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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第10期 刊出日期:1997-10-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    浅析文本在地方性形成中的作用——对近年文化地理学核心刊物中相关文章的梳理
    唐顺英, 周尚意
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1159-1165.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1159
    摘要   PDF (375KB)
    新文化地理学是英国一批文化地理学者在1980年代建立起来的知识体系。它与传统文化地理学有所不同,区别之一在于是否关注电影、文学作品、绘画等文本所再现的地方性。近年在英美文化地理学的核心刊物中,许多文章研究了由文本再现出来的地方性。地方性是文化地理学最主要的研究议题之一,它是文化地理学与其他人文地理学分支结合的关键概念。梳理这些文章,旨在归纳出文本在地方性形成中所起的作用。分析结论如下:① 文本可以通过再现3种内容来建构地方性:当地的景观、日常生活实践和业已消失的文化;② 文本再现地方性的机制多来自人们的意识形态需要,"我"与"他者"的精神诉求不同,再现的地方性也不同;③ 文本的再现对地方性既会有强化作用,也会有削弱作用。归纳出这种三种结论后,尚需要进一步讨论如下问题:在地方性的形成中,文本的作用是否是或缺的。如果不是或缺的,而是必须的,那么文化地理学者则必须研究文本中再现的地方性。
    Place is one of core concepts of cultural geography. Placeness is the distinctivity of place. Many cultural geographers lay emphasis on the emotional significance of place for subject since the 1970s. New cultural geography is a knowledge system established by a group of British cultural geographers in the 1980s. New cultural geography concernes about place representation by films, literature, paintings and other kinds of text, however, traditional cultural geography does not pay attention to this. The placeness is the join point that cultural geography binding other subdisciplines of human geography. In recent years, many articles in core journals of cultural geography studied placeness represented in text. Cultural geographers can read the understanding of different creative subjects to space and place, such as directors, screenwriter, artists, writers, poets and so on. This article cards some literature in order to summarize the role of text in place construction. Some conclusions come out. 1) Texts construct placeness by representing three kinds of contents, which are local existing landscapes, everyday life practice and lost elements in local culture. The representation of landscapes in text is more vivid than that of the other two. Daily practices recorded into texts are handed down more easily than that of oral form. Lost culture of place can be saved by text. 2) The mechanism of place representation by text comes from people’s ideological needs. SELF and OTHER have different spiritual pursuits such as loving their hometown, longing for a place far away from home and so on when they represent place. So the representations of a place in texts are different. 3) Text representation of a place can not only strengthen the placeness, but also weaken the placeness. If the authors of some texts have respected subjects and history of place, their works can reinforce placeness. However, if the authors of some texts are outsiders of place and their representation of place is selective and not completely true, their texts weaken the placeness. This article leads to a question for further discussion whether text is necessary in placeness construction. If it is, cultural geographers have to study the placeness represented in all kinds of text. The authors think that placeness only represented in the form of text can be shared by people of place.
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    地方性与传承:宜兴紫砂文化的地理品牌与变迁
    钱丽芸, 朱竑
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1166-1171.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1166
    摘要   PDF (350KB)
    全球化背景下,随着人文地理学对空间的认识不断加深,本土标志性地方品牌的地理学研究显得十分必要。以中国宜兴为案例研究地,从地理品牌的构建来考察宜兴地区特有的紫砂文化生产活动,揭示地理因素在赋予地方品牌深层意义的机制中发挥的作用。通过紫砂文化地理核心的变迁分析,探析地理品牌动态化的传承中如何增加历史文化价值,揭示地方性特点如何赋予地理品牌以意义。在中国的文化地理语境里,以新文化地理学视角解释紫砂文化的地理品牌现象,印证了紫砂文化地理特征的品牌化过程,是一个鲜明的社会过程和文化过程。
    With a growing awareness of space in human geography, the geographical brand of local geography is necessary, espacially in the context of globalization. Standing at the intersection of new Cultural Geography and Brand Geography, the authors study the special cultural production of Purple Sand tea-pot of Yixing, Jiangsu Provice, China. In this article, qualitative analysis is employed, such as field work, depth interview and vivid text content, to represent the Yixing cultural purple-sand production activities. Using new cultural geography perspective to explain the geographical brand phenomenon, dynamic analysis on purple sand cultural features are made to confirm the characteristics of branding process. Main study focuses on how the meaning of place gives to the geographical brand of local handicraft in order to increase its historical and cultural value. Firstly, by examining the Yixing cultural purple-sand production activities, this study finds that characteristics of region have created the unique local brand. Secondly, the entangled geographical meaning of brands reveals the deep action of the brand's role in the making mechanism. The peculiar significance of this article is to explore the geography of "local" meaning of brand, which lies on the judgment that place is a meaningful object. In addition, it proves that the branding procedure is a distinct social and cultural process, with disclosing the geographic change of the cultural soul within the region. In short, the case study in geographical brand of Yixing purple-sand production has explored the local cultural studies of cultural production in China, which expresses the culture brand with a relative new vision.
