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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1991年, 第11卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1991-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    地球科学的复杂性与系统性
    陈述彭
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 297-305,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.297
    摘要   PDF (693KB)
    地球科学的发展,呈螺旋式上升的旋迥。某一历史阶段的复杂难题,随着科学技术进步,可能迎刃而解。不仅需要重视对地球表层的物质流与能量流的观测、研究;还迫切需要对信息流程的复杂性,特别是对信息传输的自然过程和机理,加强观测和研究。需要用由定性到定量的综合集成的方法,去研究地球表层这个非常复杂的巨系统。
    In the historical process of geo-science development,we have viewed for more than one time that complexity at the lower stage has gone up to the simplicity at the higher stage,then the abnomality and complicated dilema has been confronted in the simplified laws.It appears spiral development.Some complicated scientific dilema at certain historical stage might be suddenly enlightened and resolved with the development of new ideas in science and support by the high technology. For a long time,geo-science has comparatively stressed on the observation and research of the material and energetic flow among the epigeosphere which has the most direct relationship to the mankind.Its top reaches the bottom of stratosphere and its bottom is on the top of lithosphere.The range covers 5-6kilometers depth on the land and 4 kilometers depth on the ocean.While the study on information process,especially what is the natural process of the information from the underground transmitted up to the earth surface,and absorbed by the remote sensors is inadequate.The study on geo-informatics is needed to explore so as to open the window toward the internal earth and get relatively precise information;and to master simplified laws at relatively high stage to understand complicated natural phenomina.The epigeosphere is an extremely complicated system.Because of its structure in multiple level and characteristics of open system and dynamic evolution,it needs a new integrated analysis methodology from qualitative to quantitative. The systematic dynamic model does not meet the needs of the administrations of planning,decision-making and management yet.Only to comprehensively and systematically recognize the earth on which man lives could he obtain more freedom on mastering nature.
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    西昆仑山南坡湖相沉积和湖泊演化的初步研究
    李世杰, 郑本兴, 焦克勤
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 306-314,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.306
    摘要   PDF (879KB)
    根据西昆仓山南坡湖盆区古湖相地层的分布和地层变化以及14C 测年资料,阐述了湖泊的演变历史及其原因。指出该区湖泊变化经历了如下几个过程:统一大湖分裂的若干小湖→高湖面期→湖面降低→高潮面期→湖面降低→湖泊大幅度萎缩.其湖泊演化是青藏高原的构造隆升和全球性气候变化二者共同作用的结果。
    Based on field investigation and data obtained from more than 100 samples analyses in the laboratory,the characteristics of lacustrine deposit and the distribution,genesis and evolution of lakes on the south slope of the West Kunlun Mountains are discussed from the viewpoint of sedimentary stratigraphy and stratigraphic chronology. Lakes on the south side of the West Kunlun Mountains are distributed in depression basins along a wide east-west tectonic valley.The water source comes from melted ice and snow.The genesis of the lakes is tectonic pattern. By analyzing lacustrine sedimentary stratigraphic features,Tianshuihai paleolake might have existed since the early Quaternary.Guozha Lake,Aksayqin Lake,Tianshuihai Lake and North Tianshuihai Lake were connected together at that time.The deposit model is an upaccumlation pattern.Up to the late period of the Late Pleistocene,the unified paleolake had been separated and disappeared gradually,several lakes were formed.A period with high lake level existed about 36000yr. B.P.After 30000 yr.B.P.the lake level declined.About 21000 yr.B.P. the lake level rose again.In the western part of North Tianshuihai Lake about 4800m above sea level,there is a lake terrace about 40m higher than today’s lake level.On the southeast side of Guozha Lake about 5080m above sea level,there js also a lake terrace 3m above the existing lake level.During the Holocene,lakes shrank by stages,presented byseveral cirlular lake terraces or lakeshore traces.
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    东北区轻工业布局变化特点与趋向
    李为, 曲丽霞
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 315-327,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.315
    摘要   PDF (818KB)
    本文论述了东北区轻工业布局的演变过程,指出其基本特征是阶段性,有序演进性和相关性等.本文在分析东北区轻工业布局具有差异性、趋同性以及不平衡等特点基础上,提出了今后变化趋向的基本估计,即平衡协调布局,建立合理的地域结构及形成网络状布局体系。
    The paper discusses the evolution process and basic characteristics of light industry distribution in northeast region.Modern industry in northeast China started from light industry.However,development of heavy industry surpassed that of light industry afterwards.Since the founding of New China northeast China has become a main national heavy industry base.The development and construction of light industry has gone through tortuous changing process.It is significant for development and construction of light industry of northeast China as well as for the research on regional industrial geography to study evolving process,features and trend of light industry distribution.The present features of light industry distribution are.difference of light industry distribution,similarity of light industry structure,and imbalance of light industry development. The changing trend of light industry distribution is pointd out.
