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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1982年, 第2卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1982-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国地貌分类、区划与制图研究工作的回顾与展望
    沈玉昌, 苏时雨, 尹泽生
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 97-105.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.97
    摘要   PDF (2717KB)
    在自然地理环境中,地貌是基本要素之一,它与人类的生活、生产活动密切相关。因此,人类在很早以前就关心地貌,并加以分类、分区与制图。我国古代文献中虽然很早就有关于地貌的记载,但详细地叙述地貌并加以分类的著作,当首推二千多年前的《尔雅》一书,该书的“释地”、“释丘”、“释山”、“释水”等四篇,内容十分丰富详细。我国现今通用的平原、丘陵等名称均渊源于此。汉、唐以后,关于山川的记载更为详尽(如《汉书·地理志》)。
    The research work on the classification,regionalization and mapping of the geomorphology of China started very early,but essential work was done after libcration.This article gives a brief account of the history of the work and its present condition,and presents some suggestions as to the orientation of the work in the future.Many geomorphologists in starting their investigations to be in accord with the national economical constructions since the 1950s,have proposed various kinds of classifications on the basis of the genesis of geomorphology,and also put forward the criteria of classification of various types of forms.The work of regionalization of geomorphology opened up vigorously from the end of the 1950s to the beginning of the 1960s,along with the regionalization of physical geography of the whole country and the provinces(regions).In addition to the work above mentioned,many other kinds of geomorphological mapping have been carried out too,such as loess landforms,plain landforms,desert morphology,sea-floor morphology,etc,which have been put into practice by the economic departments.Besides,in respect of theories,methods,and practice of the mapping,some new conceptions and new methods have been discussed,and abundant data and new expe-riences have been collected.From now on we should spare no effort in studying and practising the principles of geomorphological regionalization,legendary system,mapping technology,ways of expression,quantitative measurement of the landforms,as well as the application of new technology in mapping.
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    我国泥炭性质及发育的探讨
    马学慧
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 106-116.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.106
    摘要   PDF (3193KB)
    我国幅员辽阔,自然条件复杂,泥炭资源比较丰富。北起黑龙江,南至海南岛,东濒滨海大陆架,西至西藏高原,泥炭分布广而零散,且裸露泥炭多于埋藏泥炭。裸露泥炭集中分布在大小兴安岭、长白山、三江平原、若尔盖高原、云贵高原西部、新疆的博斯腾湖滨以及西藏高原南部;埋藏泥炭主要分布在东部和南部沿海平原、长江中下游平原、华北平原、华中与华南的低山丘陵、云贵高原等地。本文根据一些泥炭矿点的考察和分析化验资料,对我国泥炭的组成、特性以及全新世以来泥炭的形成和发育初步探讨如下。
    The basic characteristics of The peat in China are as follows:Most of the peat belong to the herb peat type with rich-nutrition,having intermediate degree of decomposition with a high ash and humic acid content,an abundent quantity of nitrogen,but a low content of bitumin.In China paludification may be summarized into four types:Water-body paludification:meadow paludification;meadow paludification;forest land paludifica-tion;and frozen soil paludification.Based on the radioactive isotope C14 dating,result of sporepollen analysis and stratigraphic data,Holocene had been divided into three peak periods of peat dev-elopment with wide distribution and rapid accumulation of peat.The first peak period,datad 10300 to 9000 years BP.,was the local peatland growing period.The second peak period,dated 6000—4700 years BP.,and the third peak period,dated 3400—2000 years BP.,were the peatland widely and vigorously growing periods.The peaks of peat accumulation appeared in the periods when the climate changing from warm to cold,or from cold to warm.Because of the vast land and complicate landform in China,the last melting time of the continental glacier varied with different places,the time when peat began to accumulate was also different,The general tendency was that the time of peat accumulation in the south was earlier than in the north,in plains than in mo-untains,and in coastal areas than in inland.
