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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1993年, 第13卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1993-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    关于中国热带的北界
    丘宝剑
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 297-306,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.297
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    从农业气候学角度论,热带应是水稻等喜温作物全年都能生长,橡胶等木本作物没有严重寒害的地方,气候指标为年极端最低气温多年平均值>5℃,最冷月平均气温>15℃。我国冬季风太强、太冷,热带位于世界热带的北缘,北界不宜定得太北,以在雷州半岛北端为宜。
    This paper makes comment on the article“The extent of tropical zone in China”in Vol.11,No.2 of this journal. The tropics,subtropics and temperate zone are divided by temperature indices.Temperature is only one of the climatic elements.Climatic zones are also divided by the other climatic elements.Their extents and borders are very different to each other.Many climatologists do not agree the temperature zones.It is difficult that all of biogeographers,pedogeographers and physical geographers agree to temperature zones. When subdividing physical geographical zone,it should be comprehensively considered to all factors of physical geography,especially the factor of climate.It is not enough to consider the factors of vegetation and soil. The author considers that thermophilous crop,such as rice can be cultivated in whole year,and tropical woody plants,such as rubber tree do not suffer from freeze in tropical zone.The northern boundary of tropical zone coincides with 15℃ isotherm of the coldest month,and 5℃ isotherm of the mean annual minimum.Because the winter monsoon is very strong and very cold in China,so the Chinese tropics situates in the edge of world tropics,its boundary line should not lie too north,but in north of Leizhou Peninsula.
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    长江流域经济发展优势与区域差异
    陈国阶
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 307-314,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.307
    摘要   PDF (658KB)
    长江流域是我国经济发展水平较高的地区,具有巨大的开发开放意义。长江流域的经济发展具有多方面的优势,同时其经济发展水平又存在明显的区际差异和梯度变化规律。
    The Changjiang River valley lies on the middle latitute zone of China,from the east through the west.It has location superiorities of connecting the east to the west and combining the south with the north,and the advantages of multiple ways for opening to the outside world by the coast,the river and the long border.For abounding with the varieties and quantities of natural resources,holding the favourable position of economy and making up forty percent of China’s industrial and agricultural total output value,it is one of the most quintessential economic areas and the best development zones in China according to its exploitation sthrength and potentiality. Unbalanced development in the valley is so obviously that it can be divided into three grades——the east including Shanghai City,Jiangsu and Zhejiang provinces enjoys its advanced prestige;the middle including Anhui,Jiangxi,Hubei,Hunan and Sichuan provinces occupy the second position;and the west including Guizhou,Yunnan,Qinghai provivces and Xizang (Tibet) Autonomous Region remains backword.The differences between the three parts are displayed not only in the quantities and per capita level of GNP,but also in industrial structure and rural enterprises.
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    百年来中国黄河流域区域性旱涝气候突变
    李月洪, 张正秋
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 315-321,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.315
    摘要   PDF (439KB)
    通过对近百年来黄河流域各区域旱涝气候突变特征的研究,表明该流域的大部分地区旱涝气候变化在本世纪10年代内出现突变现象,而且是从一个相对的偏涝期进入偏早期的转变。并且初步分析了黄河流域出现旱涝气候突变的可能成因。
    In this paper,the drought/flood indexes for the divisions in the Huanghe River Basin during the last 100 years (1891-1990) are analysed to reveal abrupt climatic change using the Mann-Kendall Test.It is found that there existed abrupt climatic change of drought/flood in 1910 and 1912 over the middle and lower reaches respectively,but no such obvious abrupt climatic change is found over the upper reaches.These facts show that there existed abrupt climatic changes of drought/flood for most parts of the basin during the 1910s,which were jumps from flood to drought phases.Meanwhile, it is should be pointed out that the jump was not non-local event in the basin.In addition,the possible reasons causing the jumps are discussed.By analysing the South Oscillation Index and the air temperature of the Northern Hemisphere using the same test, one can see that their abrupt changes occurred earlier than that of the drought/flood,indicating that these may be improtant background conditions for the event of abrupt climatic change of drought/flood.
