁坡下部和坡脚却正好相反。不论何种地貌部位都存在一个相近的土壤蒸发、渗漏、持水能力相对的平衡深度。③土壤的物理性粘粒含量与土壤的水肥关系密切,物理性粘粒含量相对高的土壤剖面,土壤的水肥组合效果较好。④土壤水肥质地的组合效果,丘陵顶部的最差,依次过渡到坡脚的组合效果最好。其进一步表明,地貌因素在土壤形成后的一系列熟化、退化、被侵蚀和沙化的演化过程中,地貌仍起着至关重要的作用。
    The study aimed at the impacts of the different landforms on the soil physical composition, soil moisture content and soil fertility of the slope loess field under sand cover.The series of samples were collected at section planes and vertical soil layers, in Yinmaquan watershed located on the boundary between Shenmu County and Dongsheng City, where the slope field had the representations.The soil texture, gravimetric soil moisture content and organic matter content of the samples were measured.Based on the analysis of the data, conclusions were obtained:1) The soil texture and physical clay granule content were indices to indicate the desertification degree and evolvement trend.The study area demonstrated a drier and coarser trend towards northwest.2) There were different evolution laws of soil moisture content with different landform positions.It increased vertically from the top to upside of hilly slope, but decreased from the downside to foot.Whatever position the landform had, there was a similar balanced depth existed for the soil to evaporate, infiltrate, leak and hold water.3) The physical clay granule content had closely relationship with the soil fertility and moisture content.The section planes with higher physical clay granule contents had richer soil fertility and more moisture content.4) Effects of the combination of water, fertilizer and organic matter became more effective from the top to the foot of slope field, indicating that landform always had significant impacts on the series of evolution processes such as soil mellowing processes, soil degradation, soil erosion and soil desertification.Furthermore, the results also highlighted the evolution of soil texture with the landforms and the vertical soil layers, and could indicate the process of soil desertification and materials sources.
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    中国东北地区17世纪后期的自然植被格局
    张学珍, 王维强, 方修琦, 叶瑜, 李蓓蓓
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 184-189.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.184
    摘要   PDF (519KB)
    通过整理、分析历史文献中的自然植被记录,复原了中国东北地区近代大规模农垦前(17世纪后期)的自然植被格局。结果表明,当时的主导植被类型是森林和草地,森林主要分布于山区,其中大兴安岭北端主要是寒温带落叶针叶林,长白山南端主要是温带落叶阔叶林,其余山区是针阔混交林,草地主要分布于东北平原和内蒙古高原,林-草的分界线与地表等高线有很好的对应关系;在三江平原分布有大面积的沼泽。潜在植被格局与历史自然植被格局基本一致,但是林-草分界线有明显差异,且潜在植被图中没有沼泽。
    We collected multiple historical documents including gazettes, government archives, traveling notes and so on, from which the primary natural vegetation information is complied.Using the information, the primary natural vegetation pattern prior to significant agriculture (i.e.late 17th century) was reconstructed.The results show that woodland and grassland were dominant vegetation over the Northeast China in the late 17th century.Woodland occupied the mountain areas, of which the northern of the Da Higgan Mountains was occupied by boreal forest, southern of the Changbai Mountains were covered by temperate broadleaf deciduous forest and the other mountains were occupied by mixed forest.Grassland covered Northeast China Plain and Inner Mongolia Plateau.The boundaries between woodland and grassland were nearly consistent with topography contour lines.Besides, swamp had small area and nearly covered the whole Sanjiang Plain.The macro pattern of historical nature vegetation was similar with the potential natural vegetation; however, the boundaries of woodland and grassland from the two datasets were evidently different and there was no swamp in potential natural vegetation dataset.
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    干旱区不同土地利用方式下土壤呼吸日变化差异及影响因素
    周洪华, 李卫红, 杨余辉, 曹志超, 李稚
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 190-196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.190
    摘要   PDF (408KB)
    利用开路式土壤碳通量测量系统-LI-8100对塔里木河下游6种土地利用方式下土壤呼吸速率的日变化进行了野外定位测量,并就水热因子及土壤理化性质对土壤日呼吸速率差异的影响进行了分析。结果表明,梨园、弃耕地、棉田、人工林、草地和天然林土壤呼吸速率日变化均呈单峰曲线,土壤日呼吸速率差异显著。大气温度和土地利用方式是造成土壤日呼吸差异的主要因素,其中土地利用方式通过改变地表温度、土壤水分、电导率、pH、盐分含量及机械组成等影响土壤日呼吸速率。
    Soil respiration rates at 6 different land-use (i.e., cropland, orchard, abandoned farmlands, plantation, natural forest and grassland) in the lower reaches of the Tarim River were measured with an automated CO2 efflux system (LI-COR 8100), and the temperature, soil moisture, pH, salt content, organic content, total nitrogen content, available nitrogen content and soil texture were measured at the same time.The results showed that the diurnal variation of soil respiration rate of cropland, orchard, abandoned farmlands, plantation, natural forest and grassland, showed a single-peaked curve, were significant differences.The air temperature and land use types were main factors affected the differences of diurnal variation of soil respiration rate, in which the land use types changed the diurnal soil respiration through changing the soil properties including soil temperature, moisture, pH, salt content and texture.
