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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2011-04-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    中国全新世气温序列的集成重建
    方修琦, 侯光良
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 385-393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.385
    摘要   PDF (805KB)
    从文献中搜集整理1 397条古气温记录,建立全新世古气温记录数据集,该数据集多数时间段每百年的记录在10个以上。利用经剔除奇异值后的1 140条有效记录,采用单样本区域订正-多样本平均集成法,定量重建中国全新世百年分辨率气温集成序列。集成重建序列表明:全新世中国气温可以明显划分为三个阶段,早全新世(11.5~8.9 ka B.P.)为波动升温期;中全新世(8.9~4.0 ka B.P.)暖期的气温高出现代1℃上下,8~6.4 ka B.P.的暖期鼎盛期高出现代1.5℃左右;晚全新世(4.0 ka B.P.以来)为变冷期。
    About 1397 temperature records during the Holocene are collected to establish a temperature data set of the Holocene in China. 1140 of the 1397 records are available after eliminated the abnormal values statistically. There are more than 10 available records in most centuries during the Holocene in China. A synthesis reconstruction method, named the converted single sample from local to regional and averaged by the multiple samples, are designed to quantitatively reconstruct temperature change during the Holocene in China. The synthetically reconstructed Holocene temperature series in China ensures both the quantification and the higher temporal resolution continuously. According to the reconstructed temperature series, the Holocene temperature change in China could be obviously divided into three stages. The early Holocene (11.5-8.9 ka B.P.) was warming period when the temperature rose to near the present with fluctuation. The mid Holocene (8.9-4.0 ka B.P.) was a warmer period named the Holocene Megathermal, when the temperature was 1 ℃ higher than the present in average, with 1.5℃ higher than the present in maximum during 8.0–6.4 ka BP. The late Holocene (after 4.0 ka BP) was a cooling period.
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    青海湖西吉尔孟附近土壤水分研究
    赵景波, 侯雨乐, 曹军骥, 张冲
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 394-400.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.394
    摘要   PDF (428KB)
    根据对青海湖北刚察县吉尔孟乡草地土壤含水量测定和粒度分析,研究了土壤水分变化等问题。研究区土层上部粒度成分以粗粉砂为主,下部以细砂为主。2009年该区草地土壤重力水分布深度达到了60 cm左右。土壤上部含水量丰富,下部水分严重不足。在土层约80 cm深度之下出现了中等干层和部分严重干层。该区土壤干层的发育阻隔了大气降水向地下深处的入渗,属于异常水分循环类型。该区土壤水分处于负平衡状态,指示当地的降水量并不能充分满足草原植被生长的需要。吉尔孟乡土壤蓄水量较少,易于发生生态环境的退化。
    According to the analysis on soil moisture and particle size of the grass land at Jiermeng in Gangcha, the soil moisture content and its impacts on vegetation development were studied. The grain size composition of the middle and upper part of soil in the study area is mainly coarse silt, and at the lower part of soil is mainly fine sand. Soil moisture content in grassland appeared more gravity water in 2009 in this region, and the depth of gravity water in the grass land was up to about 60 cm. Soil moisture is rich in the upper layers and seriously short in the lower. Moderate dried layers with the soil moisture lower than 9% and some serious dried layers with the soil moisture lower than 6% occurred under the soil profiles with the depth of about 80 cm. The development of dried soil layer at this region is due to less precipitation, which held up precipitation infiltrating into the deeper area under ground, so precipitation is generally not the supply source of groundwater. Surface water circulation is mainly through evaporation and transpiration, and belongs to the type of abnormal water cycle. Soil water balance is the negative one in this region, which shows that the local rainfall does not fully meet the needs of growth and development of grass vegetation and is not suitable to forest planting. Soil thickness at Jiermeng Village is thicker than other areas around Qinghai Lake. Because soil water storage is less and soil reservoir can not provide enough water for the growth of herbaceous plants in dry year, the area is prone to environmental degradation. In order to maintain the water level stable and ecological balance of Qinghai Lake, we should develop natural grass vegetation which is suitable to the local climate and consumes less water, and limit the development of artificial vegetation such as the rape consuming more water and simultaneously restrict grazing.