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    基于企业微观视角的城市区域生产网络空间组织研究——以粤东城镇群服装生产为例
    马海涛, 方创琳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1172-1180.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1172
    摘要   PDF (932KB)
    城镇间的产业联系是城市(镇)群研究的重要内容之一,然而传统研究多使用宏观统计数据,缺少从企业微观层面对城市产业联系的研究,难以清晰刻画城镇之间复杂的产业联系。随着社会网络分析方法在多学科的运用,城镇群生产网络空间组织的可视化表达和定量分析成为可能。选择粤东城镇群的服装生产为案例,通过深度访谈构建企业关系数据库,运用社会网络分析软件直观模拟城镇群区域服装生产网络,探讨城镇空间结构与生产网络之间的内在联系。结果发现:① 粤东城镇群区域内形成了复杂的生产网络,从网络结构上看,大部分节点存在于一个大的网络中,建立直接或间接联系,仅有个别点或小集团孤立在外,网络中各企业的度数中心度和中间中心度存在较大差别;② 从网络空间上看,汕头同潮州和普宁都存在密切联系,但潮州和普宁之间缺少联系,而汕尾孤立于汕潮揭之外;③ 各等级城镇在粤东城镇群区域服装生产网络中发挥了不同的作用,城镇的专业化与区域的多样化共同推动服装生产的网络化。为城镇群内部经济联系研究提供了新的思路与方法,对城镇群网络化建设具有参考价值。
    Spatial relationship of geographical actors is one of the core topics of geography. In urban geography, the internal industrial relationship between cities or towns, the same as spatial relationship, is also a significant part of the urban agglomeration study. A great many geographers engage themselves in studying the internal socio-economic relationship between cities by using macro-statistics. However, enterprise is the principle part of the relationship, lacking micro-perspective when studying is hard to explain the intricate relations between different cities. Recently, some of the geographers have efficiently used network analysis method to explain cluster network, transportation network, logistics network, and industrial network. Network analysis method, which is widely used in the subject of sociology, is good for researching on the perplex relations between objectives. By this method, it is possible to visualize and quantitatively analyze the spatial structure of urban agglomeration production network. This article takes urban agglomeration of the eastern Guangdong as a case study, which is a relative small area but with strong internal socio-economic relationships. For the reason of significant impact of the industry and obvious feature of network organization, this article specifically focuses on the study of apparel production industry in the urban agglomeration of eastern Guangdong Province. Based on the first hand data from depth interviews of 115 enterprises in 15 cities (towns), this article builds up the enterprise relational database, visually simulates the spatial structure of apparel production network in internal urban agglomeration with the software of social network analysis, and analyzes the intrinsic links between the spatial structure of urban agglomeration and production networks. The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, among the one-circle and two-zone spatial structure of the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong Province, there are close economic links within the metropolitan area of Shantou, Chaozhou and Jieyang, while few industrial links in two towns zones. Furthermore, the apparel production of Shanwei is isolated from the metropolitan area. Secondly, all level towns play different roles in the apparel production networks of the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong. There are two factors to promote the formation of the production networks, one is the urban specialization, the other is the diversification of the region. Thirdly, in the future, the urban agglomeration in eastern Guangdong should improve the agglomerative economies effect of urban agglomeration by taking steps to develop the characteristic function and enhancing industrial links between the towns.
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    城市空间的生产——以近代上海江湾五角场地区的城市化为例
    张晓虹, 孙涛
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1181-1188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1181
    摘要   PDF (738KB)
    城市地区景观的演变反映了人类活动对自然生态格局演替的人为干扰过程。由于人类活动的强度、频度及方式的差异,从半自然的农业生态景观演化为以人工建筑为主的城市生态景观的过程,可能呈现多样化的面貌。利用GIS技术将20世纪上半叶上海江湾五角场地区的土地利用状况逐年复原,发现其景观演变过程表现为由以农业生态景观为主转变为城乡景观杂错分布,并且这一进程因为各种政治事件的影响而呈现出明显的阶段性及空间差异性。揆诸史实,可知上海江湾五角场地区的城市化与城市空间的生产不仅是上海都市政治的产物,更是近代中国城市化的典型。
    The evolution of landscape in urban area is able to show the disturbing process of the impact of mankind's activities on the succession of natural ecosystem. Due to the discrepancy in intensity, frequency and manner of mankind's activities, there were different looks in the changing from semi-natural agroecological landscape into urban ecological landscape where artificial structures dominated in. The study is to recover the spatio-temporal course of the landscape changes in Wujiaochang area in Jiangwan Town of Shanghai from 1900 to 1949 by using the GIS which based on the data collected from historical archives and old maps. The research has discovered that the evolutional transformation from rural landscape to urban landscape had created fragmentation of landscape and declination of ecological accessibility in the study area. This process laid out the multiple urban spatial structure of Shanghai City under the semi-colonial political pattern and the spatial typical structure in the opening ports of modern China. Urbanization in Wujiaochang area in Jiangwan Town was started by the Chinese local capitalists who grew up in Shanghai during the World War I, because the colonial capital was drawn back to their European motherland. However, in this area, large scale construction was brought up by National Government since 1929, as the area was chosen as the core of Shanghai Special Administrative City. This was included in the Metropolitan Shanghai Plan which was stirred up by the rising of nationalism in China. So the aim of the construction was to antagonize the settlement government. However, the urbanization of Wujiaochang area in Jiangwan Town was altered by the breaking out of war against Japan. During war time, the city center in the Plan was abandoned gradually, while in the southwestern part of the area, some Japanese military installations and residential quarter began to build up. In a word, base on the study of urbanization in Jiangwan area, it is found out that, in modern China, the production of urban space was deeply dependent of the modern transportation system after blending into the global trade system and under the influence of unique historical events. The change presents the characteristics of dualistic spatial structure in modern China: the urban politics based on nationalities had played an important role in the urbanization and production of urban space in this area.
