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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1985年, 第5卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1985-01-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    水系分布方向计算的密集度方法
    余庆余, 蒋柱中, 艾南山
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 1-9.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.1
    摘要   PDF (500KB)
    构造应力场是地球动力学的关键问题,也是地貌学、尤其是构造地貌学的重要问题。应力是张量,它有六个独立的分量。地壳的应力是位置的函数,同时也是时间的函数。由于影响应力场的因素很多,因而要揭示区域应力场的趋势和特征,通常用单个的应力值(如单个的地震断层面解或其他应力测量值)是不完备的,而应采取对众多的观测值加以统计“平均”或其他的“平均”方法。
    Stress is physically a tensorial quantity which varies from point to point within the earth. Therefore, the stresses form a field in the earth. The present-day stress field manifests itself in a variety of phenomena, in turn, from a study and interpretation of these phenomena the stress field can be inferred and deduced. Many geomorphic features, such as orientation structure of a river network are first found by Prof. Scheidegger to be due to the action of a tectonic stress field, If the valley are supposed to be Mohr-type fractures, one obtains as predicted stress direction the bisectries of the prefferred valley trends. For calculation of the preferred directions a computational method has been developed by Kohlbeck and Scheidegger. But the program is too large for ordinary computer. The distribution pattern of valley trends is caused by the antagonistic interaction between the endogenetic and exogenetic effects. The exogentic effects give the distribution pattern randomness, meanwhile the endogenetic ones result its non randomness. According to the law of large numbers, the exogenetic effects will offset each other,the distribution will have non-random pattern. Therefore, we can research this pattern without the random statistical method, but with the method of the deterministic mathematics. In this paper we will give a new compStress is physically a tensorial quantity which varies from point to point within the earth. Therefore, the stresses form a field in the earth. The present-day stress field manifests itself in a variety of phenomena, in turn, from a study and interpretation of these phenomena the stress field can be inferred and deduced. Many geomorphic features, such as orientation structure of a river network are first found by Prof. Scheidegger to be due to the action of a tectonic stress field, If the valley are supposed to be Mohr-type fractures, one obtains as predicted stress direction the bisectries of the prefferred valley trends. For calculation of the preferred directions a computational method has been developed by Kohlbeck and Scheidegger. But the program is too large for ordinary computer. The distribution pattern of valley trends is caused by the antagonistic interaction between the endogenetic and exogenetic effects. The exogentic effects give the distribution pattern randomness, meanwhile the endogenetic ones result its non randomness. According to the law of large numbers, the exogenetic effects will offset each other,the distribution will have non-random pattern. Therefore, we can research this pattern without the random statistical method, but with the method of the deterministic mathematics. In this paper we will give a new computational method. Let θi be the direction of a river section and Li correspounding langth. A concept of concentrated degree is introduced as following: where {λ-k,......,λ0,......,λk} are a group of powers, λi-i>0, λ0 is maximum of {λi}, and if j>i, then λji. Obviously, reflects the concentrated degree of the directions of a river network at θm. The prefferred directions can be calculated by the following steps:1) compute 2) Suppose Max/n = a1, look for the maximum of , where n varies in (0°, 180°), (α1-45°, α1+45°) 3) Denote A=(α12)/2, B=A+90, then compute new concentrated degree . in and 4) Suppose β1=max , then β1 is the first preffered direction. Similarly, if β2=max, then β2 is the second preffered direction. By computing it is found that the choice of power {λi} is important. We call η=λ0k by propertion of amplitude. η can be taken near 1 when the variance of data is rather small, on the contrary, it should be taken rather more. utational method. Let θi be the direction of a river section and Li correspounding langth. A concept of concentrated degree is introduced as following: where {λ-k,......,λ0,......,λk} are a group of powers, λi-i>0, λ0 is maximum of {λi}, and if j>i, then λji. Obviously, m reflects the concentrated degree of the directions of a river network at θm. The prefferred directions can be calculated by the following steps:1) compute m 2) Suppose Max/n =al, look for the maximum of , where n varies in (0°, 180°), (α1-45°, α1+45°) 3) Denote A=(α12)/2, B=A+90, then compute new concentrated degree z. in and 4) Suppose β1=max , then β1 is the first preffered direction. Similarly, if β2=max, then β2 is the second preffered direction. By computing it is found that the choice of power {λi} is important. We call η=λ0k by propertion of amplitude. η can be taken near 1 when the variance of data is rather small, on the contrary, it should be taken rather more.