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    基于HJ-1号卫星数据的太湖悬浮物浓度空间分布和变异研究
    夏叡, 李云梅, 吴传庆, 金鑫, 王彦飞
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 197-203.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.197
    摘要   PDF (536KB)
    以太湖为研究区,利用环境1号卫星第4波段建立的线性模型反演了太湖悬浮物浓度,得到2009年全年太湖悬浮物质量浓度空间分布特征。通过等间距的布点和地统计学的相关原理,揭示太湖悬浮物浓度的空间变异特征。结果表明:2009年太湖悬浮物浓度值比较高,大都集中在30~50mg/L和50~70mg/L,高值区从西北太湖或西南太湖区域逐渐向湖心扩散,最终在湖心形成大面积区域。通过地统计学分析发现,太湖悬浮物具有块金效应和强烈的空间相关性,其中6月份的变程最小,为9.2km,而2009年其他月份的变程都大于20km。
    Taking Taihu Lake as the study area, this paper built linear model based on the satellite data of band 4 of HJ-1, to inverse the concentration of suspended solids and studied the spatial distribution of suspended solids in different months.By extracting each sample’s concentration by sampling equidistantly, the spatial variation can be known by geostatistics.The result shows that the concentration of suspended solids was very high during 2009, and the main grades were 30-50 mg/L and 50-70 mg/L.The distribution of high value zone spread from the northwest or southwest to the center of Taihu Lake.At last, a large area of high value zone was formed in the lake center finally.By the geostatistics theory, we can find that the spatial variation of suspended solids in Taihu Lake existed objective.Not only has it nugget effect, but also it has a strong spatial correlation.The ranges of variation in 2009 were greater than 20 km, except June in which that was 9.2 km.
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    基于GIS的社区居民避震疏散区划方法及应用研究
    黄静, 叶明武, 王军, 许世远, 陈振楼, 刘耀龙
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 204-210.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.204
    摘要   PDF (701KB)
    在快速城市化和地震灾害频发的背景下,灾前人群紧急疏散区划成为防灾减灾规划研究的重要课题。结合当前城市应急疏散设施布局现状,立足于社区夜间避震疏散需求,综合运用GIS空间分析技术,从应急疏散需求分布、疏散空间可达性、疏散优化归属3方面逐步构建居民避震疏散区划方法,并选择上海市内人群和建筑相对密集的陆家嘴街道为对象开展实证研究。从而为城市防震减灾规划的避难设施优化布局和应急疏散预案编制提供科学适用的技术手段。
    With rapid urbanization and frequent earthquake disasters,the pre-disaster study of emergency evacuation has become a substantial topic of disaster prevention and mitigation in urban area.Most of the previous studies emphasized large-scale evacuation involving one or more urban areas,while the research that is specific to basic level district,such as a community,is obviously inadequate in terms of evacuation accuracy,efficiency and strategies.In this paper,based on the current layout of emergency evacuation facilities and nighttime evacuation demands in urban community,we used GIS spatial analysis technology to develop a systematical methodology for community evacuation against earthquake.The methodology emphasized the following aspects: the distribution analysis of emergency evacuation demands,the calculation of shelters’space accessibility,and the optimization of evacuation destinations.Meanwhile,we applied the methodology to Lujiazui Street of Pudong New District,Shanghai in China.Consequently,the study showed that the proposed methodology could be used to formulate the pre-event planning for earthquake disasters’prevention and mitigation on community scale,especially for organizing a rapid and smooth evacuation,and optimizing the location allocation of shelters.