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    跨界旅游区合作的特征及影响机制研究
    杨效忠, 张捷, 彭敏
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1189-1194.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1189
    摘要   PDF (342KB)
    跨界旅游区旅游发展潜力大而问题复杂、矛盾突出,是一种特殊类型的旅游地,成为区域旅游发展研究的新焦点。从空间属性、功能属性、供需属性、边界属性、合作内容、组织属性等方面总结出跨界旅游区合作的6个特征。以中国山岳型跨界旅游区大别山天堂寨为例,揭示跨界旅游区合作影响机制是一个由宏观、中观和微观3个层面的影响因子交互作用而形成的复杂循环反馈系统。其中宏观影响因子涉及区域层面,包括区域经济因素、区域社会文化因素、区域制度因素和区域区位因素等,中观因子涉及组织层面,包括组织价值和文化、组织机构、组织历史、组织制度和组织网络等,微观因子涉及利益主体个体层面,包括利益主体的价值观、专业知识背景、个性特征以及对景区发展和环境保护的感知、态度和行为等。
    Cross-border tourism region is a special type of tourist destination which has large tourism development potential, complexity of problem and obvious contradiction. Now it becomes a new research focal point in regional tourism development. The study sums up the six characteristics of cross-border tourism region cooperation based on its space attribute, functional attribute, supply and demand attribute, the content of cooperation, border attitude, and organizational attribute. And taking Tiantangzhai of Dabie Mountain, a mountainous resort cross-border tourist region in China, as an example, this study reveals that the influence mechanism of cross-border tourism region cooperation is a complex feedback system with an interaction among macro, medium and micro factors. The macro-view impact factor is the regional level, including regional economic factors, regional socio-cultural factors, regional institutional factors and regional location factors. The medium-view factors is the organizational level, including organizational values and culture, organizational structure, organizational history, organizational systems and organizational networks. And the micro-view factors is individual stakeholders, including the stakeholder values, professional background, personality traits and the awareness, attitudes and behavior to the scenic area development and environmental protection.
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    西安市生产者服务业空间布局特征与集聚模式研究
    薛东前, 石宁, 公晓晓
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1195-1201.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1195
    摘要   PDF (642KB)
    以西安市为例,根据相关资料,采用定性与定量、静态与动态分析相结合的方法,借助ArcGIS软件,通过地理集中指数的测算,对西安市生产者服务业发展水平及其空间布局特征与集聚模式进行研究。主要结论:① 生产者服务业具有一定专业化水平,集聚特征明显,产值和从业人数占第三产业的比重呈上升的趋势,但仍处于较低水平;② 生产者服务业在城市内部空间集聚度偏低,但逐渐趋于集中,且分行业集聚程度参差不齐;③ 生产者服务业整体呈现多核心的集聚模式,分行业表现出不同的集聚模式类型;④ 空间结构形成机制主要是市场导向、区位因子、政府导向。对促进产业结构升级转换,确定合理的产业发展方向和城市产业规划、布局,加快西安市经济发展及提升城市竞争力都具有借鉴意义。
    In the modern world, fast-growing producer service industry is gradually replacing manufacturing industry as a core force and innovation sources of economic growth in the metropolitan area and main force of urban spatial structure remodeling in western countries. In the context of economic restructuring and globalization, China's cities are facing with development chance of producer service, and the status of producer service in national economy will be enhanced. Xi'an, as the regional centre of Northwest China and the important financial and economic city in the western China, is the core city of Guanzhong-Tianshui economic region and important equipment manufacturing industry base. It has a predominant regional advantage. At present, urbanization of Xi'an turns into an accelerated stage, and the city enters into a quickly gathering term. According to the judgement index system of the regional economic growth stages, Xi'an is at the key transitional stage from the take-off stage of industrialization to maturity stage of industrialization phase. Xi'an has tremendous demand for producer service industry and also has good foundation for developing producer services. The research on the present developing condition and spatial distribution features of Xi'an City's producer service industry contributes to the development of manufacturing industry and industrial structure upgrade. It can effectively affect spatial pattern of the city and reconstruction at the same time. With the development of the world economy, producer services separated from manufacturing and have become the main force to help manufacturing upgrade and industrial structure change instead of traditional consumer services. This paper, taking Xi'an as an example, according to correlation theory of industrial economics, regional economics, economic geography and urban geography, based on industry statistics of producer services in "Xi'an Statistical Yearbook"(1998-2010)and related enterprise information in "Xi'an Yellow Pages"(2002, 2008)and by using methods of qualitative and quantitative analysis, statistic analysis and dynamic analysis and the software of ArcGIS, studies the development condition based on the proportion of gross production value of producer services, number of employed persons of producer services in tertiary industry, and spatial distribution characters of producer services. The results show that spatial distribution of producer service presents relative low agglomeration degree at present, but has agglomeration trend, and producer services by sector have diverse agglomerate degrees. The overall producer services industry presents multi-core agglomerate pattern. This study has an important practical significance for upgrading of industrial structure, the determination of reasonable industrial development direction and reasonable planning of urban industrial spatial distribution, and the promotion of economic growth and urban competitiveness in Xi'an.
