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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1994年, 第14卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1994-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    我国的经济地域结构与区域能源战略的关系初探
    李文彦, 樊杰
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 201-210.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.201
    摘要   PDF (3065KB)
    本文探讨了我国大经济区的形成、发展及与能源发展关系的特征与类型,把七大经济区分为三类,即东北区与西南区(丰富资源、以重工业为主体,能源大体满足区内需要),华东、华南、华中区(经济发达,能源贫乏),华北、西北区(经济差异大,但能源丰富,为全国能源基地).也论述了省区经济特征与能源发展的关系.
    While working out both the regional development and energy strategy,full attention have to be paid to their relationship. Under China’s circumstances;there are three levels of economic regions,i, e. macro-economic region, provincial (or equivalent) one, and sub-provincial one. This paper mainly deals with the relationship between energy strategy and the first,second levels of economic regions.In the author’s opinion,implication of macro-economic region should include; (1) considerably large land area and population, (2)considerably powerful economic strength and relatively complete industrial system, (3)several leading industries and a number of specialized products, (4)developed complex transport system, (5)at least one core area and a number of central cities,and (6)powerful energy bases and electricity system. In terms of regional economy and its relationship with energy,three types of macro-eco-nomic regions can be classified as follows; (1)Northeast China and Southwest China, (2) East China,South China and Central China, (3)North china and Northwest China.The province is the most basic economic area unit of China. According to the energy reserves,economic development and energy supply, the provinces in China could be di-vided into 5 types; (1)provinces or municipalities with developed economy,advantage in manufacturing industries, lack of energy resources and intensely energy import, (2) provinces with a middle development level and heavy industrial structure,some energy reserves which enable to balance the huge energy demand,and coal import ever increas-ing, (3)provinces with middle development or underdeveloped level,limitation in energy resource and definite amount of energy import, (4)provinces with a middle development or underdeveloped level,abundant energy reserves and huge energy export, (5)provinces with a middle deveplopment level or underdeveloped level and balanced energy between demand and supply.
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    黄山山麓第四纪粘土砾石层形成机制和环境的研究
    黄培华
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 211-216.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.211
    摘要   PDF (2558KB)
    从粒度参数(Mz、δ1、SK1和Kg)、频率曲线、累积曲线、概率值累积曲线、δ1-Mz散点图以及粘土矿物和孢粉分析等方面,探讨了前人作为冰碛的粘土砾石层,其特征与冰碛物或粘土泥石流不同,实为亚热带湿润气候下山洪搬运的洪积锥或洪积扇沉积物.
    According to the analyses of grain size parameters(Mz,δ1,SK1 and Kg),frequency curve, accumulative curve, probability accumulative curve, δ1-Mz discrete map, claymineral and sporo-pollen,etc., the Quaternary boulder clay, which was considered asterminal moraine by S. J. Lee in 1936,are studied in this paper. The research resultsshow that the characters of the boulder clay deposits are different from glacial moraine and debris flow. The boulder clay deposits are really a flood deposlits of pluvial fan in subtropic humid climate and not a moraine deposits in cold glacial climate.
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    青藏高原南部及其毗邻地区沼泽植物区系地理
    赵魁义
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 217-224.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.217
    摘要   PDF (2823KB)
    青藏高原南部及其毗邻地区沼泽植物区系丰富,有220种,归101属,51科.区系地理成分复杂,热带-亚热带成分占8.33%,热带-温带成分占22.71%,温带成分占43.18%,世界广布成分占9.85%,青藏特有成分占14.39%,北极高山成分占1.51%.
