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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1995年, 第15卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1995-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    近500年冷暖变化对我国旱涝分区的影响
    郑景云, 张丕远
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 101-108.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.101
    摘要   PDF (2775KB)
    通过近500多年来我国东部地区的冬温距平序列,分析了我国近500多年来的冷暖波动趋势,并与全球的冷暖波动进行了比较.还分析了近500多年来不同冷暖时期我国旱涝分区状况的差异,结果发现:我国旱涝分区在冷的或暖的时期差异很大.冷的时期,旱涝区向南摆动;暖的时期,旱涝区向北摆动.
    In this paper,the series of the winter temperature departure in the east China and the global temperature departure for the last 500 years are analysed,and the fluctuation of cold/warm is described. The regional division of drought/flood in China in cold and warm periods are discussed. There are two main demarcations between drought and flood in the east China. The first one is the demarcatoin between more drought and more flood area. In the east China,the more drought area includes three regions in the north. The other is the more flood area. which includes other regions in the south. The second one is the mark to make out which area has the more occurrences of drought and flood or which has the less ones,which lies to the south of the fist demarcation,divides the flood and drought ares of southern China into two categores in terms of the multi-flood-drought area which include three regions in the south to the Yangtze River. In the cold or warm period,the demarcation of flood and drought in the east China holds the marked differences. The areas of the largest changes stand in Shandong Province,northern part of Jiangsu Province, northern part of Anhui Province, and the lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Whereas, the demarcation lying to the west of 110癊 is not likely to move or change. The demarcations and the regions of drought/flood shifted to south in the cold period and moved to north during the warm period.
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    我国第四纪火山活动的板块构造背景
    黄镇国, 张伟强, 陈俊鸿
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 109-117.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.109
    摘要   PDF (2863KB)
    我国主要的第四纪火山可分为10群.在论述这些火山群时空分布规律的基础上,从其与板块构造的关系上,这些火群可分为7种构造类型.
    There are 10 groups of Quaternary volcano in China. From the relationship between volcanicity and plate tectonics,the groups of volcano can be divided into the following 7 types: (1)volcanicity of ocean bottom and oceanic island of inside plate in South China Sea basin, (2)volcanicity of rift valley of plate margin in Leizhou Peninsula and north part of Hainan Island, (3)volcanicity of Taiwan Island arc which is a consuming zone of plates, (4)volcanicity of rift valley of plate margin in the bay of Bohai Sea, (5)volcanicity of rift valley of inside plate along the Da Hinggan Mountain and Datong fault trough, (6)volcanicity of plate margin along the Xiao Hinggan Mountain and Changbai Mountains which are affected by subduction of plates, and (7) volcanicity of inside plate in Tengchong and northern margin of Tibet Plateau which is affected by collision of plates.In summary,from the point of view of plate movement the distribution of Quaternary volcanicity in China can be epitomized into one basin,three rift valleies and three volcanic arcs.
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    中国工业战略产业系统发展研究
    方创琳
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 118-127.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.118
    摘要   PDF (2849KB)
    本文从我国工业战略产业形成与演变历史入手,提出工业战略产业选择与评价指标体系,采用Weaver-Thomes模型,求解我国工业战略产业系统及其发展的总体设想.
    In the economic system of industry of a country and an area, the industrial strategic industry is the leading industry which has higher economic increasing rate, labour production rate,output creative foreign exchange and technique standard, and larger need e-lasticity and economic benefit,the inclination investment of first development. Its formation is the necessary product of the social areal divistion of labour development. Whether the choice of the industrial strategic system of industry is successful or not has direct influence on the future and fate of the economy of the country and area. Starting from the history of the formation and evalution of the industrial strategic system of industry and aiming at a lot of diseases in the balance development process of the structure of the in- dustrial industry, this article puts forward the index system of choice and appraisal of the industrial stragetic industry, and uses the Weaver-Thomas Model to have figured out that the industrial stragetic system of China’s industry is an Organic aggregation of composing of 13 strategic industries such as chemistry,iron and steel, and electronic industries. The industrial strategic system of china’s industry is now in the transfer stage of e-volving from heavy industrialization to high procession,and the technique-intensive tendency is slow. Using technique improvement as a means of the sally port and achieving better economic results ascentre, at the sane time,setting up the non-balance model of the structure of the industrial industry and realizing the transform of the industial industry from pace pattern to benefit pattern,from reproduction on external expansion to reproduction on internal development and from extensive management to intensive management, and all these become the overall conceive plan of the industrial strategic system of China’s industry.