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    季风区边缘近500年的降水变化特征
    刘敬华, 张平中, 孟彩红, 张德忠, 杨勋林
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 401-407.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.401
    摘要   PDF (734KB)
    基于武都万象洞高分辨率石笋δ18O和高精度230Th定年数据,结合利用周边地区史料恢复的旱涝指数序列,重建季风区边缘近500 a以来降水变化。结果显示:在年际至百年时间尺度上,万象洞石笋δ18O变化指示亚洲季风带来的降水量信息。季风区边缘降水变化可分减弱期(1470~1700 A.D.)、平稳期(1701~1875 A.D.)和增强期(1876~2003 A.D.)三个气候段,其间季风降水的强弱变化响应史料记载的极端旱涝事件。在小冰期向20世纪暖期转换过程中,本区呈现阶梯式过渡降水模式,这是一种较大空间尺度上气候特征,在年代际至百年时间尺度上与北半球温度、中国温度变化具有同步性。
    Based on high-precision 230Th dates and high-resolution oxygen isotope records of a stalagmite collected from Wanxiang Cave,Wudu,together with the references of Chinese historical documents from Wudu and the neighboring areas,the variation of monsoonal precipitation in the modern Asian monsoon marginal zone over the past 500 years was reconstructed.This study indicated that the speleothem δ18O is a good proxy for the Asian monsoon strength and associated precipitation on inter-annual to centennial timescale.Variation of the monsoonal precipitation during the past 500 years can be divided into three stages,decreasing from 1470 A.D.to 1700 A.D.,stable between 1701 A.D.and 1875 A.D.,and increasing thereafter.This variation is quite similar to that of the Drought/Flooding index archived from Chinese historical documents.Monsoonal precipitation shows stepwise pattern in the monsoonal marginal region of China during the transition from the Little Ice Age to the Current Warm Period.The variation of stepwise precipitation suggested that the monsoonal precipitation over the monsoon marginal zone in large-spatial-scale is consistent,and this variation and the Northern Hemisphere temperature,Chinese temperature varied synchronously on interdecadal to centennial timescale.
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    基于空间插值分析的指标空间化及吉林省玉米种植区划研究
    石淑芹, 陈佑启, 李正国, 杨鹏, 吴文斌, 汤芳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 408-414.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.408
    摘要   PDF (685KB)
    以吉林省为例,构建玉米种植区划指标体系,并利用空间插值技术和辅助信息对降水、土壤和玉米单产等指标的空间模拟进行重点研究。其中,将多元回归+残差内插相结合对气象站点观测的降水数据进行了空间模拟;将相关性较高的变量作为协因子,并结合土壤类型数据,利用Cokriging插值,获取了土壤属性空间模拟数据;利用耕地质量空间分布数据对玉米统计单产数据进行修正得到玉米单产空间模拟数据。然后,开展吉林省玉米种植适宜性评价和区划研究,将吉林省分为高度适宜区、中度适宜区、低度适宜区和不适宜区4个等级;并结合农业综合分区,得到13个不同的玉米种植区域。
    In order to adapt maize planting according to current climatic, soil conditions and modern agricultural technique, planting structure of maize and its variety should be optimized at the regional level. In this paper, an indicator system was developed for evaluating the suitability of maize planting in Jilin Province, which is a main maize production area in Northeast China. Thereafter, both spatial interpolation technique and auxiliary information were used for spatial modeling of precipitation, soil conditions and the maize yield. In details, observed precipitation records from climate observing stations in study area were firstly interpolated by using an integrated means of multiple regression and residual error interpolation. Second, with a consideration of soil type information, the relevant factors were utilized as co-factors for interpolating soil properties (i.e. pH, soil organic matter, available K, available N and available P of soil) by using the means of Cokriging technique. Third, the map of statistics-based maize yield was validated by the spatial map of cultivated land quality. Fourth, with the aids of terminal condition law, comprehensive analytic approach and experience index law, the suitability evaluation for maize planting was implemented as the basis of regionalization research. From the regionalization results, 13 zones of planting maize can be indentified in Jilin Province, which are further reclassified into four major suitability levels as high, moderate, low and nun-suitability.
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    无定河流域全新世中期人类聚落选址的空间分析及地貌环境意义
    胡珂, 莫多闻, 毛龙江, 李水城, 王辉, 曹炜, 张翼飞
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 415-420.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.415
    摘要   PDF (741KB)
    以无定河流域的数字高程模型为主要研究对象,利用地理信息系统软件进行空间分析,与陕西北部无定河流域龙山时期遗址的分布位置叠置和聚类分析,讨论聚落选址与地貌类型、距河流水平距离、河网等级等6个地形地貌因子之间的关系。结果发现,全新世中期无定河流域人类在聚落选址时,对水文条件、地貌和地面坡度条件有较强的倾向性,而对地面朝向无明显倾向性。选址时选择地形地貌影响因子的优先顺序为:地貌类型、遗址距河流距离、遗址处地面坡度、遗址处河流等级、遗址处地面朝向。
    In this paper, we discuss the relationship between mankind settlement sites and 6 topography factors in Wuding River Basin of Shaanxi in China during the Longshan period. This study aims to eatablish the digital elevation model of Wuding River Basin by GIS software. The main method of this study is to overlay the distribution of 293 Longshan sites with spatial analysis results of the digital elevation model, and to execute cluster analysis by SPSS software. The result shows that settlement behavior has a strong relationship with the hydrological condition, landform and ground slope, but no obvious relationship with the slope direction. The priority order of topography factors which affected the mankind settlement is that landform types, the distance to the river, the ground slope, the river grade and the slope direction.