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    我国土地资源合理利用问题的初步探讨
    方如康
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 117-124.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.117
    摘要   PDF (2858KB)
    “土地”是人类最宝贵、最基本的自然资源,是一切生产建设和人民生活所必需的活动基地,是农业的基本生产资料。一个国家利用土地资源的广度和深度,标志着这个国家农业生产的规模和水平。因此,对土地资源合理利用问题的研究,将直接关系到一个国家的国计民生。
    Land is man’s most valuable natural resource which is also the fundamental means of agricultural production.The scope and profundity of use of the land resou-rces indicates the scale and level of the agriculturel production of the country.The present article tries to discuss some problems on the rational utilization of land resources in China in three aspects:main characteristics of the land resources,chief problems on the use of land resources and principal approaches to the rational use and protection of the land resources of China.The article stresses in particular the main approaches to the rational use of land resources such as scientific investegation of the land resources,adaptation to local conditions,comprehensive utilization of lands and application of scientific techniques.
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    巴基斯坦波特瓦尔高原构造地貌研究
    徐叔鹰, 李吉均, 艾南山
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 125-134.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.125
    摘要   PDF (2766KB)
    西喜马拉雅山前的波特瓦尔(Potwar)高原是亚洲南部晚新生代标准地层——著名的西瓦利克(Siwalik)沉积最发育的区域。它位于巴基斯坦北部,在喜马拉雅山和旁遮普(Punjab)平原之间狭长地带的西端。
    The Potwar Plateau in the north of Pakistan is the region where the Siwalik Group(regarded as the standard strata of Late Cenozoic in South Asia)is most widely distributed and the part most recently uplifted in the Himalayan Orogenic Zone.The two of the writers(Xu and Li)have had the opportunity of visiting this region during the summer of 1980.Basing on our own on the spot invostiga-tion and the works of predecessors,we attempt to make a systematic exposition of the structural relief and its evolution in the region investigated.The Siwalik Group was deposited during the period from middle Miocene to middle Pleistocene dated as 10.2—1.8 m.y.B.P.by paleomagnetic data.The lower beds of this group are fine clastics,but on the top,they change abruptly to boulder beds dated as 1.8 m.y.B.P..The temporal and spatial variations in the rate of deposition in the Siwalik Group reflect the uplift history and the extent of the Himalayan Orogenic Zone.The Potwar Plateau belongs to one of the blocks of the imbricating thrust faults of the Himalaya-Salt Range.The times of intensive activity of its southern principal border fault and its northern front fault have been dated as 2 and 0.7—0.4 m.y.B.P.respectively.The time when the Siwalik Group was first folded is dated as 2.7—1.2 m.y.B.P..While its turning into hills is dated as 1.5—0.4 m.y.B.P..The rate of uplift has been increasing.Judging from the variations of sedimentary facies of the Group with time and the time of faulting activities,we can consider that the two peneplains in this re-gion were formed in the early Pliocene and in the early Pleistocene respectively.The general altitudes of these peneplains are 1600m and 500m.above sea level.They form the bases for the later relief evolution in the foreland of the Himalayas and in the Potwar Plateau.In early Pleistoncene the Potwar Plateau was deeply dissected by the Indus and its tributaries forming 3—5 terraces.It has been determined from the valley trends of this region that the principal compression diretion of the neotectonic stress field of the region in question is N 10°E showing that the Indian Plate is moving due north to collide with the Asian Plate.
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    黑龙江省作物合理布局的气候依据
    孙玉亭, 杨志慧
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 135-142.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.135
    摘要   PDF (2637KB)
    黑龙江省幅员辽阔,各地气候差异很大,受气候条件制约,作物有明显的地域性分布规律。如何根据地区的气候特点,建立合理的农业结构,充分发挥资源潜力,获得最大的经济收益,是农业生产发展中急待解决的问题。近几年来,晚熟品种和喜温作物大幅度北移,越区种植是作物遭受低温冷害的一个重要因素。因此,作物的合理布局,不但是因地制宜,发挥优势的前提,同时也是避免低温冷害的一项重要措施。作物的合理布局必须首先研究作物生长发育与外界环境因子之间的定量关系,鉴定每个地区气候条件对各种作物的满足程度,其主要标志是产量、稳产程度和经济收益。
    In this paper,the authors had analyzed the interrelationship between the climatic conditions and the yields of the main crops such as maize,soybean,and wheat in Heilongjiang province;established climate-yield model for yield with solar radiation,dryness index,and mean air temperature in July and August;also analyzed the variation coefficient of climate-yield relationship for various regions.On these bases,the authors determined the major planting regions for maize,soybean,and wheat;and studied the distribution structure of various crops in these major planting regiongs by means of the linear programming method.Consequently,the climatic bases for rational distribution of crops were provided.