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    城市居民游憩地方依恋特征分析——以南京夫子庙为例
    唐文跃
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1202-1207.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1202
    摘要   PDF (332KB)
    城市居民游憩地方依恋研究为认识居民与城市游憩空间的关系提供了一个新的视角。以南京夫子庙为案例研究发现,南京居民的夫子庙游憩地方依恋具有地方依赖和地方认同两个维度的结构特征,其中对夫子庙的情感性依恋大于功能性依恋。时间和经济状况是居民游憩地方依恋形成的主要影响因素,其中对夫子庙的地方依赖程度主要受居民经济状况的影响,地方认同程度主要受时间因素的影响;夫子庙主要满足了中等文化程度(高中、中专)和中等收入阶层游憩者的消费需求,是一个大众化的休闲游憩街区。
    In the process of rapid urbanization, how to build an urban outdoor recreation space with local characteristics and historical and cultural meaning is a practical and significant issue worthy of further research. Understanding the meaning and value of urban space and the relationship between people and urban space is the prerequisite and basis for the construction of this kind of urban space. Place attachment, an emotional attachment to a certain place, is a kind of special phenomenon of man-land relationship and a hot topic of western recreation geography and environmental psychology. Residents’ place attachment to urban recreational block research provides a new perspective for understanding the relationship between residents and urban recreation space. This paper takes Nanjing Confucius Temple block, an urban residents’ outdoor recreational place and 5A tourism area, as a study case, and estimates its recreationists’ place attachment with 5-point likert scale. The result shows that Nanjing residents’ place attachment to Confucius Temple recreational block is constructed by two dimensions: place dependence and place identity. Place identity is more important than place dependence for Nanjing residents. Time and economic condition are the main factors in the formation of residents’ place attachment to Confucius temple block. Place dependence is mainly affected by residents’ economic condition while place identity by time. Confucius temple block as a popular recreational block primarily meets medium educational level and the middle income class recreationists’ demand. This study also demonstrates the validity of the measurement scale and the applicability of this measurement technology in the research of urban residents’ place attachment in China. Study on urban residents’ place attachment to recreational block provides not only practical guidance and reference for the planning and construction of urban historic district and recreation space, but also a new perspective for the theory and method of modern urban recreation space planning and design.
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    中国入境旅游需求预测的神经网络集成模型研究
    张郴, 张捷
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1208-1212.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1208
    摘要   PDF (334KB)
    对入境旅游需求进行科学合理的预测直接关系到中国入境旅游发展战略的制定和实施,具有积极的现实意义。目前,BP神经网络作为一种常见的传统机器学习方法,被广泛用于旅游需求预测建模。然而,由于BP神经网络存在诸如易过配、参数设置难、获得全局最优解难等局限,在实际应用中表现极不稳定。有鉴于此,拟将BP神经网络和集成学习技术相结合,构建入境旅游需求预测的神经网络集成模型,并对美国、英国、澳大利亚3个客源国近20 a来的入境游客量数据进行验证分析。结果表明,神经网络集成有效克服了单个BP神经网络在小规模数据集上的局限性,获得了比包括BP神经网络在内的传统机器学习技术和传统统计方法更为准确的预测结果,这有利于更加准确地把握中国入境旅游市场需求。
    Accurate prediction of the tourism demand is important for tourism management. The state-of-art methods for predictive modeling used in tourism research include traditional statistical methods, soft computing methods, and artificial intelligence methods. Note that artificial intelligence methods, which were introduced to tourism research in the 1990s, have greatly improved the predictive accuracy of modeling methods. Machine learning is an important area of artificial intelligence, which has been widely recognized as a powerful tool for intelligent data analysis. BP neural network, as one of the traditional machine learning technique, has been widely used to construct predictive model for intelligent data analysis. However, BP neural network suffers from several drawbacks, such as overfitting, difficulties in setting parameters, and local minima problem, and hence the performance of BP neural network is very unstable in practical applications. This paper combines an advanced machine learning paradigm named ensemble learning with BP neural network to build neural network ensemble for tourism demand prediction. This study conducts predictive modeling for tourism demand of three important tourist source countries of US, Britain and Australia for travel to Chinese mainland. The results show that, by combining a number of diverse neural networks, neural network ensemble significantly improves the predictive accuracy over traditional statistical methods and traditional machine learning methods including single BP neural network. Such method provides a better choice for more accurate predictive modeling for tourism demand.
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    中国水资源利用效率驱动效应测度及空间驱动类型分析
    孙才志, 谢巍, 邹玮
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1213-1220.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1213
    摘要   PDF (485KB)
    综合考虑产业用水效率、产业用水结构、经济水平、水资源禀赋及水资源开发利用率5个因素对中国用水效率的影响,基于扩展的Kaya恒等式建立因素分解模型,应用LMDI分解方法对1997~2008年中国用水效率变化进行分解分析,计算各驱动效应因素的相对贡献率,测度它们的影响程度和方向。结果表明:产业用水效率效应和经济水平效应是影响中国用水效率变化的最显著因素。通过计算各驱动效应的绝对贡献率,采用最小方差法将中国31个行政区(港澳台除外)确定为4种空间驱动类型,进而分析用水效率变化驱动效应的分布特点。研究结果对于正确理解中国用水效率的变化与经济发展之间的关系以及产业结构的调整与可持续发展研究具有一定的参考价值。
    Five factors respectively named industrial water use efficiency, industrial water use structure, economy development level, water endowment and water resources development ratio are comprehensively considered as the main factors that impact on the water use efficiency, and the factor decomposition model under the extended Kaya identity was established, the decomposition model was solved by the method of LMDI(Longarithmic Mean Divisia Index), then the driving effects of the five factors were calculated and the main factors were determined, which may useful for the understanding of water use efficiency change from 1997 to 2008 in China. The relative contribution ratio of the five factors were calculated to measure their function degree and direction. The result shows that the industrial water use efficiency and economy development level are the most significant factors to affect water use efficiency in China. This paper calculated the absolute contribution ratio of the five factors, then the 31 regions of China (Hong Kong,Macau and Taiwan excluding)were divided into four spatial driving types by applying the minimum variance method, and the distribution characteristics of driving effects were further analyzed. The result is of significance for exactly understanding the relation of the water use efficiency and economy development, and also has certain reference significance for the regulation of industrial water use structure and sustainable development.