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    基于粗糙集与突变级数法的土地利用景观分区研究
    曹伟, 周生路, 吴绍华, 郑群英
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 421-426.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.421
    摘要   PDF (786KB)
    基于江苏宜兴市土地利用现状数据库,利用土地景观格局指数,采用粗糙集与突变级数法相结合的方法对宜兴市进行土地利用景观分区。分区结果表明:区域地貌特征影响的土地利用方式是土地利用景观格局分异的主要因素,随着水域、林地面积比重的增加,人类对土地系统的改造逐渐减弱,斑块破碎化程度降低,斑块形状复杂化程度增强,景观多样性减弱;结合粗糙集论通过知识约简挖掘数据中隐含的内在规则,依据属性重要性对评价因子进行重要性排序,无需确定权重,最终通过多指标集成的突变级数法进行土地利用景观分区。
    Based on the currently land use database in Yixing of Jiangsu Province, landscape pattern indices were firstly calculated. According to these computed landscape pattern indices, Yixing was divided into four landscape zones of land use by the use of rough set theory and catastrophe progression method. The zoning result reflects that land use under the influence of regional geomorphology characteristic is the main factor of the landscape pattern’s variation of land use. With the increase of the area of water and forest proportion, the human disturbance to land system will gradually weaken, patch fragmentation will reduce, patch shape complexity will enhance, and landscape diversity will decrease. The hidden rule under the raw data is simply obtained by knowledge reduction of data in rough set theory. Without the determination of the weight, it just needs to arrange indicators according to the computed importance of attribute. The landscape zoning of land use, finally, is made by multi-indicator integrated catastrophe progression method. The catastrophe progression method, in a large extent, avoids the subjectivity in the process of determining the factor’s weight.
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    北京市城郊农业区多功能演变的空间特征
    宋志军, 刘黎明
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 427-433.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.427
    摘要   PDF (540KB)
    北京市城郊农业区各圈层因自然条件、城市化、产业化的不同而承担着不同的生产/非生产性功能。应用农业多功能化推移图谱和产业经济理论对此进行了研究,分析表明北京市农业由近郊平原区到远郊山区的可分成两种演化模式:一是由现代都市型农业向传统农业推移的模式;一是呈扇形推移的农业演化模式。在距中心城市30~40 km范围内,有一个非农产业主导的城乡功能推移的分界区。该区以外,现代特色农业、休闲农业等成为农村经济的主导;其非生产性功能逐渐增强,生态功能更成为中远圈层多种功能的主导。
    Because of the different natural conditions, urbanization and industrialization, the circles of suburban agricultural areas in Beijing has different productive / non-productive functions. In this paper, agricultural multifunctionality theory and industrial economy theory have been employed to analyze the spatial characteristics of surburban agriculture area in Beijing. The reslute shows that the agriculture can be divided into two transition pathways from the plain outskirts to the outer mountainous suburbs. Firstly, agricultural transition pathway has emerged from modern urban agriculture to the traditional agriculture; secondly, it is a fan-shaped agricultural transition pathway expanding from the plains to the mountainous area. But there is a non-agricultural industry dominated buffer zone 30–40 km away from the central city, which has become the boundary belt due to urban functions transfering to the village functions. The modern agriculture and recreational agriculture have become the dominant rural economy outside the buffer zone. Its non-productive functions are being strengthened, which are also spreading to the outer mountainous suburb, and the ecological function can be the leading one among the multifunctions in Beijing’s midst and outer spheres.
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    腾格里沙漠南缘近315年5~6月PDSI指数变化
    陈峰, 袁玉江, 魏文寿, 喻树龙, 张瑞波, 范子昂, 张同文, 尚华明, 李杨
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 434-439.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.434
    摘要   PDF (608KB)
    利用昌灵山早材宽度年表重建腾格里沙漠南缘在过去315 a的5~6月份PDSI指数变化, 重建方程的方差解释量达42.0%。腾格里沙漠南缘5~6月的PDSI指数重建序列平均值为-0.32。腾格里沙漠南缘5~6月的PDSI指数重建序列对西北地区干旱极端历史事件有良好的响应。空间分析显示腾格里沙漠南缘5~6月的PDSI指数重建序列与亚洲季风尾闾区PDSI指数的变化比较一致,同时还与西北地区的多条PDSI指数重建序列有着良好的相关性。腾格里沙漠南缘5~6月的PDSI指数重建序列具有25 a(95%)、12 a(95%)、3.4 a(99%)、2.8 a(99%)、2.6 a(99%)、2.3 a(95%)的周期变化。
    We presented a drought reconstruction for the northern central China based on the earlywood width chronology developed from one site of Pinus tabulaeformis at South Margin of Tengger Desert, China. The drought reconstruction in 1691-2005 was developed by calibrating tree-ring data with the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), which is used to describe the regional moisture condition properly. The reconstruction was verified with the independent data, and accounted for 42.0% of the actual PDSI variance during their common period (1960-2005). The mean PDSI over the 1691-2005 period was estimated at-0.32. The full reconstruction indicated that the regional drought variability was variable and persistent. The comparison between the reconstructed PDSI and historical archives and other reconstructions was conducted based on tree-ring in Northwest China. The results revealed common climatic extremes and change over much of Northwest China. Many of these events have had profound impacts on human being over the past several centuries. The drought epoch in the late 1920s was the most severe one in our reconstruction. The wet epochs in the 1730s and the 1750s were the wettest in our reconstruction. Spatial correlations between the PDSI 5-6 reconstruction and the girded PDSI dataset showed that the reconstruction varied indifferent areas; which were affected by the Asian monsoon. The multitaper method (MTM) spectral analysis indicated that there are 6 periodic change of 25 a (95%), 12 a (95%), 3.4 a (99%), 2.8 a (99%), 2.6 a (99%), 2.3 a (95%), which is similar with the PDSI reconstructions at East Margin of Tengger Desert and South Margin of Badain Jaran Desert.