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    近三十年来青海湖流域气候变化对水量平衡的影响及其趋势预测
    丁永建, 刘凤景
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 128-135.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.128
    摘要   PDF (2794KB)
    通过对近三十年来青海湖流域内陆面水量平衡与气候变化研究表明,近三十年来青海湖水位的持续下降与流域平均降水减少有关,相关模式显示出气候变化对流域内水文过程的影响既显著又十分敏感.在未来气候增暖情况下,湖泊水位有可能向回升方向发展.
    Through reconstruction of the series data on climate and hydrology in Qinghai Lake basin,this paper discussed the effect of climatic change on the water balance for the recent thirty years,from the end of the 1950s to the middle of 1980s. The results indicate that there is a close relation between average precipitation and surface runoff of the drainage. The steady decrease of the Qinghaii Lake level for the recent thirty years is associated with reducing of precipitation,leading to decreasing of the surface supplement to the lake. The models built by the correlation analyses show that the effect of climatic change on the hydrological elements is significant and sensitive. However there are different sensitivit ies for effects of the various climatic elements on the hydrological elements. Precipitation is the most important factor that affects the change of the surface runoff. Air temperature affects not only land evaporation but also the surface runoff. The relation between precipitation and land evaporation is not significant. Therefore,the effect of climatic change on water balance deponds mainly on variations and grouping relation of precipitation and temperature. Suppose that the development of future climate tends to be wet and warm,the change of water balance in Qinghai Lake basin can maintain the present condition,and even the level of the lake rises slightly again possiblly. In addition,the paper also deals with quantitatively the effect of climatic change on underground ice melting in the permafrost region of the drainage basin and the underground ice melting is associated with various hydrological elements. Under the wet and warm situation of future climate, the change of hydrological elements acts totally promoting action on underground ice melting so that it is possible for the lake level to rise.
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    东北地区城市体系空间结构的分形研究
    刘继生, 陈涛
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 136-143.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.136
    摘要   PDF (2731KB)
    本文探讨了城市体系空间分布的分形特征,东北地区城市体系的空间结构,包括随机聚集分维的测算比较、分形结构因子的度量等的分析,以及东北地区城市体系相互作用与形成机制等.
    The paper made a preliminary study on the spatial structure of systems of towns which take Shenyang,Changchun and Harbin as centers respectively in northeast China. A law is found that the spatial structure becomes gradually loose while the level of aggregation tends to rise from the south to the north based on the measurement and calculation of fractal dimension and fractal structure factor. The authors discussed how the spatial patterns formed and lastly, put forward suggestions to improve the supervise of the systems of towns in northeast China.
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    县级玉米遥感估产实验及其效果研究
    张养贞, 张树文, 常丽萍, 张柏, 陈春
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 144-153.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.144
    摘要   PDF (2865KB)
    本文采用遥感方法提取梨树县不同长势玉米地信息并进行面积量算,通过植物指数的计算进行长势监测和长势分区.用遥感调查法和建立遥感估产模型进行估产,与实际产量非常接近.