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    庐山旅游区气候变化特征及其影响因素分析
    叶正伟, 吴威
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1221-1227.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1221
    摘要   PDF (509KB)
    采用Mann-Kendall方法,对1955~2008年庐山旅游区气候要素进行变化趋势分析和突变检验,结果表明,近54 a来气温和降水都出现了不同程度的差异性升高和增加趋势。庐山旅游区年平均气温上升趋势较显著,20世纪90年代以来年平均气温明显偏高,并在1996年左右发生了突变。极端最高气温升高幅度微弱,但极端最低气温上升趋势显著,且升高幅度较大。年降水量呈微弱的增加趋势,20世纪70年代频繁波动突变,且20世纪70年代以来年降水量都较以前偏高,其中20世纪90年代最高。近年来,最大日暴雨量和年暴雨日数都呈增加趋势,20世纪90年代是最大日暴雨量和暴雨日数的最高时期。夏秋季节暴雨频繁,暴雨6月最多,大暴雨8月最多,且年降水量增加趋势的贡献可能是夏秋季节极端降水事件增加的结果。
    Mann-Kendall trend test and abrupt change detection methods are utilized to analyze the climate change in the tourism area of Lushan Mountain. Results show that the temperature and the precipitation are undergoing an increasing trend in the tourism area of Lushan Mountain. The annual mean temperature is detected to have a significant increasing trend since 1955, and abrupt change occurred in 1996. The annual extreme maximum temperature increases slightly while the annual extreme minimum temperature has a relatively higher increasing trend with lager amplitude. The annual precipitation demonstrates a relatively slow increasing trend, and frequent abrupt changes occurred in the 1970s, the 1990s witnessed the highest precipitation since 1970s in which it has more precipitation than ever. The maximum daily storm rainfall and the annual total storm days also show an increasing trend, and the precipitation in 1990s proves to be the highest decade. Storm occurs frequently, most storm days and heavy storms occur in June and August respectively, and the storm rainfall in summer and autumn might be the main contribution for the annual precipitation increase. As for the possible driving forces of the climate change in the tourism area of Lushan Mountain, it is a typical regional response to the climate change which is demonstrated to be a response process of the influence of global warming and the effect of anthropological activities.
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    旧城改造与城市热岛效应关系的遥感研究——以福州市苍霞片区为例
    唐菲, 徐涵秋
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1228-1234.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1228
    摘要   PDF (778KB)
    随着城市建设的快速发展,老城区改造已成为城市发展的重点工程之一。福州市近十几年来对原有旧城区中的棚屋区进行了大规模的改造,改善原有的居住条件。利用遥感技术重点研究和评价了福州市苍霞片区棚屋区改造前后的热环境变化,利用系列Landsat TM影像反演了该区1986年、1996年和2006年的地表温度、不透水面和植被等信息,计算了城市热岛比例指数(URI),并对该区改造前后热岛效应的时空变化进行了全面分析,探讨了其产生的主要原因。研究表明,不透水面与地表温度呈指数相关关系,高不透水面比例地区温度上升比低不透水面比例地区更快。总的看来,福州市苍霞片区通过棚屋区改造,热岛效应有了明显的缓解,在这20 a间,城市热岛比例指数从0.648下降到0.245。福州市苍霞棚屋区的重新规划和改造对缓解该片区的城市热岛效应起到了积极的作用。
    With the urban development, replanning and reconstruction of the old urban area have become key issues of the urban development. Over the past decade, Fuzhou City of Fujian Province, Southeast China, has paced up its reconstruction progress. The Cangxia District, located in the southwestern Fuzhou, was therefore replaned and reconstructed to improve people’s living conditions because the area was full of intensively-built shanties. In order to study the thermal environmental changes of the Cangxia District before and after the reconstruction, three Landsat TM images of 1986, 1996 and 2006 were utilized to perform feature extraction of thermal-related information of the area, such as land surface temperature (LST), impervious surface area and vegetation coverage. The quantitative analysis on the relationship between impervious surface and LST suggested there is a positive exponential relationship between the two factors. With the assistance of the Urban-Heat-Island Ratio Index (URI), digital image processing on the three multi-temporal images has revealed the spatial and temporal variations of the urban heat island effect (UHIE) in the study area from 1986 to 2006. The results show that after the launch of the reconstruction project for the shanty-dominated area, the UHIE in the area has been greatly mitigated. In the past 20 years, the URI has been decreased from 0.648 in 1986 to 0.245 in 2006 owing to the significant decrease in high-density impervious surface areas and notably increase in vegetation covers. Obviously, the reconstruction is beneficial to the UHI mitigation of the Cangxia District.