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    新疆南疆地区土地利用变化及其生态效应
    满苏尔·沙比提, 陆吐布拉·依明
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 440-446.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.440
    摘要   PDF (363KB)
    基于GIS平台,以新疆各县市统计数据为基础,对南疆土地利用变化特征及其生态效应进行分析。分析得出:① 近12 a间耕地、园地、林地、水域及建设用地面积增加,而草地和未利用土地面积减少。12 a间土地利用综合动态度为0.88%,园地、建设用地和耕地的年变化率较大;林地、草地、水域和未利用土地的较低。土地利用变化存在明显的区域差异,巴州除未利用土地以外,土地利用类型的变幅均大于全区相应土地利用类型的变幅,和田所有土地利用类型的变幅均小于全区的变幅。② 绿洲耕地面积的扩展以牺牲自然荒漠植被为代价,致使绿洲生态问题日益突出,主要表现为植被退化、沙漠化、生境质量下降、土壤盐渍化和水质恶化等。
    Based on the GIS, and the statistical data of cities and counties of Xinjiang, this paper analyzed the characters of land use change and its eco-effects in southern Xinjiang. The results showed that: 1) In 1996-2008, arable land, garden, forest, water area and construction land have increased, however, the grass land and unused land area decreased. The dynamical degree of land use was 0.88%, garden, construction land and arable land showed bigger annual change rates; forest, grass land, water area and unused area showed smaller annual change rates. There was an obvious regional difference in land use change. Except the unused land area, the other types of land use changes in Bazhou were bigger than the same types land use changes in whole Southern Xinjiang, while the all types of land use changes in Hotan were smaller than the same types land use changes. 2) With the increase of population, human activities changed land use structures, enlarged oasis arable land area, which brought destructions to the desert vegetation. The bad ecological effects were as follows: desertification, land solemnization, land barrenization, arable land pollution, reducing of grassland, ecological deterioration of plain reservoir and ecological degradation of ecotone between oasis and desert, as a result, the sustainable development of oasis was affected seriously by these effects.
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    闽北典型盆地土地利用系统协调性研究——以周宁县狮浦盆地为例
    梁发超, 刘黎明, 许瑾璐
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 447-452.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.447
    摘要   PDF (340KB)
    选取闽北狮浦盆地为研究区域,利用景观指数分析其景观格局特征,在此基础上,从经济因子、土地因子两个方面,构建了狮浦盆地土地利用系统协调性评价指标体系,运用多层次模糊综合评价模型进行协调性评价。结果表明:周宁狮浦盆地景观类型的破碎度较大,斑块形状的复杂程度中等;经济因子协调性和整个土地利用系统的总协调性基本趋势都是上升的,而土地因子协调性处于下降趋势,说明经济的快速发展是以土地不合理利用换来的;评价结果既为狮浦盆地的土地利用规划提供依据,也为其他类似区域的研究提供借鉴意义。
    The Shipu Basin in the northern Fujian was selected as the study area, and its landscape pattern were analyzed using landscape indices. Based on that, from the two aspects of the economic factor and the land factor, we constructed coordination evaluation index system of land use system in the Shipu Basin, and assessed its coordination making use of the multi-level fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model. The results showed that fragmentation of landscape types is greater, and the complexity of patch shape is the middle in the Shipu Basin. The basic trend of coordination of the economic factor and overall coordination land use system is upward, however, coordination of the land factor is in the decline, indicating that rapid economic development has been at the cost of some extent irrational utilization of land. The model evaluation result not only provides the basis for land use planning in the Shipu Basin, but also provides references for the research on land use system in other domestic small basin.
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    安徽省淮北平原地下水氟、溶解性总固体空间变异特征
    吴泊人, 钱家忠
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 453-458.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.453
    摘要   PDF (856KB)
    应用数理统计学及地质统计学方法,对安徽省淮北平原73个浅层地下水中氟离子、溶解性总固体数据进行分析。结果表明,氟离子、溶解性总固体均服从对数正态分布,变异系数分别为0.77、0.36。地下水氟离子、溶解性总固体半方差函数分别满足高斯模型、指数模型,氟离子在49.00 km内存在自相关,溶解性总固体在7.21 km内存在自相关。氟离子浓度>1 mg/L的区域分布在淮北平原东北部、中部。淮北平原溶解性总固体>1 g/L的地区主要分布在宿州和淮北,其空间分布特征与氟离子相似。
    Indexes of fluoride ions and total dissolved solids from 73 samples in shallow groundwater in Huaibei Plain, Anhui Province, ware measured. And the characteristics of spatial variation is analyzed by mathematical methods of statistics and geostatistics. Results show that: 1) Fluoride ions (F-) and total dissolved solids (TDS) obey the logarithmic normal distribution. The coefficients of variation were 0.77 and 0.36, respectively. 2) The fluoride ions and total dissolved solids from groundwater satisfy the Gaussian semi-variogram model and exponential model respectively. Fluoride ions have an autocorrelation in the 49.00 km. Total dissolved solids have an autocorrelation in the 7.21 km. 3) The zone with concentration of fluoride ions >1 mg/L is located in the northeast and central region of Huaibei Plain. The zone with concentration of total dissolved solids >1 g/L lies mainly in Suzhou and Huaibei cities in the Huaibei Plain. The spatial distribution characteristics of total dissolved solids are similar with those of fluoride ion.