    The southern part of the Qinghai-Xixang (Tibet) Plateau and its adjacent.area sare rich in flora. There are 51 families, 101 genera and 220 species. The geographical compo-sitions of the flora in this region are very complex,they consist of the following geo-graphical elements; tropic-subtropic elements approximating to 8.33% of the entire flora in the region, tropic-temperate elements 22.71% , temperate elements 43. 18%, Cos-mopolitan elements 9.85% ,Qinghai-Xizang endemic elements 14. 39%,north polemoun-tain elements 1.51%. Temperate elements in this region are dominant. The dominant species of mires,Carex lasiocarpa,in this region is also found in northeast China,Finland and northern Amarica. The origin of mires of this region was earlier than northeast China and Finland .This shows that the southern part of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau and adjacent areas may be the centre of origin and distribution of temperate elements
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    青藏高原东北部的古土壤及其对环境变迁的反映
    徐叔鹰
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 225-232.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.225
    摘要   PDF (2792KB)
    阐述晚更新世以来青藏高原东北部古土壤的形成和发展规律,确立了晚更新世末次间冰期、晚更新世末期、全新世高温期三个古土壤发生时期的气候、植被、土壤和自然地带的基本状况,讨论了古土壤和高原隆起的关系.
    Based on field investigations, indoor analyses and 14C dating,this paper discusses the laws of the formation and development of the paleosols in the northeast region of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau since the Late Pleistocene. The author establishes basic condi-tions of calimate,vegetation,soil and natural zones during the three periods in which the paleosols were formed,i. e. the last interglacial stage of the Late Pleistocene,the last stage of the Late Pleistocene and the high temperature stage (Megathermal) of the Holocene. Finally,this paper discusses the relationship between the paleosols and the up-lift of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.
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    瑯琊山的顶极群落与江淮地区的地带性植被
    阎传海
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 233-239.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.233
    摘要   PDF (2708KB)
    瑯琊山森林进展演替的结果,亦即其顶极植物群落,将是以青檀、榉树、化香、五角枫、铜钱树等为优势树种的森林类型.苏皖江淮地区的地带性植被为落叶阔叶林,在中国植被区划系统中应属于暖温带落叶阔叶林区.
    The forest of Langya Mountain has been well protected. Qu Zhongxiang studied it in 1953,and we investigated the forest in 1992.Comparing Qu’s data with that of ours, we consider that the forest of Langya Mountain will develop into Pteroceltis-Zelkova-Platycarya-Acer-Paliurus Forest.This paper indicates the zonal vegetation of the area between the Changjiang and the Huaihe in Jiangsu and Anhui Province should be deciduous broad-leaf forest and "the area"should belong to the warm temperate deciduous broad-leaf forest region.
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    山东半岛水资源及其合理利用研究
    杨小军
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 240-247.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.240
    摘要   PDF (2806KB)
    山东半岛水资源人均公顷占有量低,不及全国的1/4;且时空分布极不均衡.近年来,随着城市及工业用水迅速增长、气候持续干旱,水源危机尤为突出.大力开展节水运动,充分合理开发水资源,可缓解山东半岛缺水状况.
    The water amount per person and per ha. in Shandong Peninsula is much lower than national average level. Moreover,the spatial and temporal distribution of water resources is not coordinated awfully. In recent years,there is a sharpening contradiction between water supply and demand because of 13-year successive drought and rising demand of water. To alleviate water-short conditions,we must launch a campaign for water reduc-tion vigorously and utilize water resources fully and rationally.
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    延边地区开发决策支持系统的初步研究
    吴殿廷
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 248-254.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.248
    摘要   PDF (2717KB)
    本文从计算机辅助决策的角度探讨了延边地区开发决策支持系统研制试验,论述了区域开发决该支持系统的研制过程和构建方法.区域开发决策支持系统包括数据库系统、模型库系统、专家知识库系统和人机交互系统四大基本模块,区域开发决策支持系统的构建原则是:充分发挥人和计算机两方面的特长,以决策者所面临的决策问题为导向,科学性与可行性、实用性相结合,开放性与观控性相结合.