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    基于Hopfield神经网络的中国近40年气候要素时空变化分析
    张翀, 李晶, 任志远
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 211-217.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.211
    摘要   PDF (701KB)
    利用1961~2000年中国大部分省区(香港、澳门、台湾、海南地区数据暂缺)194个气象站点逐日降水量、气温和相对湿度数据,通过克里格插值、Hopfield神经网络聚类以及方差分析,对中国气候变化的时空特征进行分析。分析结果表明:中国以增温为主导趋势,其次是多雨趋势;东部地区出现变干趋势,而西部地区在逐渐增湿;对3种要素进行聚类分析,并利用方差分析检验差异性是否显著,最后分析了聚类结果变化趋势,结果与插值分析一致,说明克里格插值结果的可信性。表明在全球增温的驱动下,中国气候变化格局处于调整状态,湿润地区干旱化,干旱地区变得湿润。
    Using the daily precipitation, temperature and relative humidity data of 194 meteorological stations from 1961 to 2000 in China (not including Hong Kong, Macao, Taiwan and Hainan), based on the Spatial Kriging interpolation method in ArcGIS, and through the cluster of Hopfield neural networks as well as analysis of variance, the spatial and temporal characteristics of climate change in China.The results show that a dominant trend of warming occurrs in China, followed by the wet trend, drying trend occurrs in the eastern region, while the western region is gradually humidifying.Judging from the decadal results, we got that there was an equal trend between the trend of dry cooling and wet humid heat from 1960 to 1969; dry-type distribution from 1970 to 1979 was very broad, almost throughout the country; climate change types presented a layered distribution from 1980 to 1989, and according to the main types, warming trend was in the leading position; from 1990 to 2000, warming trend still dominated, followed by drying trend.We conducted clustering analysis using Hopfield neural network method, and test whether differences among the three kinds of climatic factors are significant using analysis of variance.In the final, according to the clustering results, we have analyzed the trend of precipitation, temperature and relative humidity change, results in line with interpolation show the space Kriging credibility.The results show that, driven by global warming, patterns of climate change in China is in a state of adjustment, and humid regions become arid, whereas arid regions humid.
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    基于局部地表形态的可变过水宽度多流向算法
    程海洲, 熊立华
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 218-225.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.218
    摘要   PDF (853KB)
    流向是地形分析中的重要内容之一,在分布式水文模型等研究中起着重要作用。文章提出基于局部地表形态的多流向算法,即对每一个DEM栅格,在以其为中心的3×3窗口中进行局部地形分析,确定基于随坡度和过水宽度而变化的水流分配系数。该方法被应用在实际数字地形模型上,并以汇水面积和比汇水面积为研究指标,与目前流行的D8、Dinf等算法进行了相似性分析。结果表明,该方法能够获得更为符合实际的水流汇集的空间分布。
    It is one of the important contents in the topography analysis as well as in the hydrological distribution models that how to determine flow directions of water in each cell of DEM.Although many hydrologists have already put forward a lot of different flow direction algorithms over the past dozens of years.A new approach of assigning flow directions of DEM cell is proposed in this study, which is called local topography-based variable flow width method.This approach is based on the analysis of the local topography formation defined within a 3?3 cell window with the recognition that the flow distribution coefficient for each flow direction is changeable with the corresponding slope and outflow width.In the paper, this method has been tested on the digital topography of an actual watershed.Two indices, the total catchment area (TCA) and specific catchment area (SCA), produced by four flow routing algorithms including the D8 (eight flow directions), Dinf (an infinite number of possible single flow directions), MS (multiple flow directions based on slope) and the local topography-based variable flow width method, are selected to compare and analyze efficiencies of those four algorithms.The result shows that the local topography-based variable flow width method can obtain more reasonable spatial distribution of water accumulation, compared with the D8, Dinf, and MS.
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    长江三角洲地区小麦植株的重金属分布及其相关性——以昆山市为例
    王晓瑞, 周生路, 吴绍华
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 226-231.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.226
    摘要   PDF (334KB)
    以苏州昆山市为典型区,测定该地区小麦植株根、茎、叶、籽粒及对应点位土壤中Hg、As、Cr、Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn、Cd这8种重金属含量,探究长江三角洲地区小麦植株各器官重金属的吸收状况及其关联分析。结果显示,小麦根对各种重金属的吸收能力最强,各器官以及小麦全植株对Cd的吸收系数最大而对Cr的最小;小麦籽粒重金属含量与根、茎、叶中重金属含量存在一定的相关性,但没有确定的规律;Hg、Zn、Cd这3种重金属的潜在生态风险都达到中等以上级别,8种重金属的综合潜在生态风险达到较高级别。
    Rapid economic development and increased human activities of Changjiang River Delta made a strong influence on the ecological environment.Taking Kunshan of Suzhou City for example, this study was conducted to search for the heavy metal accumulation in soil and bioaccumulation of wheat in Changjiang River Delta, which will provide a theoretical guidance for economy development and pollution control.The heavy metal in the organs of root, stem, leaf and grain of wheat were studied.In each organ, the eight kinds of heavy metals were examined:Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, and the absorption of heavy metals in different organs were analyzed.The results indicated that the root had the greatest accumulating capability; the absorption of Cd was the maximal while that of Cr was the minimal in each organ.Meanwhile, an analysis on correlations showed there is correlation between content of heavy metal in grain and that in the other organs of wheat, but have no certain rule.This indicates the complexity of outer contaminants and reactions in plant.By the evaluation on the potential risks of heavy metals in wheat, the potential risks of Hg, Zn and Cd have been above moderate levels.Moreover, the potential risk of eight kinds of heavy metals reached a higher level, based on which the author proposed to control heavy metal emissions of this area.