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    北京极端气温变化特征及其对城市化的响应
    郑祚芳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 459-463.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.459
    摘要   PDF (444KB)
    应用1960~2009年逐日气象记录,在对观测资料进行均一化处理的基础上,分析北京地区极端气温的时间变化特征及其对城市化的响应过程。结果表明,过去50 a北京极端最高、最低气温分别以0.23℃/10 a以及1.02℃/10 a的线性倾向率显著增加,在1988年前后存在明显的增暖性突变。1997~2009年间北京高温日数最多,霜冻日数最少。1980年起,北京市区极端最高气温及其增温率明显高于近郊和远郊,高温日数维持市区多于近郊,近郊多于远郊的格局。近、远郊极端最低气温温差高于城、近郊温差。
    High quality data series are not only the base of our study on climate change, but also the base of the diagnosing, forecasting and valuating climate. Because of sites moving and observation method changing, the climate data have been inhomogeneity for a long time. The original data applied in this paper sourced from Beijing meteorological information center, and were homogenized by the method of MASH (Multiple Analysis of Series for Homogenization). The MASH package consists of an interative procedure designed to detect possible break points through mutual comparisons of a number of climate data series, in which each series is not necessarily homogeneous. Possible break points and shifts were detected and adjusted through mutual comparisons among all available series. It can be seen from historical records that, since 1960, the site of Beijing meteorological observatory has been moved for five times, and the moving was taken place in 1965, 1969, 1970, 1981 and 1997 respectively. This paper describes annual mean yearly temperature time series before and after homogenized correction. It can be found that the difference between them is obvious. The discontinuity points in the series are in 1964, 1980 and 1996 respectively. As can be seen that they are all near the year when the site was moved. It illuminates that it is necessary to homogenize the original data. Based on the homogenized daily maximum and minimum temperature in meteorological stations of Beijing during 1960-2009, the temporal characteristics of extreme temperature variation and the response of extreme temperature to urbanization during 1960-2009 were studied. The results show that, in Beijing, the warming rate of annual average temperature was 0.39℃ per 10 a in recent 50 a, and 0.22℃ per 10a higher than the national average level. But the warming rate was unsymmetrical. The warming rate of annual average minimum temperature was much higher than that of annual average maximum temperature over the same period. That means that, in recent 50 years, climate warming in Beijing is mainly manifested as the rising of lowest temperature. As a whole, the extreme high temperature and extreme low temperature varied significantly with the rate of linear increasing tendency of 0.23℃ per 10a and 1.02℃ per 10 years, and the abrupt change of climate warming happened about 1988. In 1997-2009, Beijing had the most high temperature days and the least frost days in the past 50 a. From 1980 to 2009, the extreme high temperature and the high temperature days increased more in urban areas, and less in suburbs and exurbs of Beijing. The extreme low temperature and the low temperature days decreased more in urban areas and suburbs, and less in exurbs. Results show that the variations of extreme temperature have been obvious affected by the process of urbanization in Beijing. This result will reference on studying fundamentals about urbanization effect on urban climate.