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    航天飞机成象雷达(SIR-A)图象在土地利用调查中的应用研究
    刘纪远, 滕叙兖, 肖金凯
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 10-19.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.10
    摘要   PDF (2415KB)
    工作于光谱微波段的传感器,能够提供反射波段和红外波段以外地物的丰富遥感信息。早在六十年代末至七十年代中期,机载侧视雷达(SLAR)图象在地球资源遥感中的应用就已取得了一些成果。尤其是在中南美洲地区成功地取得的雷达图象,证明了微波遥感不受天气条件影响这一突出优点,因而受到普遍重视[1,2]
    A SIR-A image in the south of Tianjin acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar in November 1981 was interpreted directly and processed by computer system. The methods of processing were density slicing with statistical training; producing the normalized false color composite image through coregistration of the SIR-A and Landsat MSS data sets; unsupervised cluster classifications of some different image results of combining the Landsat MSS data and the SIR-A data. The interpretation keys using the SIR-A original image, the SIR-A density clicing image and the SIR-A/Landsat MSS normalized composite image to investigate land use situation were established after investigation in situ and analysis of the dielectric characteristics of different ground cover types and using large scale color IR aerial photo and land use maps aquired recently as the references, According to the keys an experiment on the aformentioned images interpretation and the interpretation accuracy analysis was undertaken. The results of the research indicate that the SIR-A data have higher resolution than Landsat MSS and remedy some defects of Landsat MSS data because of showing residential areas and linear features clearly, The SIRA/Landsat MSS normalized composite images incorporate the strong points of SIR-A and Landsat MSS data, have the resolution of the SIR-A image,reflect the ground surface spectral reflectance characteristics in the bands of visible and near infrared and the ground surface backscatter characteristics in the band of microwave and increase the classification accuracy that use remotely sensed data acquired by spacecrafts to land use maping.
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    青藏高原植物亚区(西藏部分)的区系结构
    李恒, 武素功
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 20-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.20
    摘要   PDF (626KB)
    青藏高原的植物区系是泛北极植物区的一部分。这个区系所代表的地域称为青藏高原植物亚区,青海和西藏的主要部分都属于这个亚区。青藏高原植物亚区的西藏部分包括雅鲁藏布江中上游,昆仑山和唐古拉山以南的广大地域[1]。这个亚区由于历史短暂,环境高寒,植物区系比较贫乏,植被是以草甸灌丛为主的无林地区。
    Qinghai-Xizang plateau flora belongs to a floristic subkingdom of Holarctic Kingdom. This subkingdom in Xizang can be divided into 4 regions:(1)Yaluzangbu Valley region:the species of seed plant in this region amount to 1003, making up 19.38% of the total number in Xizang. The sum of endemic species in the region is 159, making up 15.8% of the total number. The flora of Yaluzangbu Valley region mainly originates from East Ximalaya Mountains and Hengduan Mountains. The monotypie genus, Ajaniopsis peniciliformis, is the endemic of the Yaluzangbu Valley. (2)Tangut region:there are 349 species in the region, being 6.74% of the total number in Xizang, of which the endemic species in the region is 10 in number. Two monotyPie genera, both are respectively endemic genera of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau and Hengduan Mountains, are found here, Metaritrichium microuloides and Przewalskia tangutica. In fact, Tangut flora represents an intermediate one between Qinghai-Xizang plateau and Hengduan Mountains. (3)Qiang-Tang region:it is the most poor in flora of Xizang. The spaties of seed plant amount to 255, being only 4.93% of total number in Xizang. The regional endemic species are 18, belonging to 13 genera of 7 families. It is considered that the present flora in Qiang-Tang derived from Himalayan flora and mixed with a great number of Tethysian elements. (4)All region:there are 547 species of seed plant,making up 10.57% of total number in Xizang, containing 41 regional endemic species. The Ali flora seems to be closely related with TethySian one. The Biebersteinia odora and Capparis spinosa oceuring in Ali, may be the few relicts of tropical elements of the Tethys.