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    基于小波分析的长江和黄河源区汛期、枯水期径流特征
    邴龙飞, 邵全琴, 刘纪远, 赵志平
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 232-238.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.232
    摘要   PDF (537KB)
    利用db3小波分解和重构1965~2007年长江源沱沱河站、直门达站和黄河源吉迈站、唐乃亥站春汛期、夏汛期和枯水期流量数据,除沱沱河外,各站春汛期、夏汛期和枯水期流量皆呈下降趋势,各站流量下降速率依次为夏汛期>春汛期>枯水期。沱沱河站多年流量呈增加趋势,夏汛期变化速率依然高于春汛期。应用复Morlet小波分别分析上述4个水文站实测流量的周期特征。黄河源总体存在11~12a波动周期;长江源春汛期有4~6a波动周期,夏汛期有13~14a波动周期。不同流域春汛期、夏汛期和枯水期主周期分布规律不同。
    By decomposing and reconstructing the runoff information from 1965 to 2007 of the hydrologic stations of Tuotuohe,Zhimenda in the source region of Changjiang River,and Jimai,Tangnaihai in the source region of Huanghe River with db3 wavelet,the runoff data of different hydrologic stations were analysized.The result shows that the runoff declines in spring flood season,summer flood season and dry season except for those in Tuotuohe.The order of declining flood/dry season is summer > spring > dry.While runoff of Tuotuohe is always increasing in different stages from 1965 to 2007 with higher increase rate in summer flood season than that in spring one.Complex Morlet wavelet is selected to detect runoff periodicity of the four hydrologic stations mentioned above.Totally the periodicity is 11–12 years in the source region of Huanghe River,while 4–6 years in the spring flood season and 13–14 years in summer flood season in the source region of Changjiang River.The major periodicity in spring,summer and dry season is distinctive greatly in different basins.
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    汉江中下游新石器文化遗址的空间格局
    李中轩, 朱诚, 闫慧
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 239-243.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.239
    摘要   PDF (861KB)
    用趋势面方法讨论汉江中下游地区新石器时期大溪文化(6.3~5.0ka B.P.)、屈家岭文化(5.0~4.6ka B.P.)和石家河文化(4.6~4.0ka B.P.)遗址空间过程,发现汉江中下游地区新石器文化的空间演化大致分两阶段:(1)屈家岭文化时期遗址沿汉江干流、涢水向上游扩散;(2)石家河时期文化遗址则以收缩为特征,主要集聚在丹江-枣阳-随州一线。结合本区中全新世气候和地貌变迁过程,认为汉江中下游遗址分布格局和遗址高程变化主要受古洪水和湖面扩张胁迫影响,遗址扩散与集聚过程特征和农业生产、文化融合等社会因素密切相关。
    Using trend surface method, this article discusses spatial process of the Neolithic Site i.e.Daxi culture (6.3-5.0 ka B.P.), Qujialing culture (5.0-4.6 ka B.P.) and Shijiahe culture (4.6-4.0 ka B.P.)in the middle and lower reaches of the Hanjaing Rvier.This research found that the spatial evolution of the Neolithic culture was divided into two stages:(1) Qujialing sites were diffused towards upstream along the Hanjiang River and the Yunshui River; (2) Shijiahe Cultural sites were instead of shrink in the zone of Danjiang-Zaoyang-Yunshui belt.In relation to the Holocene climate and landscape change process, we find that the elevation of the sites above the river was close to the changes of ancient floods and lake area.Therefore, this paper suggested the spatial-temporal distribution of sites is mainly controlled by paleo-floods and lake-expanding, meanwhile social factors e.g.agricultural style and cultural integration also play important roles.