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    甘肃秦安大地湾遗址植被气候变迁
    黄春长
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 328-335,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.328
    摘要   PDF (513KB)
    本文划分了大地湾遗址的地层剖面及进行了孢粉分析,论述了大湾全新世植被与气候变化,指出大地湾文化形成在温暖半湿润落叶阔叶林环境,而仰韶文化却发生在比较恶劣的半干旱、森林草原环境.
    The stratigraphic division and sporo-pollen analysis reveal the change process of vegetation and climate at Dadiwan Neolithic site last 1000 years,show the environmental background of villages in the Neolithic age,indicating that the Dadiwan culture stage (7800-7350 years B.P.) was formed in a warm-humid deduous broadleaf forest environment,the Yangshao culture stage(6500-5000 years B.P.)formed in a relative cold-arid environment,and the Changshan culture stage (5000-4900 years B.P.) formed in a warm-humid deduous broadleaf forest environment. The Yangshan culture (6800-5000 years B.P.) along the Huanghe River drainage area was not formed in"the most suitable stage"of the Holocene,but in a semi-arid steppe and forest steppe environment with a bad climate.
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    菲尔德斯半岛冰缘地貌分布特征及其与冰川侵蚀历史的互相联系性
    朱诚, 崔之久
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 336-342,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.336
    摘要   PDF (628KB)
    根据大量野外调查,讨论了"三高两低"地形与玛瑙滩玉泉河谷主冰流的存在,分析了带有冰川侵蚀历史烙印的冰缘分布特征,认为不同剖面类型组合的特征差异既体现了冰缘地貌在发生学上的内在联系,更反映出受冰川侵蚀影响造成的迎冰坡与背水坡的差异.
    Based on numerous field investigations,the authors confirmed the glaciational history of the ice stream flowing from northwest to southeast during the last glaciation.According to a large number of glacial till and erosive traces,as well as different sloping characteristics on Unnamed Island,the topography of"three high and two low",and the existence of the main ice stream in Manaotan-Yuquanhe Valley are discussed.The distribution characteristics of periglacial geomorphology which possesses the historical brand of glacial erosion are analyzed.The characteristic difference of typical combinations in different slopes indicates an inner relationship of its genesis in periglacial geomorphology,reflects an important difference between the front slope and the back slope,which was produced by glacial erosion.
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    上海城市日照与住宅朝向的选择
    周淑贞, 王行恒
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 343-352,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.343
    摘要   PDF (607KB)
    上海城市日照时数和日照百分率有明显的日变化,季节变化和年际变化,这些变化除受天文因素的制约外,还受天气气候及城市人为因素的影响。城区年总日照时数小于同纬度的郊区(川沙)。并且随着城市的发展,这种城乡差距有愈来愈增大的趋势,为了获得良好的日照和通风条件,兼顾节约建筑甩地和能源消耗,上海住宅朝向以南偏东15°-30°为宜.其中以南偏东15°为最佳朝向.
    On the basis of data from Shanghai Central Observatory (Longhua) and its nearby rural stations for more than 20 years,we discuss the important features of sunshine in Shanghai urban area and the choice of house orientation. 1.The diurnal and seasonal variation in sunshine in Shanghai urban area is dominant.It is caused by the latitude situation,meteorological conditions and urban artificial factors. 2.By comparing the simultaneously obtained observed data from Longhua and its nearby rural stations (Baoshan,Jiading,Chuansha and Shanghai counties),it is found that in the urban area both sunshine hours and percentage of possible sunshine are less than in rural areas. This is due to much more artificial heat,pollutants and condensation nuclei to the urban atmosphere.The obvious effect on urban climate is much more low cloudiness and overcast days but less fine days and sunshine. 3.In order to obtain good sunshine (more sunshine in winter and less sunshine in summer) and good ventilation in summer,the favorable orientation of a house in Sbanghai urban district is toward SSE.This orientation can also save the building area and energy consumption.
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    松嫩平原西南部土地沙漠化及防治对策
    孟宪玺, 吕宪国, 王其存, 黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 353-360,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.353
    摘要   PDF (571KB)
    第四纪以来新构造运动及河床多次变迁,为松嫩平原土地沙化提供了物质基础.春季干燥大风,加之近年降水减少,为土地沙化提供了条件,滥里、滥牧、滥樵是沙化的直接原因.在不同的地形部位建立不同的开发模式,是改善本区生态环境,使沙漠化逆转的根本措施.
    The natural factors of land desertification in the Songnen Plain are: 1.The neotectonic movement and vicissitudes of riverbed from the Quaternary made a wide distribution of sand deposit in riverbed and flood land,which gives sufficient sand.2.It is windy and arid in spring and the reducing of precipitation in recent years made it much drier.The sand more easily spread. The artificial factors are over cultivation,over grazing and unreasonable firewood collection. Land desertification caused the farmland to be engulfed,ecological environment deteriorated and harmed the life of residents.ln order to control the land desertification,the authors put forward the following measures.1.Readjust the proportion of cultivated,forest and grass land,increase the proportion of forest and grass land.2.Plant trees to prevent the harm of wind and sand,including building a artificial ecological system of arbor,shrub and.grass on dunes,building a compound ecological system of forest,grass land and farm land in flat and ground, and building square forest network in lands that are easily harmed by desertification.3.Construct a model of tree-dimensional ecological system of agriculture between sand lump and pasture.4.In residential area,build a courtyard economic system with the unity of life,production and ecology.5.Make more jnvestment,pursue the policcy of contract considering production.