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    胶州湾河口湿地秋冬季N2O气体排放通量特征
    谢文霞, 赵全升, 张芳, 马晓菲
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 464-469.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.464
    摘要   PDF (347KB)
    2009年9月~2010年2月,利用静态箱-气相色谱法对秋冬季胶州湾大沽河口受潮汐影响的芦苇(Phragmites australis)湿地和潮上带常年无积水杂草湿地N2O排放通量特征进行了研究。研究表明:两类湿地N2O排放和吸收具有明显的昼夜变化规律。白天N2O排放高峰出现在12时左右,夜间高峰出现在21时左右,最低值出现在凌晨6时左右。芦苇湿地和杂草湿地秋冬季的最高值分别为151.1 μg/(m2·h)、29.3 μg/(m2·h),最低值分别为-128.9 μg/(m2·h)、-21.5μg/(m2·h)。芦苇湿地秋冬季夜间N2O排放量高于白天,分别是白天的1.54倍和2.09倍;杂草湿地秋季N2O排放通量白天高于夜间,冬季则夜间高于白天且以吸收为主。在对芦苇湿地和杂草湿地进行监测的6个月份中11月排放量最高,排放量分别为42.42 mg/m2、6.89 mg/m2,芦苇湿地N2O排放量普遍高于杂草湿地。芦苇湿地秋、冬季的排放通量分别为56.32 mg/m2、63.38 mg/m2,杂草湿地秋、冬季的排放通量分别为10.45 mg/m2、3.08 mg/m2,芦苇湿地高于杂草湿地,分别是杂草湿地的5.39倍、20.58倍,主要是两类湿地不同的水文特征和不同的植被种类造成的。杂草湿地秋冬季N2O排放通量与5 cm地温、10 cm地温呈显著相关关系(P<0.05),芦苇湿地则相关不显著,主要原因是芦苇湿地N2O排放量除了受温度影响,由潮汐引起的干湿交替过程也在很大程度上影响N2O排放和吸收。胶州湾大沽河河口受潮汐影响芦苇湿地和常年无积水的杂草湿地秋冬季均为大气N2O的"源"。
    Characteristics of N2O flux in Phragrmites australis wetland affected by tides and weeds wetland without flooding perennial in the Dagu river estuary of Jiaozhou Bay in autumn and winter were observed using a static chamber and gas chromatograph technique from September 2009 to February 2010. N2O emission and absorption of the two types of wetlands have a significant diurnal variation. Day maximums occurred at 12 o'clock and 21 o'clock, and the minimum value were usually at about 6 o'clock in the morning. The maximum values in Phragrmites australis wetland and weeds wetland were 151.1μg/(m2·h), 29.3μg/(m2·h) and the minimum values were-128.9μg/(m2·h) and-21.5μg/(m2·h), respectively. N2O flux in Phragrmites australis wetland in autumn and winter during the day time was 1.54 and 2.09 times as much as that in the night, respectively. And there were more N2O fluxes from weeds wetland in the day than during the night in autumn, just the opposite for winter. The highest monthly emissions of N2O in Phragrmites australis wetland and weeds wetland were 42.42 mg/m2, 6.89 mg/m2 and they were observed in November. Monthly N2O fluxes in Phragrmites australis wetland were more than weeds wetland. Seasonal N2O emissions in autumn and winter were 56.32 mg/m2and 63.38 mg/m2 in Phragrmites australis wetland, and 10.45 mg/m2 and 3.08 mg/m2 in weeds wetland, respectively. N2O flux from weeds wetland in autumn and winter was 5.39 and 20.58 times as much as that from Phragrmites australis wetland which caused by different hydrologic characteristics of wetlands and the different types of vegetation. Further analysis indicated that N2O fluxes in weeds wetland in autumn and winter were significantly positively correlated with 5cm, 10cm ground temperature(P<0.05). The relation between N2O fluxes in Phragrmites australis wetland and 5cm,10cm ground temperature was not significantly, N2O emission and absorption in Phragrmites australis wetland was influenced largely by the tides. In addition to affected by temperature at monitoring sites, the process of alternating wet and dry, water level, salinity and tidal effected the emissions and absorption of N2O greatly. In autumn and winter, Phragrmites australis wetland and weeds wetland in the Dagu river estuary of Jiaozhou Bay were the "source"of atmospheric N2O.
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    近48年青藏高原强降水量的时空分布特征
    王传辉, 周顺武, 唐晓萍, 吴萍
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 470-477.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.470
    摘要   PDF (1431KB)
    基于青海和西藏地区48个气象台站近48 a(1961~2008年)的逐日降水资料,分析青藏高原冬、夏半年强降水量的时空演变特征。结果表明:青藏高原强降水量与总降水量的空间分布相似,夏半年为由东南向西北递减,冬半年则由唐古拉山脉东段的高原腹地向四周递减;夏(冬)半年强降水量存在准3、准6 a(7~8 a)的年际振荡以及准9~10 a(15 a)的年代际振荡;夏半年高原北(南)部强降水量以增加(减少)趋势为主,强降水量呈现出微弱的减少趋势,而冬半年高原大多数地区均呈现出明显的增加趋势,在1976年发生突变现象。
    Based on the daily precipitation data of 48 stations over the Tibetan Plateau from 1961 to 2008, the characteristics of spatial and temporal distribution during the summer and winter half years over the Plateau are analyzed. It is shown that the spatial distribution of strong precipitation is very similar to that of the total precipitation over the Plateau, which decreases from southeast to northwest during the summer half year, while declines from the hinterland of the Plateau located in the east of Tanggula Mountains to the surrounding during the winter half year. The heavy precipitation during the summer half year has inter-annual oscillation cycle with quasi-three years, quasi 6 years and decadal oscillation cycle with quasi 10-11 years, while has the cycle with 6-7 years and decadal cycle with quasi 15 years during the winter half year. The trend of heavy rainfall is quite different in spatial distribution. During the summer half year, it increases (decreases) in most regions over the northern (southern) Plateau. The overall heavy precipitation of the Tibetan Plateau shows a weak decreasing trend during the summer half year and an increasing trend in the Yarlung Zangbo River during the winter half year. There was an abrupt change of precipitation in 1976.