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    洋河流域自然景观的地球化学特征
    王景华, 郑建勋
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 143-153.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.143
    摘要   PDF (2859KB)
    北京官厅水库是由洋河、桑干河和妫水河汇水而成。其中洋河是主要河流,对官厅水库水环境的地球化学形成有重要作用。它的上游由东洋河、西洋河和南洋河组成。三者于河北省张家口地区的柴沟堡汇合,又流经宣化,下花园等地,进入官厅水库。整个流域面积大约14140平方公里,全长250公里。官厅水库水环境的变化除了受工业污染影响外,上游地区自然景观的类型及其地球化学特征,也是影响和控制水环境发展的重要因素之一。
    This paper gives consideration to the formation of the natural landscape in the Yanghe valley and the transporting and cumulating law of chemical elements in landscape.The landscape pattern in the valley is classified according to the landscape system of landscape-type,landscape-order,landscape-species,and landscape-subspecies.The trace elements contents in the basin-landscapeare higher than those in the motmtain-landscape;for example,the average content of Cu is mostly 24.6 ppm,of As,4.7 ppm,of Ni,20.9ppm in the mountani-landscape,while concentrations of Cu,As,Ni in the basin landscape are respectively 39.9,7.5,and 26.1 ppm.As a result,it causes an increase of Cu,As,Ni,Hg,Zn content of cultivated crop in the basin-landscape.Human activity has a strong influence upon the landscape.As in the basin-landscape region,the population is dense and its industry and agriculture are well-developed,it will also be the region with the chemical elements concentrated.
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    模糊数学在小区域农业气候区划中的应用
    杨美华, 王铭文
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 154-161.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.154
    摘要   PDF (2791KB)
    农业气候区划是对农业气候作等级的区域性的划分。分类是区划的基础,区划是分类的高级阶段。随着科学的发展要求分类与分区的依据定量化、数学化,因为这样才能更深刻的揭示每个农业气候区质的特征,为因地制宜的规划土地,计划生产,进行气候改造工程设计,挖掘气候资源的增产潜力,提供科学依据。
    Taking the data of agricultural microclimate in the towns and communes of Jian County,Jilin Province as an example,in this articlea preliminary attempt has been made in the classifica-tion of agroclimate with the theory of fuzzy mathematics and its method.Fuzzy mathematics is a way of dealing with fuzzy phenomena;especially in microregions(under the level of county)where the lack of experimental and observational data is apparent,it has more significance of practicality to apply the concept of fuzzy sets to the analysis of climate.This article highlights an exposition of the procedure of fuzzy clustring analysis and its application in the classification of agroclimate as well as a few points of personal experience in the preliminary study and research.It was proved in practice that the fuzzy clustering analysis can mere objectively reflect the quanfifafive relationship of various climatic regions,and that in applying this method to the classification of agroclimate microregion,the logical deduction is reasonable,the methodology is simple and convenient;the classifica-tion is plain and the system of classification is clear.
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    问题讨论
    南水北调水量平衡变化的几点分析
    刘昌明
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 162-169.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.162
    摘要   PDF (2524KB)
    水量平衡不仅是调水方案与规模的依据之一,而且也是予估自然环境将来变化的基础。实现南水北调,首先会引起地区水量平衡状况的直接变化。随之而来的是其他环境生态因素与之相适应的某种变化。最后将构成对整个环境生态系统的影响。从调水影响的性质和范围来看,水量平衡的变化可以划分为三种地区:1.引用区,水量平衡变化的范围主要是在引水口以下的流域,东线是在长江三江营以下地区,中线是汉江丹口以下地区。实行调水以后,水量平衡要素中的径流项减小;2.输水区,指引水通过的输水渠道与蓄水体。实现调水以后,渠道两侧地区土壤包气带充水、地下水补给加大。
    The present paper mainly deals with prediction of the water balance changesin the North China Plain(NCP),the water import regions of water diversion fromthe Chanjiang(Yangtze)River.For the quantitative estimation of water balance changes in the NCP somedeterministic models have been provided by the auther.
