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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1982年, 第2卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1982-05-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    试论沼泽的分布和发育规律
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 193-201.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.193
    摘要   PDF (2895KB)
    沼泽作为一种特殊的自然综合体,是自然地理学的研究对象,同时作为一种土地类型,又是可以开发利用的自然资源。由于泥炭沼泽中蕴藏着丰富的泥炭资源,因此,又把它作为矿产加以开发利用。近二十年来,随着国民经济发展的需要,在对沼泽的调查、研究、开发和改造过程中,在我国自然地理学体系中,逐渐形成了一门新的分支学科——沼泽学。
    Mire science is a new branch of physical geography in China and the history of study is shorter.So some basic theories and concepts are not veryclear and definite.Some ideas from foreign countries have been uesd in China,but they are not suited to the characteristics of out marshes.Because of vast and unbalanced mire distributions,scholars have two different views on geographical regularity of mire distribution.Some hold that mires are distributed intrazonally or azonally.Others maintain mire disributionis largely zonal.In this paper,the author cited some opinions proposeed by some scientists and examples showing zonal distribution.Author suggests that the distributions of various types of mires are restricted by the law of natural differentiation.Although mire develops in a certain zone,it does not occur-isolately in the zone,and it is closely related to and interacts with around zonational ecological environments.The natural complex in intrazonal environments bears evidence of zonality.Therefore,the author considers that mire distribution possesses zonaland intrazonal characteristics.The unified theory of mire genesis has been used in mire study and regardedas basis of mire classification.Analyses of pollen and C14 dating indicate that the theory is only suitableto frigid temperate taiga zone.China’s mire has mostly remained in the stage of low moor since the Holocene.There is not certainty of the law developing from low moor to high bog.The development law of mire not only depends on time,but also is restricted by space and sites.So it is not suitable that developments of all miresare included in a unified pattern.Mire develops as multi-pattern.
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    甘肃陇西盆地的黄土
    文启忠, 郑洪汉, 韩家楙, 王俊达, 林绍孟, 乔玉楼, 魏兰英, 刁桂仪
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 202-209,291.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.202
    摘要   PDF (2733KB)
    陇西盆地黄土的研究系于1978年配合工程任务开展的,重点研究了文峰镇东南暖泉沟剖面,分析项目有古地磁、C14年龄,孢子花粉、重矿物,粘土矿物、化学成分等。本文系对该剖面所做各项分析的总结。工作中得到甘肃省物资局和省地质局所属部门的大力协助和支持,谨致谢意。
    Nuanquangou loess section at Longxi basin has been examined in terms of stratigraphic investigation,radiocarbon dating,paleomagnetie polarity,and spore-pollen diagram mineral and chemical analyses.The results indicated that the section is one of acient loess sections with a continuous sedimentation and composed of homogeneous materials with rich-carbonate.Brunhes/Matuyama boundaryand Jaramillo event were recorded in the section.Stratigraphically,this section can be divided into Holocene and pleistocene loesses.The latter included Malan,Lishi and Wueheng loess in descending order.They developed at the age beginning at ca.1.2m.y.Whereas,Nuanquangou section reflects several local characteristics different from those on other areas.
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    滹沱河平原段现代沉积结构、构造特征
    陈中原, 严钦尚
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 210-220.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.210
    摘要   PDF (3288KB)
    本文研究的滹沱河平原段长180公里,它是洪、枯水期分明,季节性显著的河流。
    Hutuo River in Hcbei province may be divided into two morphological reaches.The upper reach is a braided river,about 100 km.from Huangbizhang to Shunzhe.The lower reach is a slightly meandering stream,80km.from Shunzhe to Xian—Cotmty,where it connects with Fuyan River,flowing down into BouhaiGulf.In braided river,the longitudinal bars are mostly composed of the followin gvertical beddings from bottom to top:lag deposits of poorly bedded gravels and sands,horizontal beddings of upper flow regime,large scale trough beddings,small scale trough beddings and parallel beddings of lower flow regims. Near the lateral margins of longitudinal bar,although most beddings of the vertical section are similar to those mentioned above sequence,yet instead of horizontal beddings of upper flow regime,large scale tabular cross beddings take place,indicating that they are formed by sandwave migration of relative lower flow regime.The average thickness of recent longitudinal bar deposits of braided course is very thin,only about 1.0 m.In slightly meandering stream,trenched profile sections show that two different vertical sequences of point bar accur.At the leeside of point bar,where flow is gentle,large scale trough beddings predominate,the whole section is similar to the fining-upward model of point bar deposits as stated by J.R.L.Allen(1970).whereas,at the stoss side of point bar,where flow is swift,large scale longitudinal cross beddings predominate,which consist of a bundle of cross beds in different directions,and no rhythmic variation of grain size appears in the vertical section.The average thicknees of recent point bar deposits is above 2.0 m.The sequential beddings of natural levee from bottom to top are:r2 small ripple bedding,r3 ripple bedding,r4 supperpose bedding,r3 ripple bedding,r2 small ripple bedding,r1 parallel bedding.They are the deposits along high river banks by relatively slow—moving flow during flood period.Beddings r2 to r4 and r3 to r1 represent the semicyles of upraizing and receding of flood respectively.