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    四川盆地降水变化的区域差异
    白莹莹, 张焱, 高阳华, 何泽能, 李永华
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 478-484.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.478
    摘要   PDF (505KB)
    利用四川盆地实测气象资料、NCEP/NCAR再分析资料以及NCDC全球气温距平资料,分析了四川盆地降水变化的区域差异。结果表明:盆地降水空间异常分布主要呈东西振荡特征,近46 a来,盆西降水显著减少,盆东降水总体变化趋势不明显。青藏高原夏季风指数、西太平洋副热带高压北界和脊线指数与盆地夏季降水的相关场表现为盆西和盆东反号分布,表明高原夏季风和西太副高可能是盆地降水东西振荡分布的重要原因。通过与全球气温变化的回归分析发现,盆地降水变化趋势的区域差异,特别是盆西地区的暖干化可能是对全球变暖的区域响应。
    Daily meteorological data of Sichuan basin, NCEP/ NCAR reanalysis data and global temperature anomalies data of NCDC were employed to diagnose the spatial differences of precipitation in Sichuan basin. The results show that the main spatial distribution of precipitation in Sichuan Basin appears to be east-west oscillation, from 1961 to 2006. The precipitation of western basin decreases significantly, but that in the eastern basin was not obvious decreased. There is a reverse distribution between plateau summer monsoon index, north boundary index and ridge index of west Pacific subtropical high and summer precipitation of Sichuan basin, which indicates that plateau summer monsoon and west Pacific ocean subtropical high may be the important reasons of the east-west oscillation of precipitation in Sichuan Basin. Using the regressive analysis and composition analysis, we found that the anomalies of precipitation over Sichuan basin have a relationship with the global mean temperature. With air temperature increasing, the precipitation over the western basin decreases significantly, while the trend in the eastern basin was not obvious, which indicates that the spatial differences of precipitation trends, especially for warming and drying of climate in western basin, are the response to global warming.
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    耕作方式对紫色水稻土活性有机碳的影响
    吴艳, 郝庆菊, 江长胜
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 485-489.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.485
    摘要   PDF (359KB)
    以位于西南大学试验农场的紫色土长期免耕试验田为研究对象,探讨不同耕作方式-冬水田平作(DP)、水旱轮作(SH)、垄作免耕(LM)、厢作免耕(XM)和垄作翻耕(LF)对紫色水稻土总有机碳、活性有机碳及稳态碳的影响。结果表明,在0~60 cm的土壤深度内,不同耕作方式下总有机碳的平均含量为LM(22.74 g/kg)>DP(14.57 g/kg)>XM(13.73 g/kg)>LF(13.10 g/kg)>SH(11.92 g/kg);活性有机碳的平均含量为DP(3.67 g/kg)>LF(3.49 g/kg)>LM(3.28 g/kg)>XM(3.17 g/kg)>SH(2.69 g/kg);稳态碳占土壤总有机碳的百分比为LM (85%)>SH (78%)>XM (77%)>LF (75%)>DP (74%)。长期垄作免耕具有明显的碳截存效应和良好的固碳能力。
    The effects of tillage system on total soil organic carbon, soil active organic carbon and soil stable organic carbon were studied in a long-term field experimental station in Chongqing, China. The content of total soil organic carbon in the 0-60 cm soil layers under different tillage systems was LM: no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (22.74 g/kg)>DP: conventional tillage with rice only system (14.57 g/kg)>XM: no-till and plain culture with rotation of rice and rape system (13.73 g/kg)>LF: tillage and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (13.10 g/kg)>SH: conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape system (11.92 g/kg). The order of soil active organic carbon was LM(22.74 g/kg)>DP(14.57 g/kg)>XM(13.73 g/kg)>LF(13.10 g/kg)>SH(11.92 g/kg). The proportion of soil stable organic carbon to total soil organic carbon was LM(85%)>SH(78%)>XM(77%)>LF(75%)>DP(74%). Overall, long-term LM treatment performed good effects on the soil carbon sequestration and fixation.
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    城市森林主要植被类型碳储量研究——以崇明岛为例
    王瑞静, 赵敏, 高峻
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 490-494.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.490
    摘要   PDF (333KB)
    以崇明岛为研究区域,采用野外样方调查和实验室模拟相结合方法,研究崇明岛主要植被类型碳储量。结果表明:(1) 崇明岛不同森林植被类型其碳储量是不同,从大到小的排序为水杉、柳杉,黑松等针叶树为主的植被,其次是阔叶树林,最后香樟林;(2) 崇明岛的植被碳储量的分布有很大的空间差异性,主要分布在河流两岸、道路两侧以及居民区等;(3) 崇明岛主要植被类型的碳储量为491 212.16 Mg,平均碳密度为18.70 Mg/hm2,低于中国和世界的平均水平;(4) 根据本研究结果和存在的问题,就未来的发展方向进行讨论。
    In the context of global change, research on the terrestrial ecosystem carbon cycle has become a big trend. Due to human activities and the impact of urbanization, such native terrestrial ecosystem as Amazon is becoming less and less. On the contrary, such region as Chongming Island which has been seriously affected by human activities is getting more and more. In this study, the carbon storage of vegetation types in Chongming Island was studied based on an method combining field sampling survey and laboratory simulation. Firstly, stratified sampling method was used and randomly picked 234 sample plots with vegetation in Chongming Island; Secondly, biotic parameters (e.g. diameter at breast height DBH, tree height, etc.) were investigated; Thirdly, the improved volume-derived biomass method was used to calculate the carbon storage of main vegetation types. The results showed that: 1) In Chongming island, the carbon storage among different forest type was different, coniferous forests (e.g., M. glyptostroboides, C. fortunei, and P. thunbergii) had the higher carbon storage compared with the broadleaved forests (e.g., C. camphora).2) The disparity of carbon storage in spatial distribution existed in Chongming Island, and vegetation carbon storage is mainly distributed in the river banks, both sides of roads, and residential areas. 3) The carbon storage of the main vegetation in Chongming Island is 491 212.16 mg, and mean vegetation carbon density is 18.70 mg/ha. And 4) the future work in this study area was explored based on this study results. Not only does this study provide a scientific method in studing peri-urban forest vegetation carbon issues, but also scientific data for building Chongming eco-island and managing "zero carbon emission" city.