    The paper studied the questions such as overall design and control of regional devel-opment decision support system (RDDSS). Combined with the practice to construct the Yanbian RDDSS,the author discussed the process of setting up a RDDSS and its opera-tion way. The principles to construct a RDDSS are;to take the decising questions as the direction;to construct a RDDSS that should be scientific,feasible and practical,and can be opened,observed and controlled.
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    《地理科学》的实践--祝贺主编黄锡畴教授70寿辰
    《地理科学》编辑部, 《中国地理科学》(英文版)编辑部
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 255-260.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.255
    摘要   PDF (2531KB)
    《地理科学》创刊14年来,从立足国内,面向全国,到走向世界的成功实践,进一步明确了办刊指导思想,总结了经验,阐明了主编黄锡畴教授在《地理科学》和《中国地理科学》(英文版)创刊与办刊过程中的指导作用和突出贡献.
    In the past fourteen yeare since starting publication,《Scientia Geographica Sinica》 has successfully undergone a process from having a internal foothold,being geared to the needs of the whole Country to marching to the world,It further defined guiding ideology for handling the magazine Summed up editorial experiences,Clarified directive function and sticking Contribution of Editor in cheif Prof. Huang Xichou in the Course of starting publication and Handling magazines of 《Scientia Geographica Sinica》and 《Chinese Geo-graphical Science》(English edition).
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    综述
    我国沼泽资源开发利用现状
    王荣芬
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 261-269.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.261
    摘要   PDF (2978KB)
    我国沼泽资源丰富,蕴藏着丰富的生物资源、淡水资源、泥炭资源,也是重要的土地资源,已建立了“基塘系统”、“稻-苇-渔系统”利用模式,一些地方还改沼育林,辟为牧场,同时建立了一些自然保护区.
    Mire is a special natural complex. It is always covered by thin water or has overwet soil,where hydrophytes and helophytes grow,with seriously gley soil or peat accumula-tion. Based on mire.formation and development process,mires can be classified into three categories:eutrophic,mesotrophic and oligotrophic.It is estimated that China has 11.30 million ha of mires. They are mainly distributed in the Da and Xiao Hinggan mountains,the Changbai Mountains,the Sanjiang Plain and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau,etc.Mire is rich in natural resources, not only plant resource and animal resource, freshwater resource,but also peat resource,and it is also valuable land resource. As land resource,mires have been reclaimed into farmland transformed into forest land,and de-veloped into pasture, to develop agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry. The plant resource can be used as raw materials for industry, medicine and food processing. Mires serve as a habitat for rare animals. There are 15 families, 160 species of .water fowls,a-mong them,rare birds such as Grus japonensis,Cygnus cygnus,Ciconia boyciana,C.ngni-graira, Haiaetus albieilla,Tetrao urogalloides,Grus vipio belong to the protected birds of the state.Peat is the product of mires. According to the statistics,the peat reserves of China are nearly 5 billion tons. In China peat is mainly used to improve soil,make peat humic acid fertilizer, nutrient sustratum,building materials. Besides,peat can be also used to make chemical products,and in environmental protection.Although mires can be used in agriculture, industry, medicine, environmental pro-tection,animal husbandry,etc. some mires should be conserved according to their types, features and usage,to establish varieties of mire nature reserves.
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    纪念竺老逝世20周年
    竺可桢教授对地理学史研究的贡献
    吕患成
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 270-277.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.270
    摘要   PDF (2665KB)
    本文从探空史、气象学史、气候学史、物侯学史、军事地理学史、数理地理学史以及科学家评介、自然科学史理论等几个侧面,较为系统地论述了竺可桢教授在地理学史方面的贡献.以此纪念竺可桢教授逝世二十周年.
    This paper,in the aspects of meteorological history,climatological history,pheno-logical history,military geographical history,mathematical geographical history,review of scientists, the theory of natural science history, systematically expound the contribu-tions of Prof. Zhu Kezhen to geographical history. And the emphasis is placed on the contribution of Prof. Zhu Kezhen to the theory of natural science history.
