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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1984年, 第4卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1984-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    确定水面蒸发模型
    施成熙, 卡毓明, 朱晓原
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.1
    摘要   PDF (533KB)
    引言蒸发是水分化汽的过程。空中水汽的来源,是借洋面上及陆地上的水分蒸发所供给。每年洋面上蒸发量为114厘米,折合水量为411,600立方公里。全部陆地上水体与地面的蒸发量为54厘米,折合水量为63,000立方公里。这些水量在空中形成降水,返回大地,因此蒸发过程是水文循环的重要环节。
    An experimental research of evaporation from water surfaces has begun in China since 1956.The data of 19 experimental stations over the country have been collected and processed.On the basis of the available data some evaporation models have been developed. In accordance with data of 13 stations,including Kwangchow station,Chongking station etc,we have set up three evaporation models for humid regions of China and from the other 6 stations,we set up three evaporation models for arid regions.A verification indicates that model with curvilineal climatic index seems to be better than the linear model and the goodness of the mass transfer model is the least. In comparison with the Soviet and the American well-known model,it shows that the developed models are more suitable for China.
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    我国泥炭某些有机组分的特征及其地质意义
    窦廷焕, 高菊芬, 徐兢
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 12-20.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.12
    摘要   PDF (862KB)
    泥炭是植物遗体在沼泽环境中,经过复杂的生物化学和物理化学变化形成的堆积物。泥炭有机组分的种类、数量及其分布特征与形成泥炭的原始质料、堆积环境及其转化条件密切相关。所以,研究泥炭有机组分及其特征有一定的实际意义和理论意义。本文试图从有机地球化学的角度对泥炭某些有机组分进行初步分析研究。
    Based on analysis of 41 samples with different types in 11 provinces and autonomous region of China,author introduced the organic geochemical characteristics of the basic organic components of peat and the chlorform extract A in peat and its group constituents in this paper.According to these characteristics and the analytical results of infra-red spectra and gas chromatography,it is clear that peat is a unmature organic matter in which humic substance constitutes its principal component and differentiates completely from ooze in the bottom of lake and sea.In this paper,author also made an approach on some factors to influence organic geochemical characteristics of peat such as vegetation species,bog type,evolution stage,sedimentary environment and so on.
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    吉林省气候-农业产量区划
    丁士晟
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 21-28.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.21
    摘要   PDF (557KB)
    为更好的利用自然条件,人们往往根据一些指标对自然条件及农业、林业、牧业等进行分区。采用的指标不同,分区结果不一,而且指标的确定有一定的经验性,不利于进行多因子综合考虑。本文采用箍选因子最优分割法,将气候与农业产量结合起来区划,并对结果进行一些讨论。
    In this paper,the optimum dividing method of selecting predictors is used to link closely the climate and yield of agricultural products for dividing of regions,Jilin province is divided into five regions,namely;the western region, middle region,mountainous region,hill region and southeastern region.Statis_ tical verification has proved that these five crops,crop yields,and climate in these five regions are significantly different,but the division of regions is proper and desirable.At the same time,the yield index and the yield value index are suggested for the consideration of rational overall layout of crops in these five regions.