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    北京市昌平县土地类型及农业区划问题
    申元村, 谢向荣, 杨柳林
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 221-231,292.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.221
    摘要   PDF (3178KB)
    当前,全国正在开展农业自然资源调查和农业区划工作,各省区还普遍开展县级农业区划。作为自然地理基本研究内容之一的土地类型,在认识区域自然地理特点,搞好农业区划上具有自己的特点。本文拟从北京市昌平县土地类型调查制图入手,探索县级农业区划途径问题。
    One basic approach of the integrated physical geography is to study land types of certain region.Present artical tries to study land types of Chang Ping county,Beijing,as related to agricultural regionalization.The tem“land”is treated as the integration of all physical factors,while landform,vegetation and soil are chief criteria for classifying the land types.10 land types of frist category and 42 land types of second category are identified in Chang Ping county.Areal structure of land types is the basic for agricultural regionalization.Chang Ping county may he thus divided into four agricultural area:1.Alluvial plain-farming area;2.Diluvial fan-grain and Fruit area;3.Frontalhill-pasture,fruit,and grain area;4.Mountain forest area.
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    试论普通地理图的发展
    范正一
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 232-237.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.232
    摘要   PDF (2672KB)
    普通地理图属于普通地图范畴,它在内容的详尽程度、用途和比例尺等方面都有别于地形图。普通地理图一般是指比例尺小于1:100万(亦有大于1:100万的),与地形图相比具有较强的概括性和一览性,即在尽可能保证几何精确性的情况下,通过适度的制图综合,来重点显示主要的区域特征,强调地理适应性,以提供制图区域较完整概念的地图。
    The general maps are divided into two types——the topographic map and the general geographic map.In this paper we have mainly discussed about the latter.The general geographic maps will d velop in the following aspects:1.To enhance the geographic characteristics of the general geographic map.The imageries of landsat and the large comprehensive or regional geographical investigations would increase the geographical features of these maps.2.To reform the process for the general geographic mapping.we can try to transfer the contents of the landsat imageries onto the general geographic maps directly.3.To make applications of computers and automatic mapping.In the near future,we can establish data banks and use the computers for collecting and compiling the map information.4.To make better use of the general geographic map as an information communication system.This is a new development for the general geographic map.How to show the regional features? To study the internal relationship of the regional features and to show their distribution rules on the general geographic maps are the chief tasks of our geographic cartographers.
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    东北地区年径流的多年变化规律及预测
    李秀云
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 238-246.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.238
    摘要   PDF (2718KB)
    东北地区大致界于北纬40°—53°30′,东经120°—135°之间,处于我国的东北部,其南北长约1500公里,东西宽约1100公里。气候属于温带,其中黑龙江省北部为寒温带。本区西部是东北—西南走向的大兴安岭山脉,东北部为小兴安岭山脉,东部分布有张广才岭和长白山脉等山地。山间构成辽阔的东北平原,是一个完整的地理区域单元。全区面积约占全国总面积的8%,是我国主要农业区之一,重要的商品粮基地。
    This region is located at 40°—53°30’N and 120°-135°E in the temperate zone.It is one of the main commodity grain bases of China and of areas with aboundant water.The regularity of distribution of runoff is rougthly coincident with that of annual precipitation.Both of them gradually reduce form south-east to north-west.The perennial change values are large,the maximum value of Cv is above 1.0 and the lower value is below 0.3.The annual runoff regularly changes with alternativeplentiful-drought cyclical period and this cyclical period is the longest in China(60—80 years).The analysis of annual runoff in plentiful and drought period can reflect the basic drought and waterlogging situation of this region.The cyclic analysis of annual runoff shows:change of eyclical period at Haerbin Station is different from that at Shuifeng Station(about 52 years for Haerbin Station and about 32 years for Shuifeng Station).This shows there is rather great difference of annual runoff in the northeastern region in geographical distribution.Furthermore,we can prognosticate qualitatively and quantitatively the annual runoff of this region by using the method of mean sliding periodic trend of annual runoff to provide a scientific basis for exploitation and utilization of water resources in a planned way.