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    研究报导
    松嫩平原的植被
    李崇皜, 郑萱凤, 赵魁义, 叶居新
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 170-178.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.170
    摘要   PDF (3518KB)
    松嫩平原位于我国东北中部,其范围大致是:北纬43°30’—48°40’,东经121°30’—127°00’。总面积约17万平方公里(图1)。在广阔的平原上,河流纵横,水源丰富,土层深厚。分布在平原上的草原具有草质优良、产草量高、毒害草少的特点,是我国和世界上最好的草原之一,也是发展以畜牧业为主,牧、农、林结合的重要基地。因此,松嫩草原植被的研究,具有重要的实际和理论意义。
    This paper describes vegetation on the Songnen Plain and classifies vegetation types in steppes,meadows and swamps.The authors not only discuss the ecological condition of steppe vegetation,the constituents of plant population on the Songnen Plain,and their bacie types and succession,but also approach some ways of artificial improvement on natural steppes.In this region,there are 27 associations which are suitable for grazing and 450 plant species which are suitable for forage.Among them,more than 30 species belong to fine grass of perennial gramineous and leguminous plants.
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    现代城市发展若干问题的探讨
    姚士谋, 吴楚材, 徐桂卿
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 179-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.179
    摘要   PDF (2772KB)
    城市的形成和发展是在一定历史阶段上社会生产力发展的结果,是一个地区经济发展的集中点与各种物质要素的集聚点。列宁说过:“城市是经济、政治和人民精神生活的中心,是前进的主要动力。”确实,城市在国民经济发展中起着积极的、创造性的和生产组织的巨大作用,代表了一定地区范围内生产力发展的最高水平。然而,城市的发展,不但受自然、经济规律的制约,而且受国家方针政策的深刻影响,特别是现代化城市的发展,涉及的因素更为复杂。在我国社会主义现代化建设过程中,如何从我国国情和生产力水平出发,研究现代城市发展问题,具有重要的现实意义。
    It is a well known fact that a city is the center of both regional economic development and various kinds of physical elements;and it plays a tremendous rule,active,creative,and production-organlzational,in the development of national economy.with the development of industry and communications in the city,greater and greater changes have taken place in city space;and,as a result,the contents of economic activities,cultural life,and social intercourse are more colourful than ever to a wider and comprehensive extent.To meet such progressive requirements,various fundamental activities in the city call for higher functional ability and higher efficiency so as to form an organically integrated unit.The main basic requirements are:(1)Rationalization of city planning.(2)Modernization of communication facilities,(3)Gardenization of city environment,and(4)Socialization of urban life.As the relations of urban arrangements with natural economy,especially those in the following respects,are so complicate with each other,they should be dealt with carefully:(1)To handle carefully the relation betwecn urban and regional economic development;(2)To make a good job of the relation of bringing large cities under control with the development of medium and small sized cities;(3)To deal better with the orientation and function of the development of each city or town in its regional system.As there is a close relationship between the level of rationalization of city planning construction and urban economic benefit,there is a need of further study and analysis of the urban economic benefit for the development of modern city planning construction.
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    学术活动
    国际地理联合会工业系统委员会简介
    李文彦
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 188-190,192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.188
    摘要   PDF (2113KB)
    国际地理联合会工业系统委员会的前身是第22届国际地理联合会理事会决定建立的工业地理工作组。英国的E·F·哈米尔顿博士被邀请为主席。1974年9月在英国召开了首次会议,有16个国家30名地理学者参加,集中讨论了工业移动和工业地理的研究方向两个课题。
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    国际地貌调查与制图组织及其学术动态
    陈志明
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (2): 191-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.02.191
    摘要   PDF (965KB)
    地貌调查与制图已成为许多国家地貌研究的主要方法,它不仅涉及地貌学本身的发展,而且促进地貌学的实际应用。国际地理学会(IGU—下同)自1960年成立有关组织以来,已进行了积极的活动,并已取得可喜的成果。组织简介为推动各国地貌调查与制图的发展,IGU在第19届(1960)会议上,正式在应用地貌委员会之下,建立地貌制图分会。分会由波兰D.M.克利马舍夫斯基任主席,其成员来自波兰、法国、瑞士、苏联、捷克、加拿大、比利时、德意志民主共和国、英国、匈牙利、罗马尼亚和美国。
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