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    多厂企业空间演化模式研究
    费洪平
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 322-330,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.322
    摘要   PDF (637KB)
    从中国重汽集团实例研究来评述企业增长及相关的空间演化。首先探讨多厂企业的空间增长与区位调整;其次评述企业空间演化的主要模型;再次分析我国典型重汽集团在一定时期的空间演化模型。
    Since the 1970s the studies of enterprise geography have become increasingly concerned with the spatial evolution of enterprises.However,little attention has so far been given to the spatial evolution of an enterprise in China.With China’s ongoing economic and political reform,a number of fundamental changes of enterprise behavior have occurred.These changes have certainly important influences on evolution of industrial location.Therefore,there is a need for examining the spatial evolution of an enterprise in China. The purpose of the paper is to review major models of both the growth and associated spatial evolution of an enterprise,with an illustrative case study from the Heavy Truck Enterprise Group of China.The paper is divided into three parts.The first examines the spatial growth and location adjustment of multi-plant enterprises,the second reviews major models of spatial evolution of an enterprise,and the third analyses the spatial evolution,over a period of time,of a representative sample of the Heavy Truck Enterprise Group in China,and illustrates the findings with case studies.It is suggested that the models of spatial evolution of an enterprise provide more evidence about micromechanism for evolution of macro-regional economic systems.
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    涉外旅游地图编制研究
    殷力, 冯志强
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 331-336,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.331
    摘要   PDF (430KB)
    涉外旅游地图是为国际旅游业服务,以外国旅游者为主要读者的旅游地图。涉外旅游地图有其特殊的概念、性质、功能、表示内容和编制特点。本文结合工作实践,分析了这些问题,提出了编图的原则与方法。同时还对涉外旅游地图的研制方向作了初步探讨。
    International tourism has developed rapidly in recent years in China,and so has tourist map for international tourism.The international tourist map is designed majorly for overseas travelers.The map could be exploited to promote market with other measures,to guide the travel for overseas tourists,and also to undertake study and help to make the plan of international tourism industry for the tourism researchers and administration agencies. Inspite of the common points with domestic tourist map the international tourist map is really quite different from the domestic map and has its own characters of compilation.The elements of base map are simplified to stress the major features of geographic environment,especially those related to the tourism.The selection of thematic contents should fully consider the interest and preference of overseas tourists,the recommended tourist lines and points by travel agencies,and the scale,type,and use of the map.Besides,related information,such as international air routes,transport timetable, festivals,introduction to cities or scenic spots,could be presented with the diagrams, scripts,photos,paintings. The design of the map should be oriented to a high standard.Symbols,colors, fonts,and map layout should be designed to make the map nice to look,attractive to read,practical to use,and precious to reserve.The hill shading,landscape sketch,real shape symbol are usually exploited to make map vivid. The advent of computer mapping,electronic map and series mapping are the direction of future map research and compilation.
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    西安段家坡黄土有机质特征及其环境意义
    贾蓉芬, 林本海
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 337-345,391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.337
    摘要   PDF (541KB)
    利用气相色谱—质谱等分析技术对黄土中的有机质总量、有机类脂物、干酪根等进行了分析,探讨黄土有机质的来源、演化和赋存状态;分析黄土有机组份的地球化学特征;有机类脂物和干酪根与土壤磁化率的关系;讨论了有机质对第四纪气候变化的环境指示意义。
    This paper describes the preliminary research on lipids from So to L9 loess—paleosol sequence of Duanjiapo section near Xi’an,which include total organic matter content, lipid characteristics and magnetite of organic matter. The loess has a low content of organic matter (<1.5%),its content and nature are related to environment states.The natural vegetation thrives when climate is warm/humid and the content of organic matter is high.When it is dry/clod,the natural vegetation is sparse and scattered and the content of organic matter is low.Therefore,the content is a reflection of the biomass. The content curve of organic matter is similar to fine silt fraction (<1μm)curve. Muhivalent cations link organic colloids of each other and to clays to form aggregates.This organo-sih fraction also appears to be highly resistant to degradation of organic matter.It changes the soil geochemical environment to one which is conductive to the formation of soil magnetite.The majority of organic matter was formed by natural vegetation decomposition during pedogenesis.This is an integrated environment,with small areas where reduction occurs.But the whole system is generally in one state of oxidization.