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    学术活动
    第七届国际泥炭会议在都柏林台开
    张养贞
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 29-29.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.29
    摘要   PDF (76KB)
    第七居国际泥炭会议子1984年6月18日至23日在爱尔兰共和国首都—都柏林举行。这次会议是由爱尔兰泥炭学会和爱尔兰泥炭发展的权力机构Bord na Mona共同筹办的。因为第一次国际泥炭会议是1954年在都柏林召开的,所以这次会议的议题定为:“重返都柏林:泥炭发展国际合作30年和今后的展望”。参加会议的有来自25个国家的专家、学者、企业家共394人。我国代表团由煤炭工业部、地质矿产部、中国科学院和教育部等单位的9人组成。
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    论文
    我国大骨节病的地理流行病学特点和环境病因研究
    环境与地方病组
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 30-37.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.30
    摘要   PDF (1215KB)
    大骨节病是一种病因不明的地方性、多发性骨关节病。临床表现为关节疼痛、增粗、变形、运动障碍,肌肉萎缩,重者肢体矮小畸形。分布在我国14个省(区)约290多个县境内,严重威胁和损害病区人民健康。此病在苏联、朝鲜和日本均有报导。
    This paper elucidated the characteristics of geographical epidemiology from the angle of disease ecology. Among them the apparent endemic distribution is the most important charaeteristics. It shows that the disease is closely related to natural environment. Obviously, there exists a KaschinBeck’s disease belt and two non-disease belts in China. According to the natural features of disease-areas, eight envromental groups of diseae-areas can be divided and respectively were merged into three types. The main feature of chemical geography in Kaschin-Beck’s disease area is just like that in Keshan disease area, selenium content in environment in the affected areas is always lower. Hence, the two diseases often emege simultaneously in many cases, but Sometimes in some areas, such as in the area with lower selenium content, one of ths two occurs alone. In this paper, the authors made an approach to disese-cause of Kaschin-Beck’s disease. The low selenium content in environment is a basic factor in appearence of Kaschin-Beck’s disease, but some other factors must be taken into account. All of factors was called compound factors. The other factors include (1) Vitamins, for example Ve, (2) Some life elements related with selenium, such as Cd, Hg, Ag, Mo. Fe, Sr, Zn, etc.,(3)Some organic matter or some toxins in affected areas,(4) Some habits.
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    我国泥炭的主要特性及其区域差异
    祖文辰, 马学慧, 王荣芬
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 38-45.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.38
    摘要   PDF (508KB)
    我国泥炭资源分布广泛,贮量比较丰富,集中分布在东北山地和青藏高原,较多分布在华北平原、长江中下游、云贵高原和华南沿海等地。不同地区和不同类型的性质差别较大,利用途径也明显不同。因此,研究我国泥炭的主要特性及其区域差异和特点,对制定泥炭区域利用规划和因地制宜、合理利用泥炭资源是十分重要的。
    China has rich peat reserves distributed widely. The peat properties vary greatly with regions and types. Based on the correlation analysis, organic matter, humic acid, decomposition degree and acidity are considered asthe basic natures and main properties of peat. According to statistics andquantitative grade, China’s peat is characterized by weak acidness, mediumdecomposition degree, middle organic content and high humic acid content, which result from the conditions of peat formation and development peculiar to China. The main properties of peat in various regions are obviously different. The peats both on the northeast mountains and the Qingzang Plateau have similar properties, but on the northeast mountains the peat with relatively high organic content is weakly acid to acid, herb, wood and moss peats all can be found; while on the Qingzang plateau peat is neutral to alkaline, mainly herbaceous. The peat in the North China Plain is high ash content, low humic acid content, high decomposition degree, nearly neutral, mainly herbaceous. The peat in the middle and lower Changjiang region is weak acidness and middle organic content. There are not only wood and herb peats with high decomposition degree and high contents of organic matter and humic acid, but also some moss peat.
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    天津市行人与车流量图组的自动编制
    王瑞林, 孙亚梅, 胡友元
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 46-54.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.46
    摘要   PDF (466KB)
    天津市行人与车流量图组1)是天津市环境质量地图集2)的一部分。这组图共有四幅:行人通过量图、机动车流量图(参看图1)、非机动车流量图、货运机动车流量图等,比例尺都是1:50000,采用统一底图。编制这组图的目的在于反映整个城市行人与各种车辆的流量状况,从而为城市规划部门进行交通线路的设置和立交桥的建立提供依据。
    This set of maps are represented by means of flow line. Circular symbols represent the volumes of flow of cars in the crossroads, and lineal symbols with two colours represent the volumes of flow in the roads, of which one colour represents the cars coming and another going. This set of maps are compiled automatically by digitizer, electronic computer, digital plotter. This paper is illustrated from follwing five parts:type of data and format of observation and record, graphic repressentation and design of symbols, mathematical model, coding and data organizing, data processing and simple introduction of computer mapping technology.