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    30年来东南红壤丘陵区土壤侵蚀度时空演变研究——以长汀县为例
    林晨, 周生路, 吴绍华
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1235-1241.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1235
    摘要   PDF (597KB)
    土壤侵蚀动态监测是侵蚀研究体系中的重要内容,当前国内大部分研究直接引用国外监测模型,不仅在因子选取以及模型通用性上存在不足,而且对区域土壤的潜在性侵蚀危险考虑不够。因此,研究提出土壤侵蚀度的概念,作为区域土壤实际侵蚀强度与潜在侵蚀危险的综合表征,并基于人地关系系统,通过多指标的量化与建模进行土壤侵蚀度测算,从而分析福建省长汀县土壤侵蚀时空演变规律。结果表明,长汀县土壤侵蚀分布存在集中连片的特点,汀中地区的侵蚀度最高,并向周边逐渐衰减。同时,侵蚀度在变化方向上虽然存在不确定性,但总体侵蚀状况近30a来得到了明显的改善,安全区的比重从1975年的3.87%增长至2006年的56.38%,相比而言,极度侵蚀危险区的比重仅从1975年的12.3%,减少至2006年的6.66%,改善幅度较其他等级土壤有所差距,这与区域在立地条件、经济发展水平以及政策导向上的差异密切相关。研究结果说明选取侵蚀影响因子具有一定的适宜性,也证明土壤侵蚀度可以有效表征土壤侵蚀时空演变趋势。
    Monitoring the soil erosion dynamically is an important part in soil erosion research.The studies in China always adopt the quantitative model which were developed abroad, so the shortage is existed in factors selection and commonality of the model, and such studies are also considered less in erosion potentiality. As a result, a concept of erosion degree is proposed in the study, which is a consolidated representation of actual erosion intensity and potential erosion risk. Based on human-land relationship system, the erosion degree were calculated by quantification of multi index, and the spatial and temporal soil erosion degree transition tendency in Changting County, Fujian Provience was analyzed. The results show that characteristics of concentration and contiguous are existed in erosion distribution, the highest erosion degree is existed in central of Changting County, and gradually decay to the surrounding area. On the other wise, although the uncertainty is existed in transition of soil erosion degree, the soil erosion had improved in the passed 30 years, the proportion of safe area in 1975 was 3.87%, and it rose quickly to approximately 56.38% in 2006.In contrast, the decrease rate of extremely dangerous area is less than the other areas, the proportion only reduced from 12.3% in 1975 to 6.66% in 2006.The phenomenon is closely related with the region differences in habitats, economic development and policy orientation. In generally,the result not only certify the suitability in the selection of erosion factors, but also indicted that the erosion degree can characterize the transition tendency of soil erosion.
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    基于遥感方法的长白山地区植被物候期变化趋势研究
    李明, 吴正方, 杜海波, 宗盛伟, 孟祥君, 张莲芝
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1242-1248.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1242
    摘要   PDF (848KB)
    目前,越来越多的遥感数据被用来监测大面积植物物候的动态变化。利用长时间序列的SPOT/NDVI旬合成数据,通过double logistic模型获取了1999~2008年长白山地区植被的3个关键物候参数:生长季始期、生长季末期和生长季长度的多年平均值,并绘制了它们的变化趋势空间格局图。结果表明,林地的生长季开始日期为第100~120天,草地和耕地相对较晚,分别为第130~140天和第140~150天;林地和草地生长季的结束日期为第275~285天,耕地的相对较早,为第265~275天;林地、草地和耕地的生长季长度范围分别为160~180 d、140~160 d和110~130 d。植被物候期的变化趋势表现为一定的空间差异性,生长季长度延长区域主要分布在长白山地区的中东部,平均每年延长约0.7 d;缩短的区域在西北地区,平均每年缩短1.1 d。最后通过部分物候观测数据及前人在相同研究区的结果验证了利用double logistic模型提取预测长白山植被物候期的可行性。
    A wealth of remotely sensed image time series is now available to monitor vegetation dynamics over large areas.In this papert,he spatial pattern of three key vegetation phenological metrics,the start of growing season(SOS)t,he end of growing season(EOS),and the length of growing season(LOS)were inferred from the time series SPOT/NDVI data based on double logistic model in Changbai mountains,and the trends of them are assessed.The results show that the SOS of forests focus on dekad 10-12,that of grasslands and crop-lands start relatively late,they are in decad 13-14 and decad 14-15,respectively.The EOS of forests and grasslands range from 275th to 285th dayt,hat of croplands are early relatively,which are between 265th and 275th day.Therefore,the LOS of forests,grasslands and croplands are 160-180 days,140-160 days and 110-130 days,respectively.The trends of phenophases have certain spatial discrepancy,which express that the LOS prolong in middle-eastern areas and shorten in northwestern areas.Then the derived phenological met-rics were validated by a few field observed data and some previous research achievements in the same area.
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    基于TM影像的延吉市土地利用动态变化研究
    金石柱, 刘志锋
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1249-1253.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1249
    摘要   PDF (514KB)
    以1991年、2001年与2006年的Landsat TM/ETM+影像为数据源,利用几何校正、监督分类、动态变化分析等遥感技术对延吉市1991~2006年的土地利用动态变化情况进行了统计和分析。研究结果表明,延吉市的居民用地面积显著增加,而农田和草地的面积却大面积减少,由此引发的粮食和环境问题将严重影响延吉市居民的日常生活和自然生态环境。研究结果可为延吉市的可持续发展和有效管理提供理论基础和依据。
    The dynamic change of land use in Yanji City was computed and analyzed by using the geometric correction, supervised classification and change detection statistical methods based on 3 Landsat TM/ETM+ images taken in 1991, 2001 and 2006. The results showed that, the area of residential land has increased significantly. On the contrary the area of agricultural land and grassland has decreased. The grain problem and the environment problems due to the changes of the land use would seriously affect the daily life and the ecological environment of Yanji City. The result of the study could provide a theoretical basis for the effective management and sustainable development of Yanji City.