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    长江口北支河势的变化与水、沙、盐的输移
    陈宝冲
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 346-352,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.346
    摘要   PDF (433KB)
    70多年来,长江口北支渐渐淤积萎缩,分流比减少,并出现水、沙、盐倒灌南支的现象.文章分析了这些现象的起因和发展趋势。
    The general form of the North-branch of the Changjiang River mouth has changed greatly due to the change of the main stream lines of the Nantong reach of the Changjiang River and the influence of human activities. By the 1930s,the main stream lines of the Nantong reach of the Changjiang River has shifted to the Tongzhousha west channel.The North-branch at the Changjiang River mouth has become atrophic because of Tongzhousha east channel’s deposition.After 1958,Tonghaisha and Jiangxinsha were exploited.And in 1970 the North-branch of Jiangxinsha was blocked up.All these things make the water of the North-branch more difficult to pass through.It leads to the decline of the total discharge percentage of the North-branch.And it causes the rising-tide to go back to the South-branch.However, since 1978,with the development of Tongzhousha east channel and its left bank being scoured,the water amount of entering the North-branch is increasing.And the water, load and salt of going back to the South-branch is becoming less.A series of plans to regulate and exploit the North-branch have been put forward but each one has its weakpoint except the plan of making the river channel at Lianxingang narrow,It can prevent the water,load and salt from going back to the South-branch.And at the same time it can also keep up the normal natural and social environment.Undoubtedly,it is the best way to regulate and exploit the North-branch.
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    综述
    若干生态系统和大气中CO2浓度的变化
    马学慧, 吕宪国, 杨青
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 353-361,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.353
    摘要   PDF (561KB)
    根据国内外的研究成果及对我国三江平原沼泽近地层大气 CO2的实测资料,阐述地球表层海洋、农田、森林、沼泽等生态系统及大气的 CO2浓度,以及各自的变化规律。同时论述了大气 CO2含量迅速增加对气候和生态环境的重要影响。
    Based on the present literature at home and abroad and the data of observing atmospheric carbon dioxide near the surface of the marsh in the Sanjiang Plain,the carbon dioxide concentration fluctuates obviously.Oceans have ability to absorb,store and transfer atmospheric carbon dioxide.The carbon budget between the ocean and the atmosphere would be approximately unbalanced.The major sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide is the ocean,forest and marsh.Plants transfer atmospheric carbon dioxide and water into organic matter by photosynthesis.The respiration and the decomposition of animals and plants emit carbon dioxide into atmosphere.There are clear daily and yearly changes of carbon dioxide concentration in the ecosystems. M.H.calculated the change of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration from Cambrian period.Because of the increase of burning fossil fuels,atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration raised 25 percent than before the industry revolution,which affects global climatic and environmental changes.It is essential to legislate to control the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide.
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    高技术产业布局中的交通运输问题
    王缉慈
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 362-367,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.362
    摘要   PDF (438KB)
    本文论述了交通运输在高技术产业布局中的作用。首先分析高技术产业的特点,其次研究高技术产业对交通运输的需求及交通运输方式的选择,最后论述了科学园与技术城的交通运输因素。
    This essey is concerned with the role of transportation in high-tech industrial location.The paper is divided into three sections.The first section analyses the characteristics of high-tech production,suggests that transportation consideration be not neglected in high-tech industrial development and location.The second section discusses the different transportation needs in various stages of high-tech product life-cycle,approaches the selection of transportation mode.The third section expounds the transportation needs of science parks and technopolis.It is concluded that the evidence from the foreign studies on transportation needs of high-technology does offer some help in enhancing our understanding of the construction of high-tech and new-tech industrial parks in China.