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    树木年轮中化学元素含量和环境相关性的研究
    钱君龙
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 55-59.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.55
    摘要   PDF (245KB)
    树木和环境是相互影响的统一体,树木从环境中获取养分。树木年轮中化学元素的含量和当年环境中化学元素的含量有相关性。本文试图通过分析年轮中化学元素的含量,再现环境的动态变化。
    The close relationship between the content of chemical element in living things and their environment could be found.The rings of trees in different content of chemical elements which showed the character of their environment at that time.The annual change of content in tree ring spontaneously reflects features of its environment.The late,of course,is influencedby human activity. This paper shows that the content of chemical elements in tree ring is gradually change as well as reflects the corresponding changes with its environment. Using model ln Ctree ring=K ln Csoil, we estimated the coefficient K by experements,The result from calculation shows that tha same kind of trees nearly has the same constant K, although they grow in different places We also use this model to discuss the problem of background value of element in different places.
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    陕北黄土丘陵沟壑区土地类型研究——以延安市附近为例
    傅伯杰
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 60-67.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.60
    摘要   PDF (529KB)
    黄土丘陵沟壑区是我国农业发展战略研究重点地区之一,也是我国水土流失最严重地区。其生态失调造成的恶性循环,使本区自然环境恶化,土地生产力衰竭。本文拟从延安市附近土地类型研究入手,揭示黄土丘陵沟壑区土地类型结构格局、分布规律、阐明土地类型的自然特征、演替图式及改造利用措施,为合理利用土地资源、合理布局农林牧业生产,进行生产规划提供科学依据。
    In the paper,taking Yan An nearby regions as a example, the land types of loess hills and gully areas of northern Shanxi province are discussed. Loess hills and gully areas are an important region for developing agriculture.The loss of water and erosion of Soil are severe, in the region. Based upon specific natural condition of Yah An nearby region, some Principles for classifying land types are given.According to these principles,taking landform, vegetation and soil as chief criteria for classifying land types, 5 land types of first category and 23 land types of second category are identified in Yah An nearby regions.A hierarchical scheme for land classification in the region is introduced. Horizontal and vertical structure,and developing diagram of land types as well as the physical features of main land types are discussed.In addition,an approach to the direction of production-construction in the hills and gully areas of northern Shanxi province is also made in the paper.
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    模糊数学在土地资源评价中的应用
    赵锐, 刘振东
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 68-72.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.68
    摘要   PDF (291KB)
    土地资源是一个复杂的系统,这个系统是由气候、水文、地貌、土壤、植被等许多因子组成的,它们不仅在空间上互相联系、互相制约,而且还不断地进行着物质与能量的交换过程。因此要对这样复杂的土地资源进行分类与评价,仅仅停留在定性描述阶段,那是远远不够的。为此,不少地学工作者探求用指数法、加权平均法、聚类法等等来解决有关问题。由于土地资源评价等级之间的界限常常是不分明的,所以用Fuzzy数学方法处理更为合适。下面我们以江苏省太湖地区土地资源的分类与评价工作为例,说明Fuzzy聚类分析方法的具体应用。
    In this paper a method of classification cvalution of different land units in the light of land quality is introduced on the basis of fuzzy clustering analysis. It is put forward here that according to the regional features of geography and research subject, suitable evalution elements and indexes for the method should be selected, and then marks are given on the basis of synthetic analysis to form a group of fuzzy Subsets, After fuzzy clustering analysis, a comparison is made between its results and those forms—ordinary methods of classification evalution.