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    六棱山北麓中段冲沟地貌发育的定量研究及其新构造意义
    闫冬冬, 吕胜华, 赵洪壮, 李有利
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 244-250.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.244
    摘要   PDF (518KB)
    利用地貌形态指标对六棱山北麓断层中段的5条冲沟进行定量化研究,流域的冲沟比降指标(SL)、面积-高度积分值(HI)和流域盆地形态因子(Bs)的异常值表明5条冲沟的发育对六棱山北麓断层活动性有明显的响应,流域发育处于壮年期。秋林沟口野外实测数据验证并揭示了六棱山北麓断裂晚第四纪以来的活跃性。
    Quantitative study on the geomorphic indices has been carried out on five gullies in the middle of northern front of Liulengshan Mountain.The abnormal values of the indices, including stream length-gradient index (SL index), hypsometric integral (HI), and index of drainage basin shape (Bs), reveal that the evolution of the five gullies has obvious relationship with the neotectonic movement along the northern front of Liulengshan Mountain and the drainage basins are currently in the mature period of geomorphic evolution.The field investigation of the Qiulin gully tests demonstrates the Late Quaternary activities of the fault along the northern front of Liulengshan Mountain.
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    利用树轮宽度资料重建天山中段南坡巴仑台地区过去645年来的降水变化
    张同文, 王丽丽, 袁玉江, 魏文寿, 喻树龙, 张瑞波, 陈峰, 尚华明, 范子昂
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (2): 251-256.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.02.251
    摘要   PDF (539KB)
    在分析树木生长对气候要素响应的基础上,利用采自天山中段南坡夫斯坦沟的雪岭云杉树轮宽度年表,重建了巴仑台地区1360~2004A.D.当年7月至次年6月的降水量序列,方差解释量达53%(调整自由度后为52%)。交叉检验结果表明重建方程稳定可信。过去645a以来,巴仑台地区的降水量变化存在12个偏少阶段和12个偏多阶段。巴仑台地区降水量重建序列存在10.7~11、6.7和2.1a的显著准周期及16.5~17.2和2.4~6.6a的较显著准周期,并且在1496A.D.前后发生了降水量由少向多的突变。
    Dendroclimatology is one of the important methods for examining the past global climate changes and the tree-ring data were used widely as an important archive in paleoclimatic research because of its precise dating, annual resolution, and high correlation with instrumental meteorological data.Based on tree-ring chronologies, long-timescale climate variations have been reconstructed on both regional and hemispheric spatial scales.The study area, the Baluntai region is located on the southern slope of the mid-Tianshan Mountains in Xinjiang.So far there are a few dendroclimatogical studies being carried out in this region.The studies were focused on the analysis of tree-ring chronologies’statistics and correlation of chronologies with meteorological data, but the reconstruction of climatic variations has not been done.Because of this, it is very important to reconstruct the climatic variation series in this region in order to recognize the climatic variations on the southern slope of the mid-Tianshan Mountains in the past.In the summer of 2005, 66 spruce (Picea schrenkiana) tree-ring samples were collected from Fustan Gully (FST) (42°45’15.9"N, 86°27’40.0"E), which is located in a mountainous area of Baluntai region.Selected trees did not have outward signs of disturbance (e.g., abrasion scarring, cut branches).Tree-ring samples were prepared, cross-dated and measured following conventional procedures.The site (FST) of tree-ring width residual chronologies was chosen in this study.In addition, meteorological data of Baluntai station close to sampling site were used.The calculation shows that the tree-ring width residual chronology (RESt+1) is significantly correlated with the precipitation from the current July to next June (r=0.73, p<0.01, N=44).In this paper, tree-ring width residual chronology (RESt+1) has been used to reconstruct the precipitation (from the current July to next June) of this region since 1360 A.D.and the explained variance of the function was 52% (F=48.12, p<0.01).After 21-years mean of reconstructed precipitation series was calculated, twelve dry periods in the past 645 years were found in (1370?)-1396, 1442-1469, 1501-1539, 1565-1586, 1619-1652, 1679-1688, 1707-1728, 1755-1788, 1811-1836, 1863-1886, 1907-1918 and 1940-1987, and twelve wet periods were found in 1397-1441, 1470-1500, 1540-1564, 1587-1618, 1653-1678, 1689-1706, 1729-1754, 1789-1810, 1837-1862, 1887-1906, 1919-1939 and 1988-(1994?), respectively.Power spectrum analysis shows that there exist the 16.5-17.2 a, 10.7-11 a, 6.7 a, 2.4-6.6 a and 2.1 a quasi-cycles in precipitation.The periods of 10.7 a to 11 a respond to sunspot cycle length (SCL) and the cycle of aridity in Northwest China.The periods of 2.4 a to 6.7 a probably are related to ENSO events, and the cycle of 2.1 years probably is related to the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO).Moving t-test technique (MTT) shows that the abrupt change of precipitation occurred in 1496 in this region.
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