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    关于我国城市规划中确定城市性质问题
    周一星, 张勤
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 29-37.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.29
    摘要   PDF (558KB)
    从宏观角度看,城市是一定区域的焦点,是居民的工作和居住集中于"点"上,其劳动成果服务于"面"上的一种居民点。任何一个城市都存在政治、经济、文化等各个领域的活动,这些活动的一部分是为本地居民正常的生产和生活服务的,另一部分具有区外意义并为外地服务。城市这两部分活动的发展变化常常互相交织在一起,但主动和主导的因素总是后者(当比例不协调时的特殊时段除外),它是城市形成和发展的根本动力,也反映了这个城市在国家和区域中的分工和贡献。城市在国家和区域中承担的为外地服务的作用就叫城市职能。在我国,单一职能的城市不多,大多数城市具有多种职能,其中的主要职能反映了这个城市的本质特征。城市规划中所说的城市性质就是城市主要职能的概括,即城市本质特征的概括。
    This paper discusses theoretically and methodologically the determination of city character in urban planning.City character signifies the major functions of a city and reflects the specialized role the city plays within a region or a country.City character,though being comparatively stable within a short period,may change with the development of the city,and therefore in urban planning the past and future character of city,i.e.historical and planing character,should be differentiated from the present character. It is pointed out that the assessment of city character should not only be based on the merits of city concerned,importantly,also based on various analysis,regional and economic structural.In addition,studying historical and regional development,comparing with other cities,and adopting qualitative and quantitative,all of those are very important. After a series of study,the authors bring out some problems still to should be solved.(1)the comparability of Chinese urban statistical data,(2)a convenient way to calculate the basic/non-basic ratio,and(3)a system of the intensity index of urban functions which can universally be applicable to all cities and urban functions.The intensity index of urban functions is a new concept introduced in this paper.
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    环境质量评价中的Pj因子分析加权法——以上海宝山吴淞地区环境质量综合评价为例
    应龙根, 张长平
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 38-42.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.38
    摘要   PDF (295KB)
    环境质量评价究其研究内容来看,主要是一种方法论的研究。它研究如何建立一种合理的数学模式,以对区域环境的监测资料进行汇总。评价的目的是,如实地反映环境的客观状态,从而为污染的综合防治以及区域环境的规划管理提供科学依据。为达到这一目标,环境评价中的加权工作必不可少。
    In spite of rapid progress achieved in research work of the assessment of environmental quality,the problem of weighting of various factors has never been really solved so far.Strictly speaking,weighting should be based upon the objective sub-contribution of specific assessment parameters to the total environment and their biological effects.But so far as recent study case in our country and abroad,due to quite a few reasons,the conventional practice of weighting has still followed the way of subjective judgement with strong artificial influence.This paper presents a new approach of weighting,i.e.Pj factor analysis,based upon an attempt of comprehensive assessment of environmental quality in Baoshan-Wusong District of Shanghai.Our approach revised the conventional weighting practice on two direction.First,measuring environmental value Pj as an original information of weighting in same a standard was used stead of subjective judgement.Secondly,it introduced the approach of factor analysis to estimate the objective sub-contribution of specifitc assessment parameters and their interrelationship.Thus making possible to trace and interprete pollutants distribution,migration and reorganization in a regional system.Especially today,as the means of environmental monitoring has been electronized, the weighting method of Pj factor may be used as a prerequisite for overall modernization of environmental quality assessment.
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    呼伦贝尔草原土地资源的特点及其合理利用
    戴旭, 康庆禹
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 43-52.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.43
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    呼伦贝尔草原位于我国东北,大兴安岭以西,行政区划上属内蒙古自治区呼伦贝尔盟,包括喜桂图旗和额尔古纳右旗的一部分,鄂温克族自治旗和新巴尔虎左旗的绝大部分、以及陈巴尔虎旗、新巴尔虎右旗、海拉尔市和满洲里市的全部,总土地面积约94,607平方公里1)
    Hulun Buir steppe is located in northeast China.It is one of the most famous steppes in China. The present paper Consists of four parts.In the first part,the natural conditions in Hulun Buir steppe are briefly described.It belongs to a transitional belt between the sub-humid and semi-arid regions in the temperate zone. The steppe can be divided into two natural zones and five sub-zones.In the second part,the main characteristics of the land resources are analysed according to land types.The lands located in various sub-zones have different landuse suitabilities.The land conditions in the steppe are quite favorable for the development of animal husbandry,but some of the lands located in the eastern steppe are good for farming,although there are also some unfavorable natural conditions,such as low temperature,frost,drought,soil erosion and wind hazard.In the third part,the present land-use in the region is studied. The major part of the lands is used for animal husbandry,although the present land use is suitable to the natural conditions in the region,most of the lands that can be used for farming and/or forestry is still not fully utilized. In the last part,the problem of optimal landuse are probed.According to the suitabilities of the land resources,the steppe is divided into a few land-use regions,and the land-use measures are also discussed.