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    农业生产类型划分方法探讨——以江苏省吴县为例
    马湘泳
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 247-253,293.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.247
    摘要   PDF (2873KB)
    吴县位于太湖东岸,环抱苏州市。自然经济条件优越,开发历史悠久,水陆交通方便,农业生产水平较高。通过利用航片对土地资源的调查量算,全县总面积245.1万亩(不包括太湖水面),其中耕地占总面积56.5%,水面占21.4%,山丘占10.9%,居民点占6.7%,道路沟渠占3.1%,其它用地占1.4%。从土地类型看,水田根据微地貌特征和开发先后,从高到低,依次为高平田、平田、半高田、低洼圩田、荡田、湖田和芦滩地等类型。
    The study of agricultural production type at county level is the fundamental task to formulate agricultural plan suited to different local conditions,to make rational use of natural resources and to realize agricultural modernization.Agricultural production type refers to a sort of combination fomed by a ceritain territory of which structures,properties and characteristics of agricultural production are basically the same.The characteristics of diversified production and tne strong territorial features of the agricultural production type provide a realistic foundation for dividing agricultural production type.Such type is not only a transitional step for agricultural division,but also a basic unit to the regionization,.Thus,a good foundation can be laid for the accuracy of regionization by division of the type within a county beforehand.The development of a rational principle for division is an important basis for the division of agrcultural production type.Index can be regarded as the principlein concrete from.The limits of territorial differentiation of agricultural production based on the quantitative analysis have to do with the accuracy of the line of division.There will be a relative flexibilty for the different indice to be adopted according to different regions and production levels.
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    三江平原沼泽对河川径流影响的初步探讨
    陈刚起, 张文芬
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 254-263.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.254
    摘要   PDF (2864KB)
    探讨沼泽与河川径流间的关系和机制是研究沼泽地区环境演化,建立最傥生态环境结构的重要课题之一,也是生产实践中亟待解决的实际问题。三江平原是我国沼泽集中分布区域之一,沼泽面积1700多万亩,约占整个平原区的22%。沼泽及沼泽化土地大规模开垦后,河川径流将发生相应变化,为预见这种变化,首先应研究沼泽对河川径流的影响。本文试图从分析典型沼泽性河流的水文资料出发,参考部分径流实验资料,探讨在三江平原区特定的自然条件下,沼泽对河川径流的影响。
    This paper attempts so approach the effect of swamp on river runoff under the special natural conditions of the Sanjiang plain through the establishment and analysis of the relation between annual rainfall and runoff of swampy rivers.The results of analysis show that the influence of the swamp in this area on river runoff is presented as follows:runoff volume,runoff increment,intercept of correlation curve,precipitation needed for creating surface flow,runoff during dry years and laging time of annual runoff are all related to swamp distribution.This kind of influence varies with the geomorphological location on which swamp lies,and related to climatic changes over years.The swamp distributed on piedmont dip plains and river terraces influences river runoff mainly through feed changes.Runoff increment caused by every precipitation increment in swampy basins is larger than that in non-swampy basins during continuous high-water years,while it is quite contrary during continuous low-water years.The swamp in these basins plays a part in intensifying runoff changes over years.The swamp developed on flood plain regulates runoff principally through its storage and permeable characteristics for water just as lakes and reservoirs take effect on making yearly changes of river runoff even.