    The maize yield estimation is to monitor maize growing in real-time;and estimate its area and yield dynamically through obtaining image feature and spectral data of environment of maize growing by means of remote sensing method, combined with agronomy method. Lishu County in the northeast is a base of commodity grain in China. The area of maize planting accounts for 70 percent of cereal. According to matural condition and lanuse,the whole area is divided into 3 regions of maize yield estimation and 6 types. The maize yield estimation has been carried out under the support of remote sensing technology system,which includes 4 subsystems,i,e. information of maize yield estimation,basic natural envoronment subsystem,remote sensing image analysis,and models and measurement data. GIS was established under the environment of 486micro-computer and ARC/INFO and DBASE Ⅲ. Remote sensing image was analyzed by IS2 S600 system in VAX 11/750 mini-computer. Remote sensing image processing is a key step in technology system for estimation of maize yield,which mainly includes two parts: (1)information extraction and area estimation of maize in the different growing conditions (2)monitor-ing and dividing of maize growing by calculation of greeness indexes. The maize yield was estimated by both remote sensing survey method and remote sensing model analysis. The former has resulted in maize area data of the whole county,combining unit yield gained by traditional agronomy method, and the estimated total yield is 1 150 000 tons, close to the real yield 1 130 000 tons, The latter has established a mathematic model suitable for the regions of high and mid-yield in Lishu County on the basis of the regional division.
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    安徽省长江沿岸港口体系的初步研究
    曹有挥
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 154-162.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.154
    摘要   PDF (2871KB)
    本文探讨了安徽省长江沿岸港口体系的基本特征、动态机制和发展趋势.指出安徽省港口体系正处于基本成型阶段,未来10至20年将发生较大变化.
    The river port system in Anhui Province,including six principal ports,is a component part of the port system in the Chanjiang River,and of great importance in regional development and integrated transportation network. This paper, based on regional and comprehensive studies, deals with the basic characteristics and dynamic mechanism as well as the development trends of the lower Changjiang River port system in Anhui Province.By calculating location Quotient of the port system’s cargoes,this paper discusses the characteristics of function of the principal ports. Based on the concerned statistics, the author holds that dominant direction of the flow of freight handed at the principal ports is the Changjiang River. The bulk cargoes handed at the port system have three kinds; 1) mineral building materials; 2) coal and oil; 3) nonferrous and ferrous metal mines,steel. A practical formula of ports unbalance index is designed for determining the spatial distribution of the port system. The spatial difference of the port system between the south and the north banks shall be improved and the structure of size-rank of the port system shall be adjusted.The develompent and changes of the port system could be divided into three stages: 1)embryonic stage (the Spring and Autumn Peroid-the end of the Ming Dynasty and the middle of the Qing Dynasty ;2)initial forming stage (the middl of the Qing Dynasty -the 1950s); 3)forming stage(the 1950s-the 1990s). The dynamic mechanism of the port system is mainly controlled by two laws of regional development. Sne is that the development of ports and hinterlands are mutually interacted, the other in that port and port act on each other.Next 20 or more years,the port system resulting from ports expanding and interacting will speed. This will also improve itself functional,size-rank and sptial struetures.
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    综述
    湿地甲烷排放研究简述
    马学慧, 刘兴土, 吕宪国, 李君泉
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 163-169.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.163
    摘要   PDF (2746KB)
    甲烷是一种重要的温室气体,对地球气候的形成有重要影响.湿地甲烷在大气甲烷的各种排放源中占有很大比例.本文对湿地甲烷的产生、排放及其影响因素,对其在时间和空间上的差异性规律等方面进行了综合评述.
    Methane is an important greenhouse gas. Its relative potential for thermal absorption is 30 times greater than that of CO2. About 80% of methane in atmosphere is from organic source. Wetland is an important source of CH4 emissions on a global scale because of the anaerobie conditions created by flooding soils. Methane emits from wetland to atmosphere only when production rate of methane is higher than oxidation rate of methane. The article discusses the present conditions of research on production and e-mission of methane and gives a suggestion of further research on emission of methane in wetland.
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    问题讨论
    论域的界定与空间性、长时段的研究思路--对卢仲康、成清扬先生的答复
    陆玉麒
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 170-175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.170
    摘要   PDF (2625KB)
    本文从回族形成时间、回回大跨度空间迁移、回族分布遍天下原因等三个层次上对卢文中论点进行答复.并在此基础上,从地理学的空间性与长时段等特性角度,分析我国民族地理学研究的主体思路和重点领域.