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    土地利用遥感制图几个问题的探讨
    黄志良, 刘贺
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 53-60.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.53
    摘要   PDF (508KB)
    充分利用陆地卫星(Landsat)影象图片(以下简称卫片)视野广、信息量丰富、现时性强和精度高的优点,对专题要素进行解译和制图,是编制全国1:100万、省区1:50万自然条件和资源系列地图的有效途径。本文试就土地利用类型在卫片上的成象特点、制图分类和若干制图统一协调问题进行探讨。
    In this paper,three problems how to use the landsat image for compiling a map of land use of middle and small scale were expounded. (1) The appearence of land use type on landsat image is explainable,but it exists some problems such as information hiding,regional diversity or unstability.So the image interpratation is limited. (2) The classification system should be suitable for interpretable ability of the landsat images.The land use types of "area-form" can be directly abstracted from landsat image,and then the land use types of "point and line-form" can be picked up and other relative data can be used to consult and supplement. The classification system of land use can detailed into the second class or into the third class for individual type. (3) The paper deals with some unified contents and methods in the land use mapping with remote sensing.
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    问题讨论
    中国自然区划浅论
    丘宝剑
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 61-68.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.61
    摘要   PDF (673KB)
    1959年,《中国综合自然区划(初稿)》(下称《初稿》)一书内部出版1),立即引起全国地理学界的重视,例如,中国地理学会1960年、1962年都曾召开学术会议进行讨论,两次会议共收到论文百余篇,会后分别作了报导,并出版了文集。
    After the publishing of 《Comprehensive Regionalization of China(1st draft)》(1959),there has been much discussions,studies,and modifications. It showed that there were diverse opinions concerning the purpose,principals and methods,units classified,indexes and boundaries from different authors. Based on the discussion of this author,a modification is dilivered as follows:1)the large areas of order 1 is retained as the former case,that is to divide the whole country into the eastern monsoon area,Menggu-Xinjiang arid zone and Qinghai-Xizang cold plateau;2)temperature is adopted as the main index,landscape and the ripping systems are taken as references,then 3 large areas are divided into 14 physical belts;3)the physical regions of order 3 are defined according to the topography and climate,or surface water,soil and vegetation,then 43 regions are differentiated by distinct indexes.
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    从东线地区历史干旱规律看南水北调的可行性
    杨迈里, 蒋自巽
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 69-75.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.69
    摘要   PDF (506KB)
    南水北调东线从长江下游的扬州附近抽江水北上,跨淮河、黄河,至海河流域,以济黄淮海平原缺水之需。近期规划抽江流量为1000秒立方米,属大规模调水工程。本文根据我国古代地方志中有关历史气候记载,系统地整理了东线地区五百余年的干旱史料;并考虑到调水功能的地域差异,把东线地区自南向北分为水量输出区的南片与水量输入区的中、北片。南片指长江以南三角洲地区,中片指长江以北淮河流域和里下河地区,北片包括黄河下游与海河流域。笔者分析了南、中、北三片历史时期的干旱遭遇,为调水决策提供有关的科学依据。
    This paper,using assessment based on historied drought,mainly deals with the feasibility of East-Route water diversion from the Changjiang River to the Huang-Huai-Hai Plains.Some authors suggested that the study area may be divided into three different regions,namely,(1)the water-exported region including the lower reaches of the Changjiang River.(2)the region through which water is transfered,including the Huai River Basin. (8)the water-imported region including the lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Hai River Basin. In this paper,according to a great amount of local chronicles,the histotied drought information of the last 500 years in three regions is summarized. It is found that the regions simultaneously suffered from 12 years drought disasters every 100 years,of which the severe drought disasters had 3 years every 100 years.In addition,the successive 2—6years of drought had been experienced.Thus,the drought occurrence is so widespread that the feasibility of this projects is doubtful.The authors advise that the problemof the simultaneous drought occurrence should be considered in decision-making process.