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    利用分形理论解决不同土粒分级标准间土壤质地资料的转换问题
    郭中领, 张科利, 董建志, 王颖, 刘宏远, 王维
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1254-1260.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1254
    摘要   PDF (783KB)
    基于分形理论,选取黄土高原南部厢寺川林场地区20个典型样点,每个样点取3个剖面,共60个土样的实测土壤颗粒粒径分布数据,分别应用分形模型、对数正态模型、逻辑生长模型、WEIBULL模型预测土壤颗粒累积百分含量,提出一种预测土壤颗粒粒径分布的分形模型。结果表明,在0.002~0.1mm粒级范围内,分形模型对已知土壤资料的粒级个数和预测粒级的大小等因素并不敏感,具有较高的预测精度和稳定性;与对数正态模型、逻辑生长模型和WEIBULL模型相比,分形模型的总体预测误差最小且未出现大误差数据,可以有效对不同土粒分级标准间土壤质地资料进行转换。
    The soil texture is one of the most important indicators to reflect soil physical properties.It is the key input to many models,just as calculating the Erodibility K of the RUSLE and Pedo-Transfer Functions,which needs the soil texture of USA textural triangle.However,despite a number of recognized international stan-dards,soil data are rarely compatible across national frontiers.Therefore,interpolation of the soil texture in dif-ferent textural triangle is very necessary.Researches have shown that the soil has the fractal characteristic.In this study a fractal model is used for solving conversion of different soil texture triangle.For testing the stabili-ty and accuracy of the fractal model,60 soil samples with different profiles and land-use were taken at South-ern Loess Plateau.At first,0.02mm particle data,0.005mm particle data and omitting 0.02mm and 0.005mm particle data were omitted at the same time.Then the omitted particle data was predicted by the fractal model.The results indicate that the predicted particle-size data and the number of known particle-size data have little influence to the accuracy of the fractal model between the 0.002~0.1mm soil fractions;it is demonstrate that the model is much better for predicting the particle-size data than Logistic growth model,WEIBULL model and Log-normal distribution model,the accuracy of the fractal model is satisfying and there are no significant errors about the predicted particle-size data.The fractal model can be used for conversion of different soil tex-ture triangle.More studies should be carried out.
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    黄河源区鄂陵湖现代湖盆形态研究
    沈德福, 李世杰, 陈炜, 姜永见, 聂欣
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1261-1265.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1261
    摘要   PDF (788KB)
    鄂陵湖是黄河源区最大的淡水湖。通过基于GPS-RTK的技术定位以及测深仪的水下地形测量,结合相关历史资料和遥感数据分析,应用湖沼学理论,对鄂陵湖的湖盆形态进行定量化研究。结果发现鄂陵湖最大水深33.2 m,平均水深15.55 m,湖长37.49 km,湖面最大宽度32.3 km;平均宽度16.76 km,岸线长226.3 km,湖面面积628.47 km2,湖泊容积97.76×108m3,湖盆形态为接近抛物线体形式的构造断陷湖,而不具备第四纪冰川侵蚀湖盆的地貌特征。研究结果可以对黄河源区的生态环境变化和黄河源区的水量管理提供基础信息。
    El’ing Lake is located in northeastern Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau,and it is the largest freshwater lake with the surface elevation of 4 272.5m a.s.l in the headwater area of Yellow River.Because of its unique natu-ral and geographical conditions,the El’ing lake is considered to be a ideal study object for the paleo-environ-ment,regional ecological systems and modern processes of the lake.In recent decades,the Yellow River water resources decreased,the number and area of the lakes in the Yellow River source region dropped,which made water resources and the ecological environment in the Yellow River upper reaches became the focus of atten-tion.Through GPS-RTK technology and submerged topographic survey instruments,adding to relevant histor-ical data and remote sensing data analysis,the basin features of El’ing Lake had been investigated from 2008 to 2009.The results show that the lake area is 628.47 km2,the maximum water depth of the lake is 33.2 m,and its average water depth is 15.55 m.The maximum length and width of the lake is 37.49 km and 32.3 km separately,and the lake’s shoreline is 226.3 km.The total volume of water storage is up to 97.76×108m3,which is an important freshwater resource for the regional ecosystem and the Yellow River.The shape of the lake bottom is quite flat,close to a parabolic body with the analysis of data.Subject to the new tectonic move-ment,El’ing Lake is a tectonic rift lake,but its formation time is inconclusive and it needs further study.
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    亚洲典型区域暴雨洪灾风险评价研究
    刘家福, 李京, 梁雨华, 刘湘南
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1266-1271.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1266
    摘要   PDF (908KB)
    基于洪灾风险基本原理,从暴雨致灾因子危险性、孕灾环境稳定性、承灾体易损性出发,以亚洲东南沿海区域为示范研究区,综合考虑降水、地形、土地利用、植被、河网密度、人口、经济等主要指标,利用定性及定量综合分析方法,对亚洲洪灾进行风险综合评价研究。首先利用地理信息系统的数据处理功能,对相关指标进行归一化数据处理,得到标准化的多源栅格数据;然后基于层次分析法确定各相关指标影响因子权重,构建洪灾综合风险评估模型,最后利用GIS的地图代数功能,得出亚洲典型地区洪灾综合风险等级评价图。结果表明,暴雨洪灾等级高值区主要分布在中国东南部、中国东北部分地区及沿海一带,紧邻孟加拉的印度东部,孟加拉东部及缅甸的东北部地区;中等、较高风险区域主要分布在日本、韩国以及印度北部及西南大部分地区,菲律宾的吕宋岛地区;而在中国西北部大部分地区为中低风险区。
    Based on the basic principles of flood risk,this study took the coastal areas in southeastern Asia(SEA) as the study area.By integrating the indicators including the rainfall,topography,land use,vegetation,river density,population,and the economic strength,the flood risk over the chosen study area was evaluated through both qualitative and quantitative methods.The indicators used were firstly normalized to obtain stan-dardized multi-source raster data by the GIS(Geographic Information System) techniques.The AHP(Analytic Hierarchy Process) technique was then utilized to estimate the weights of those indicators,and used to devel-op a model for risk assessments.The map algebra in GIS was finally employed to generate the flood zoning map over the typical Asian areas.The results show that the high risk regions of flood storm primarily include the southeastern,northeastern,and coastal areas of China,the eastern India near Bangladesh,the eastern Ban-gladesh,and the northeastern Myanmar;the medium risk regions are mainly located in Japan,South Korea,the most parts of southwestern India,the northern India and the Luzon Island of Philippines;the low risk ones principally are located in most parts of northwestern China.