    This artical answers the arguments set forth in that of Mr. Lu in three degrees. To the time of the Hui nationality evolvement, this artical takes further steps to expound why using the point that this nationality was evolved at the end of the Yuan Dynasty or the beginning of the Ming Dynasty. To the elements that bring about the greatly ranging migration of thisn ationality and why it is so wide distributed,the artical of Mr. Lu is not a discussion but an addendum. And this addendum,in the point of the applicable field of an opinion,is unnecessary. Based on the two points above,considering the characteristics of space and long-term in geography, this artical makes a preliminary analysis of the principal disciline and the main field of nationality geography study.
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    研究报道
    松嫩平原中部农业区域土地景观动态研究
    王祁春, 张柏
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 176-181.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.176
    摘要   PDF (2516KB)
    松嫩平原中部作为我国重要的农业生产区域之一,随着农业生产的发展变化土地景观也发生着变化,对区域土地景观动态的分析研究有利于保持土地合理利用和土地景观系统的生态平衡.卫星遥感信息与统计资料结合进行分析可以宏观、定位、定量地得出土地景观动态.
    The landscape is the heterogeneity land area which be impacted by human actions. The artificial landuse is unstable change processes,so the all landscape categories continue change. The satellite remote sensing image provide fine method for the research of landscape change in large area. Because the advantage of macroscope, orientation and many times the TM image show correc’tly the distribution and change of the landscape patch. The middle part agriculture area of Songnen Plain as one of commoditygrain base in our country provide many agriculture production,so the research use the Landsat image information and statistic data analyzing the landscape change to provide reference for the fine developement of the landscape in the landuse of the area.
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    敦煌莫高窟岩体盐风化过程的初步研究
    屈建军, 张明泉, 张伟民, 王远萍, 戴枫年, 张虎元, 曾正中
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 182-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.182
    摘要   PDF (2601KB)
    盐风化是莫高窟岩体风化的重要因素之一、本文研究了莫高窟盐风化作用的性质、机制和强度,通过对比分析,说明芒硝等可溶盐是主要的风化盐类.还阐述了莫高窟岩体盐风化的环境背景条件.
    Salt weathering is one of the important factors to weather the rock body at Mogao Grottoes. By a preliminary research on the property, mechanism and strength of salt weathering action, the paper proves that the Na2SO4, NaCl, MgSO4, CaSO4?2H2O, Ca(HCO3)2. are main materials to weather rocks in this area and points out the importance of moisture action in salt weathering process and sets forth the background of salt weathering in the rock. The purpose is to provide a scientific basis for the protection of the Dunhuang frescoes and the rock body of Grottoes.
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    太行山南段沟谷杂木林的群落学特征及起源初探
    刘鸿雁
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (2): 188-195.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.02.188
    摘要   PDF (2776KB)
    太行山南段沟谷杂木林种类组成丰富、无明显优势种、结构复杂、低山沟谷杂木林含有大量亚热带成分,中山沟谷杂木林以北方温带典型种属为主,物种在沟谷分布受潮湿、温暖的生境条件影响.本区杂木林是一种异质性残遗群落.
    This paper mainly discusses the mixed broadleaved forest in gullies and deep valley of southern Taihang Mountain region. The following conclusions can be drawn:(1)It is a stable,species-rich,structure-complicated vegetation type without an evident dominant.(2)This vegetation type can be divided into two kinds:the one in lower altitude and the one in higher altitude. There are a large number of subtropical species in the former one,especially in tree layer,which can not be seen in zonal forest types.(3)The warmer and moister habitat in gullies and deep valleys is the main reason that species assemble there.(4)The mixed broadleaved forest in lower altitude is a kind of "heterogeneous remnant community".The aim of this paper is to provide theoretical reference for further studies of this unique community type and to provide scientific basis for the study of environmental change and nature conservation of this area.
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