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    研究报道
    粤西滨海第四纪稀土砂矿
    张仲英
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 278-283.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.278
    摘要   PDF (2528KB)
    论述了粤西滨海第四纪稀土砂矿的成矿母岩、水动力条件、分布富集规律,并划分出晚更新世、中全新世前期和晚全新世三个成矿期.
    The mother rock forming rare-earth placer is mixed rock of Bacun Guorp of Cam-brian system or mixed granite of Caledonian period. The sandridge placers are formed by redeposited alluvial sediments. The dominant wind is easterlies in this area,so that the wave and tidal current,the Grains of placer move from east to west. Therefore,in the west part of sandridge,the placer grains are more rich than the east part. The Quater-nary stratigraphy can be divided into five formations, by comparing the 5 formations with the contents of placers are shown, in which the upper Pleistocene (Shawei formation) is the richest with the greatest thickness,the middle Holocene lower(Nan-shahai formation) is the next,followed by the Upper Holocene (Guanghai formation). There are two inclined beds of poor placers with regressive facies between the three rich beds. Becoming richer from up to low is the vertical minerogenic regularity.
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    松辽平原盐碱沼泽地的渔业治理模式
    杨富亿, 李秀军, 裘善文, 王德斌, 刘银良
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 284-289.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.284
    摘要   PDF (2711KB)
    根据1990~1993年在松辽平原腹地大安市的试验研究结果,报导了盐碱沼泽地渔业治理中七种类型模式及其主要技术与经济、生态和社会效益.
    In order to exploit rationally the saline-alkali marsh land in the Songliao Plain,we have conducted the experiments on the comprehensive fishery utilization of the saline-alkali marsh land in the Da’an City during 1990-1993,By means of the fish culture models of small natural saline-alkali rotation of fish and sheat, field and pond, rice field, reed swamps and fish-reed-rice have been established,This kind of land harnessing covered about 676.91 ha in 4 years. These models of exploitation have achieved remarkable bene-fits of economy, ecology and society, and the environment and the ecological balance were protected in this area.
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    书评
    《中国自然区域及开发整治》评介
    丘宝剑
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 290-292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.290
    摘要   PDF (1899KB)
    本书[1]是建国以来继《中国自然区划草案》(下称《草案》)[2]、《中国综合自然区划(初稿)》(下称《初稿》)[3]、《中国自然区划概要》(下称《概要》[4]、《中国自然地理总论》(下称《总论》[5]之后出版的又一部中国自然区划专著.
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    《澳门自然地理》评述
    刘洪杰
    地理科学. 1994, 14 (3): 293-294.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1994.03.293
    摘要   PDF (490KB)
    澳门地处中国大陆的南端,与遥相对应的香港,成为珠江口东西两侧两颗熠熠生辉的东方明珠.历来出版的一些有关澳门或涉及澳门的地理书籍中,都把重点放在人文地理方面,自然地理方面鲜有提及或仅是笼统、概略地进行一下描述而已,故而澳门自然地理的研究显得尤为薄弱.为了弥补这方面的不足,1988年由澳门促进学会主席、澳门恒生银行主席区宗杰先生邀请并提供资助,澳门文化司署鼎力支持,华南师范大学港澳地理研究室主任刘南威教授偕同该室卓正大、黄少敏、何宜庚教授及朱膺、张茂光、曾邦锐副教授与澳门大学的何广才先生一起,在澳门进行了为期两个多月的实地考察.发现澳门虽小,但自然地理景观却是丰富多彩的。他们在澳期间采集了大量的岩石、矿物、土壤和植物标本,实地考察了地貌类型,收集和整理了丰富的地质、气象和水文资料。回来后又进行了大量细致的室内量算、统计工作和样品的实验分析、鉴定工作,取得了大量的第一手材料和原始数据。《澳门自然地理》就是在这样的基础上编著而成的。
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