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    气候变暖下东北地区春玉米生产潜力变化分析
    陈长青, 类成霞, 王春春, 张卫建
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1272-1279.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1272
    摘要   PDF (875KB)
    在气候变暖的背景下,依据中国东北地区101个气象站点多年逐日气象数据,利用数理统计分析方法,研究了东北地区1971~2007年春玉米生长季气候变化趋势,包括春玉米生长季平均气温、太阳辐射总量和降水量的变化趋势;利用GIS技术分析了东北地区春玉米光温生产潜力及气候生产潜力的时空变化。结果表明,东北地区春玉米生长季气温呈波动上升趋势,其幅度超过全国平均值,太阳辐射呈减少趋势,降水量年际变化较大,有波动下降趋势。在气温不断升高的情形下,东北地区春玉米的光温生产潜力有所增加,但由于各地区间降水的差异,东北地区春玉米的气候生产潜力在各地区变化差异较大,21世纪以来相对于20世纪70年代,南部地区气候生产潜力减少,而中部地区增加。为此,就如何利用东北地区春玉米生产潜力的特点,以及提高春玉米的实际产量提出了一系列建议措施。
    Under the background of global warming,climate change including mean temperature,solar radia-tion and precipitation of spring Maize growth period,were studied in Northeast China using mathematical sta-tistics method based on daily data from 101 meteorological stations from 1971 to 2007.The light-temperature potential productivity and the climate potential productivity of spring maize were also analyzed using the geo-graphical information system(GIS) techniques in different areas and different times.It was showed that the mean temperature of spring Maize growth period went up in Northeast China,and the increase amplitude was larger than the national average.While the solar radiation was declining,and the precipitation showed a de-scending trend too.The light-temperature potential productivity of spring maize increased on the condition of elevated temperature.While the climate potential productivity of spring maize varied greatly because of the variation of precipitation in different areas.Compared to 1970s,in 2000s the climate potential productivity re-duced in the south but rose in the north.Some measures were proposed to make better use of the increase of potential productivity looking forward to a high spring maize yield.
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    武汉市土地利用覆被变化与生态环境效应研究
    张杨, 刘艳芳, 顾渐萍, 丁庆
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (10): 1280-1285.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.010.1280
    摘要   PDF (404KB)
    利用1996年和2006年两期TM遥感影像解译图获取武汉市土地利用变化数据。基于GIS空间分析与数理统计方法对1996~2006年武汉市土地利用/覆被变化特征进行了定量分析。运用区域生态环境质量指数和区域土地利用变化类型生态贡献率,对研究时段内武汉市土地利用变化的生态环境效应以及导致武汉市生态环境质量变化的土地利用变化类型进行了分析与评价。研究结果表明:① 1996~2006年期间武汉市土地利用变化主要表现为耕地、草地和未利用土地的减少,林地、建设用地和水域面积的增加的态势。② 1996年~2006年武汉市的区域生态环境质量指数从0.451 上升至0.468。生态环境在一定程度上维持着相对平衡,并呈现出一种上升趋势。但生态环境改善和恶化的两种趋势并存。③ 局部地区生态环境呈负向发展,其中城市化引起的空间扩张对区域土地利用/覆被变化产生影响最为深刻。
    As land use/cover change (LUCC) has been recognized as a key element of global environmental change, it draws increasing attention of researchers concerned with environmental and socio-economic well-being. Land use/cover is an important process which is widespread and accelerating. However, traditional analysis of LUCC is not sufficient to provide systematic signals of ecological environment change caused by LUCC. This paper analyzes the details of the matrix to compute the quantity, allocation, and dominant signals of land use/cover (LUCC), based on which the eco-environmental quality is evaluated. With the interpretation results of the Landsat TM 5 image of Wuhan City in 1996 and 2006, this study applies statistical and GIS analysis to the land use/cover change in Wuhan City. The effects of land use transformation has on the change of eco-environmental quality are assessed by calculating the regional eco-environmental indices and the contribution proportions of land use transformation types. The results show that: 1) The area of cropland, grassland and unused land decreased while the area of forest, water and construction land increased in Wuhan city from 1996 to 2006. 2) The regional eco-environmental quality index increased from 0.451 in 1996 to 0.468 in 2006. The overall quality of regional eco-environment has maintained relatively stable with a rising trend. However, the trends of both improvement and degradation in eco-environment coexisted. 3) It should also be noted that the local ecological environment presents a negative evolution, and the urbanization could be the most profound factor to influence the regional land use/cover change.
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