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    广州地区第四纪沉积的年代学研究
    方国祥, 李平日, 郑建生
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 361-369,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.361
    摘要   PDF (582KB)
    本文根据75个14C 和22个热释光年代资料,央合沉积学、硅藻和微量元素分析,作者认为广州地区第四纪沉积年代可划分为七个阶段:Q2(距今70-20万年前)的冲积阶段;Q31(距今20-5万年)的风化剥蚀阶段;Q32-1(距今(5-3万年)的冲洪积阶段;Q32-2(距今3-1.8万年)的海进阶段;Q33(距今1.8-1.2万年)的风化与冲洪积阶段;Q41~Q42(距今1.2-0.25万年)的海进阶段;Q34(距今2500年)的海平面基本稳定与陆地前伸等阶段.
    According to 75 14C dating and 22 thermoluminescence data,in combination with the analysis of sedimentology,diatom and trace elements the authors consider that the age of Quaternary sediments in Guangzhou area can be divided into seven phases.(1) the alluvial phase in Q2(about 700-200 thousand yr.B.P.,(2) the weathering action and denudation in Q31 (about 200-50 thousand yr.B.P.,(3) the alluvial and diluvial phase in Q32-1 (about 50-30 thousand yr.B.P.,(4) the marine transgression phase in Q32-2 (about 30-18 thousand yr.B.P.,(5) the weathering action and alluvial-diluvial phase in Q33 (abaut 18-12 thousand yr.B.P.,(6) the marine transgression phase in Q41-Q42 (about 12- 2,.5 thousand yr B.P.,(7) the steady sea level on the whole and land expansion phase in Q43 (after 2500 yr.B.P.).
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    综述
    农业自然资源综合评价的回顾与展望
    吴登茹
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 370-379,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.370
    摘要   PDF (764KB)
    本文论述了我国和世界其他国家关于农业自然资源综合评价工作的历史,分析了其主要理论和方法论流派,指出目前的主要发展趋向,即综合评价向多层次、高维度发展,不断引进新理论,新方法和新技术手段等.
    The approach to integrative evaluation and reasonable utilization of agricultural natural resources (ANR) is the main content of agricultural geography.It is Very important to review and appraise this work for deepening its theory,perfecting its methodology,improving its application value.In this paper,the history of ANR integrative evaluation is reviewed,on the basis of this review,the main theory and methodology is evaluated.There are three approaches to studying integrative evaluation of ANR.The first is natural-ecological direction.Its focus is on evaluation of natural productive ability,its advantage is simple,meeting general application needs;its disadvantage is short of economic factor,the application is indirect and limited.The second is productive-technique direction,its advantage is direct and easy application,its disadvantage is short of evaluation of whole regional resource system.The third is economic evaluation direction.There are different concepts and methods in this field in each country.The focus of Cbina is on the integrative evaluation of nature,economy and technology,its advantage is reasonable and applied,its disadvantage is short of systematic theory and me thodology.Finally the approach to future trends of this work is shown in this paper.
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    研究报道
    江苏盐城地区海岸的冲淤动态
    蒋炳兴
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 380-388,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.380
    摘要   PDF (519KB)
    本文根据实地调查,历史文献、地图对比以及他人的观测料,着重论述了黄河北归后盐城地区的海岸动态,揭示了本区南、北两部海岸变化差异,并分析其原因和预测发展趋向,可为有关部门对该区海岸带的开发利用提供信息.
    On the basis of on-the-spot survey,in reference to historical literatures,contrasting topographic maps,and with the help of the materials obtained from observation and surveying,the article makes a special effort to elaborate the development of the coast in Yaneheng area after the Huangbe River shifted northward,reveals the difference of the development between northern and southern coasts in the area, and analyzes its cause and predicts the tendency of the develoment of the coasts.The origin of the artiele is to present some information for exploitation of the coast zone.
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    书评
    介绍谢觉民著《人文地理学》
    李为
    地理科学. 1991, 11 (4): 389-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1991.04.389
    摘要   PDF (148KB)
    美国匹兹堡大学教授谢觉民博士撰著的《人文地理学》一书已由友谊出版公司出版,与我国广大读者见面。谢觉民教授在1941年毕业于浙江大学,后留学美国锡拉兹大学,1953年获博士学位。谢觉民教授长期从事于人文地理学的教学与研究工作,其以本书贡献于我国地理学界,实为一件幸事。
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