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    研究报道
    三江平原末次冰期的植物化石和孢粉组合
    孔昭宸, 杜乃秋
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 76-80.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.76
    摘要   PDF (333KB)
    由黑龙江、松花江、乌苏里江及兴凯湖冲积而成的三江平原,沼泽和草甸发育[6]。多年来,通过沼泽疏干,建立起农场,使这里已发展成为我国重要的商品粮基地。当前,围绕开挖别拉洪河移道工程、疏干沼泽、从而扩大耕地面积的作法,尚持有不同意见[4]。因此,通过对黑龙江省博物馆于凤阁等同志1978年从移道工程中所采到的植物化石和孢粉样品的研究,将有助于了解该地历史植被,恢复当时的自然环境,进而为三江平原的利用提供参考。
    This paper is based on the macrofossil plants of Larix gmelini Rupr.and L.olgensis Henry and abundant pollen,spores,and green algae of 2 peat samples obtained from digging a irrigating canal at Chuangye farm(6.5m and 3.5m deep below the surface)in Sanjiang plain.About 36000 years ago Sanjiang plain was covered by cold-temperature needleleaf deciduous forest,prodominant of Larix spp,, Betula,herb and green algae.The climate of Sanjiang plain was rather humid and cold,with an annual mean precipitation higher than that of the present. The lakes and marshes were developed.According to the information of macrofossil and palynoflora,we hold that in the last-glacial,Larix,Abies,Picea,Betula forests became predominant in the Sanjiang plain.Therefore,the development of marshes in Sanjiang plain has been rapid since late Pleistocene.
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    地理信息网格法软件系统及其应用
    刘岳, 梁启章, 曹桂发
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 81-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.81
    摘要   PDF (977KB)
    在地理信息系统发展的过程中,采用网格法进行地理资料的索取、存储、分析和制图是较为实用而简便的一种方法。网格法的实质是将研究地区划分为规格化的网格(正方形或长方形),并对每一个网格单元赋于一种或多种专业属性值(代码),同时,以网格的行列顺序完成记录、输入,形成网格数据文件,用于各种地理分析与制图。
    The software system of geography information grid has a lot of advantages,such as simplifying method,reducing cost,etc,After introducing the system used in Institute of Geography,Academic Sinica,the author described mainly the structure of the software system and its design principle in the paper,and illustrated its application by examples.
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    三江平原地区农业综合开发和整治
    刘哲明
    地理科学. 1984, 4 (1): 89-96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1984.01.89
    摘要   PDF (570KB)
    三江平原地区位于我国的东北部,北起黑龙江,南达兴凯湖,西起小兴安岭,东至乌苏里江。全区包括22个县(市),52个国营农场,8个森工局。包括习惯上所称的三江平原(面积42,500平方公里)和穆棱兴凯平原(面积8,800平方公里),以及横贯于两个平原之间的完达山脉等。
    This paper expounded the favourable natural and economic conditions of sanjiang Plain and its nature resources,that provides an essential prerequisite for comprehensively developing and administrating Sanjiang Plain on agriculture. In this paper,the author point out that this area has vast prospects to develop and construct modernized agricurltue,but at present,also exists some problems on developing agriculture and useing land resources such as single Construction of production,much paying attention to development but underestimating admi nistration,divorce between reclaimation and construction,low capacity to fight natural calamities,arising deteriorated sign of ecological environment,etc.Finally, the author provided several views on developing agriculture in Sanjiang Plain: (1) determining developing direction and aim;(2) strengthening comprehensive study of agricultural natural resources;(3) determining relative agricultural production construction;(4) paying attention to relationship between reclaimation and raising unit yield;(5) devoting maior efforts to make a good basic construction of agricultural field;(6) building up leading organization and make relative lows for development and administration.
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