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    研究报导
    长白山区优势植物中微量元素研究
    富德义, 朱颜明, 黄锡畴
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 264-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.264
    摘要   PDF (2920KB)
    长白山区是我国中纬度山地原始森林地区。区内植被类型多样,植物种类繁多,经济植物资源十分丰富,是开展森林生态系统研究的理想场所。生态学研究的一项重要任务,就是要找出生命系统与环境系统之间相互作用的规律,阐明物质、能量变换的机理。本文拟对长白山区各垂直带优势植物中微量元素的含量、分布特点及其相关关系进行研究,为揭示有机体与环境之间物质交换的实质提供部分科学依据。
    Except only a few of the trace elements in dominant plants of different vertical landscape such as Sr,Se,Zn,etc.do follow normal distribution,but most of the others are of logarithmic normal or normal deviation distribution.Study indicated that these elements are stable in low concentration in these plants,but the frequency of their high concentration occurrence is rather low.study on the causes of high concentration occurrence of trace elementrs in thes eplants can help us to reveal the abnormality of environment or physiological functional characteristics of different plants.Study shows that the plants of certain kind have the characteristics of selectively assimilating and rich collecting certain chemical elements.So contents of the trace elements in different kinds of plants are different.Trace elements in these plants are not only controlled by hereditary function but also affected by environmental factors.
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    综述
    现代地貌制图的某些概念、方法与进展
    陈志明
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 273-283.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.273
    摘要   PDF (3008KB)
    随着地貌制图日益广泛的国际实践,十多年来地貌图已出现了新面貌,它的科学性与实用性已被各国地学界、政府及生产部门所认识。虽然它的发展还比较年轻,在各国也不平衡,但现代地貌图的概念、内容和表现方法,与五十年代相比,无疑已有很大的不同。特别十多年来,出现了许多新的概念、内容与表现方法,其中一些对我国当前工作较有参考价值。
    Based on the international information,this paper discusses a number of new concept,method and development in relation to current geomorphological mapping,including such principal subjects as: 1)The new orientation of morpho-structure.The contents of modern geomorphological map are based chiefly on morphostructure,or on various types of morphostrueture along with sculptural geomorphology,indicating that the geomorphological map can no longer be regarded as a map representing merely exogenic topography.2)The emergence of analytical legend.For the past ten years or so,the synthetical legend has been by degrees replaced by the analytical legend.The latterhas many advantages over the former in(1)being relatively objective;(2)getting more information available in the map and in(3)being conducive to measurements and input computer,etc.It is for this reason that the analytical legend has been put into use by many scholars in many countries.The present author holds that the application and popularization of such legend are a major task for the innovations of geomorphological map in the days to come.3)The standardization and systematization of legends.From the international development trend,it can be seen that the legends of geomorphological map of various scales(inclusive of principal way of representation)have now entered a new stage of development in international standardization.Although it is impossible to bring into it all of the geomorphological types in all parts of the world,it becomes an inevitable historical necessity to have various kinds ofbasic types and representation turn standardized.Currently,the international legends of large-and medium-scale in international organizations have won initial success,though further improvement is still called for.The said legends are more preferably to be uniformly designed,or mutually confirmed and completed.And more efforts should be made on the study of current legend to be applicable to various maps in different scales.4)The establishment of a new system of geomorphological survey.Of special importance to the geomorphological mapping in the developing countries is the “ITC System of Geomorphological Survey”put forward by the International institute for Aerial Survey and Earth Sciencs(ITC).In this system,the main experience is making full use of the results of aerial survey along with proper surface survey and probably working out series mapping of basic scaled geomorphological maps with rearer,faster,better and more economical results.This system is considerably superior to the traditional method in which the achievements made in aerial survey have been neglected and in which the mapping of maps in different scales is dones separately.5)The development of a new branch in geomorphology(geomorph-carto-graphy).Looking back on the history of the development of geomorphological mapping,the present writer gives an account of the nature and contents and the main works in the field of geomorph-cartography.It is concluded that as a newly branched gcomorphology,geomorph-cartography has now reached its maturity ready to make contributions to the develpoment of geomorphology as well as its practical application.
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    教学研究
    关于高等学校的地理教育
    林超
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 284-288.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.284
    摘要   PDF (1040KB)
    我们现在正处在全面进行社会主义现代化建设的历史时期,举国上下正在为把我国建设成为现代化的、高度民主的社会主义强国而奋斗。为了达到这个宏伟的目标,需要大量的各种专门人才。高等学校肩负着为社会主义建设培养更多的质量更高的人才的重任。
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    学术活动
    泥炭工业化学及其工艺
    王荣芬
    地理科学. 1982, 2 (3): 289-290.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1982.03.289
    摘要   PDF (549KB)
    应中国科学院邀请,美国波米基大学环境研究中心主任Charles H.Fuchsman教授于1982年5月-6月来我国讲学。在华期间,先后参观了中国科学院长春地理研究所、化学研究所、南京土壤研究所和上海有机化学研究所。同各所有关研究人员共同探讨了一些学术问题。
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