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    长江流域降雨的空间变化
    许孟英
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 73-78.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.73
    摘要   PDF (327KB)
    关于长江流域降雨的研究,无论是区域分布、季节变化或降雨类型等,近年来都作了不少工作,但从方向及距离两方面讨论两站之间降雨气候特征,至目前为止,国内尚无人做过。作者认为用这种方法分析降雨特征,更多地考虑了地理因子,不仅是一种研究方法,在科学上也是有意义的。本文试用这种方法分析以汉口站为中心,与沿长江两岸地区4~9月降雨的关系。文内所包括的范围,系指25°~35°N,110°-120°E地区,共挑选51个台站,资料年代取启1953~1980年。台站分布如图1。
    In this paper, the author analyses the spatial variation of precipitation over the Yangtze River Basin, using the method of correlation coefficient based on data during April-Sept. from 1953 to 1980. The results are summerized as follows:(1) There is well correlation near Hanko, but the coefficient decresaes rapidly with increase of distance from it. The decrease is faster in southwest direction than one in east-west direction. (2) The maximum correlation coefficient emerges in the east of Yichang along both sides of the Yangtze River. (3) The maximum correlation directions are NW-NWW in the east of Hanko, and SW SWW in the west of Hanko.
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    研究报道
    长江葛洲坝河段汊道的形成与演变
    孙仲明
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 79-85.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.79
    摘要   PDF (431KB)
    长江葛洲坝河段位于三峡的出口,宜昌市境内。它是长江规模最大的水利枢纽工程所在地。葛洲坝河段上下变化急剧,具有河床展宽、汉道增多、深槽反坡、河道急转及河势不顺等复杂的河流地貌特点。为了配合葛洲坝工程区的河势规划,我们受长江流域规划办公室的委讬,先后在该区进行了野外勘察和室内分析。本文主要阐述该河段的河谷、河床特征,形成与演变中的问题。
    The Gezhouba reach ran out of the Sanxia Gorge and developed on an alluvial fan which was restricted by the rock hills of both banks,representing some complex features of fluvial geomorphology, such as channel widening or branching, main current abruptly turning and unconsequently running. The channel widenin5 seems to relate to the unequal rising of neotectonics and the differential erosion on various lithological characters for long time.The trend that the channel moves to right bank during the river evolution process and the fact that the main current near the convex bank now obviously indicated the relation ship between the evolution and unequal tilting of neotectonics, the extension of Hwangbai River alluvial fan and the flow deflecting caused by Hengliangzi. Since A.D.500 the situation that ErJiang and Sanjiang branches have had no water in dry seasons has been formed. At present, the two branches are still in declining stage.
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    泥炭的14C年代测定报告(一)
    中国科学院长春地理研究所中心实验室
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 86-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.86
    摘要   PDF (185KB)
    本实验室自1982年建成以来,用14C测年法对一批泥炭标本进行了测定。泥炭是沼泽的产物,它是由植物残体和矿物质混合堆积而成。泥炭中的有机质在植物生长时与大气中的CO2处于平衡状态,植物死亡后成为泥炭的主要组份,常处于与空气隔绝的封闭条件下。因此,泥炭是适合作14C测定的材料。泥炭含有丰富的孢子花粉,对恢复古植被、古气候以及地层的划分和对比,提供了可靠的证据。因此,与孢粉分析相配合,泥炭的14C年代测定就有着极其重要的意义。
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    三江平原开发与整治论坛
    三江平原地区水资源的估算和开发利用
    郭大本
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (1): 89-96.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.01.89
    摘要   PDF (473KB)
    三江平原地区(以下简称本区)位于黑龙江省东部,包括黑龙江、松花江和乌苏里江汇流的三角地带,以及安邦河、倭肯河和穆棱河流域,总面积1)10.35万平方公里。其中,山地丘陵占43%,平原和低湿地占57%,是我国面积最大的沼泽和沼泽化地区。本文根据全区204个水文气象测站,约5000站年的降水、径流、蒸发资料,以及作者有关调查研究成果,对水资源的数量、质量和合理开发利用,作一简要分析。
    According to measure and data, the author shows main features of rivers in the Sanjiang Plain and change of water balance on time and space, and then estimates water resources of five types, i.e.runoff, underground water, soil water, supplied water from the three rivers and lake (or reservior) water. Sum of the five water resources can be up to 32.3 billion m3. But they are rather unwell-distributed, the annual range is rather considerable too. Up to now, only 7.7% of water resources have been utilized, according to programme, 17.8 billion m3 will be utilized in furture in the area. Rationally exploiting water resources in the area should combine with protection and management, and the criterion judging rationality of utilization only is beneficial results on economic, ecologic and social aspects. During exploitation and utilization, it is important to provent water resources from pollution.
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