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    基于PI指数模型的南方典型红壤丘陵区稻田土壤肥力评价
    罗霄, 李忠武, 叶芳毅, 黄金权
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 495-500.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.495
    摘要   PDF (332KB)
    通过田间采样和室内分析的方法,对南方典型红壤丘陵区稻田土壤44个样品进行检测分析,以pH、有机质、全氮、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾为评判指标,运用PI指数模型法对水稻土的肥力质量进行综合评价,探讨该区域的土壤养分肥力水平以及水稻产量与土壤肥力的关系。研究结果表明:(1) 本实验区水稻土有机质含量丰富,供氮能力较高,土壤为弱酸性与中性土壤,较适合水稻生长,但其供磷与供钾水平相对较低。(2) 各样品肥力指数与实际产量之间的相关系数为0.736**,即水稻产量对土壤肥力呈极显著正相关关系。
    About 44 paddy soil samples from the typical red soil hilly areas of the southern China were analyzed by field sampling and laboratory analysis. Using pH, organic matter, total N, available N, available P, rapidly available K as the indicators, the fertility of paddy soil samples was evaluated and the relationship between the soil fertility and rice yield was analyzed with PI index model method. The results revealed that: 1) the paddy soils in the studied area were weakly acidic or neutral, with abundant organic matter, high N-supplying capacity and relatively low P and K levels, which is suitable for rice growing. 2) The correlation coefficient between the soil fertility and actual yield was 0.736 (significantly), which indicated that there was a positive correlation between rice yield and soil fertility.
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    淮河流域单季稻气候风险研究
    俞芬, 千怀遂, 段海来
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 501-507.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.501
    摘要   PDF (1161KB)
    综合考虑单季稻气候适宜性水平及其变率变化,构建单季稻的风险度模型,运用滑动建模技术对淮河流域单季稻的气候风险性进行了动态分析与评估。根据风险分布将淮河流域单季稻温度、降水、日照和气候风险大致分为三种类型:低风险型、中风险型和高风险型;在时间变化上,近几十年来,淮河流域单季稻气候风险度有逐渐增加的趋势;并随着时间的推移,在空间上东部风险较低的区域有逐渐降低的趋势,而西部气候风险高的地区有进一步增大并向东部沿海扩展的趋势。
    A climate risk assessment model, based on the suitability model, is established combining with the mean suitability level and the influence of the climate change. Using the glide modeling technology, the article analyzed and assessed the climate risk to rice of Huaihe River Basin. Considering the temperature, precipitation, hours of sunlight and climate risk degree for rice, the article divided Huaihe River Basin into three types of regions: the low risk region, the medium risk region and the high risk region. In recent years, the climate risk to rice has an increasing trend in the Huaihe River Basin. The low risk region of the eastern has the decreasing trend, on the contrary, high risk region of the western Huaihe River Basin has the increasing trend, even will be possibility extending to eastern coastal regions in the future.
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    西峰蔡家咀黄土剖面记录的末次盛冰期到全新世最佳期气候变化
    刘策, 宋少华, 孔祥辉, 刘钊, 鲜锋, 武振坤
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (4): 508-512.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.04.508
    摘要   PDF (360KB)
    采用挖探井方式获取西峰蔡家咀剖面200 cm黄土沉积序列,以7个14C-AMS测年数据为年龄控制点,利用沉积物粒度模式建立最近20 ka的年代框架。磁化率、灰度、粒度等指标的综合对比表明该剖面记录了末次盛冰期增温以来几次重要气候事件,如Heinrich事件1(H1)、Bølling-Allerød暖期(B-A)、新仙女木事件(YD)、8.2 ka事件等,说明西峰黄土剖面具有记录短尺度气候突变事件的潜力。
    A 200-cm long successive loess core was firstly obtainded by diging a well at Caijiazui section in the Xifeng located in central loess Plateau in China. According to 14C-AMS dating results and the grain size model, the reliable chronologic framework of Xifeng section over the past 20 ka was derived in turn. Multi-proxy analysis on the magnetic susceptibility, grey scale and grain size clearly reveal the typical climatic episodes such as Heinrich 1 (H1), Bølling-Allerød (B-A), Younger Dryas (YD), and 8.2 ka event. It suggests the potential ability of Xifeng loess section for recording the abrupt climatic variations on the small scale.
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