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    研究报道
    呼伦贝尔盟克山病与环境硒动态监测研究
    李日邦, 袁丕业, 王五一, 谭见安, 鞠山见
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 368-374,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.368
    摘要   PDF (418KB)
    对内蒙古呼盟三个克山病重病屯的病情和生态环境进行了连续三年的监测,并与非病区进行了对照。三年中克山病病情呈下降趋势,发Se水平则呈上升趋势,病区环境仍处于低Se状态。
    The prevalence of Keshan disease and the ecological environment in three villages of Hulun Buir League,Inner Mongolia where Keshan disease was severely prevalent,were monitored for three years(1987-1989).A non-affected village was selected for control. Keshan disease incidence came down during those three years.The average incidence decreased from 16.23% in the spring of 1987 to 14.78% in the winter of 1987.But the hair Se appeared rising trend.There is a negative correlation between the decrease of Keshan disease incidence and the increase of hair Se.The ecological environment of affected areas is still in low Se situation.Low Se in food of affected areas leads to low Se flux in human beings,which is the main reason for low hair Se in affected areas.
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    长白山地区森林的水文效应研究
    杨令宾, 栾晓红, 孙丽华
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 375-381,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.375
    摘要   PDF (423KB)
    运用定性分析与定量研究相结合的方法,对长白山地区森林的构成特征及其地域分布规律进行了研究,揭示出森林与降水、径流、洪水以及水土流失等方面的关系,提出了有实际价值的模型与结论。
    The paper uses the method of qualitative analysis,combined with quantitative study,brings the constitution features and the law of regional distribution of the forest in the Changbai Muuntain to light.It discusses the relations hetween the forest and precipitation,the forest and runoff,erosion etc.,and compares with the achievements of other countries,sums up some models and results in the sense of theory and practice. After all,it provides scientific basis for the rational development and construction in the Changbai Mountain.
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    青海湖盆地沙地特征及风沙化趋势
    何东宁, 赵鸿斌, 张登山, 年奎, 王彬
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 382-388,392.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.382
    摘要   PDF (411KB)
    在对青海湖沙地进行系统分区采样分析的基础上,结合航片判读,阐述了沙地的扩大速度及发展趋势。
    The characteristics of the four sand-land regions,and their mineral components, salt and nutrient of the sand samples,and the moisture of the different parts of the dunes,as well as the tendency of the sandidification are analysed by using the date from field survey and remote sensing in Qinghai Lake basin.The speed of the sandification is different from each other in the four sand-land regions.The sand-land types are of diversiform in the basin.The area of the sand-land was 436.84,484.59,712.26km2 respectively in 1956,1972,1986.The mineral components of sand are quartz,feldspar and carbonate and so on.The contents of salt and untrient in different parts of dunes are similar in the eastern region of Qinghai Lake,but the moisture is remarkably different. The sandification speeds were 9.18,3.01,16.24km2/a respectively in 1956-1968,1968-1972,1972-1986.The sandification of the eastern sand-land is toward the Riyue Mountain location on the east of the lake,while that of the Bird Island is toward the NE direction.
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    研究生论文摘登
    大兴安岭森林火灾对林区沼泽小气候的影响
    阎敏华
    地理科学. 1993, 13 (4): 389-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1993.04.389
    摘要   PDF (140KB)
    1987年春季大兴安岭北部林区发生了一场特大森林火灾,为了研究火灾后林区沼泽环境如何变化及沼泽化面积能否扩大,特在火灾后的第三年,即1990年春、夏、秋三季(5~9月),对大兴安岭林区自然沼泽和火烧迹地沼泽进行了小气候、沼泽植被、冻土、沼泽土壤等的野外考察和对比观测。其中小气候的对比,以贴地气层的气象要素、辐射平衡、地表反射率、土壤热通量的昼夜观测数据为主。三个观测点均属于阿木尔林业局,分别是:A 点位于红旗林场,为重度火烧区的丛桦、泥炭藓沼泽;B 点位于长缨林场,为基本未烧的兴安落叶松、细叶杜香、泥炭藓沼泽;C 点位于长缨林场重度火烧区的丛桦、泥炭藓沼泽。
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