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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1985年, 第5卷, 第3期 刊出日期:1985-05-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    学位论文摘登
    国土规划的理论与方法
    魏心镇
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 193-200.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.193
    摘要   PDF (556KB)
    当前全国人民为实现党十二大提出的宏伟战略目标,对农村和城市经济进行重大的体制改革,一个新的生产力大发展的形势即将到来。因此,极其需要从全局角度对我国国土资源开发利用和治理保护作出综合规划,提出有关全国性国土开发整治战略和生产力布局构想,划分出开发整治重点区域,明确其发展方向和开发程序以及必需采取的相应对策。因此,编制全国性"国土总体规划纲要"就成为一项极为迫切的任务。对各省、市、自治区来说,也要适应这种发展形势搞好本地区国土开发与整治的轮廓设想,以发挥各自的优势,使生产力布局和城镇建设更加合理,进一步推动整个国民经济的发展。
    Territory planning is a newly emerging thing in the planning field of our country.This paper deals with following problems on theories and methods of territory planning. 1.First of all,territory planning should correctly determine a system of combining economical development with social development. 2.According to the condition of China,key developing area should be the mid-one in which energy is located and metal mineral resources are rich. 3.At the same time of doing the first item,we should propose correspondingly the different developing ways of costal areas and interior areas. 4.The core of territory planning is to transform continuously economic structure and resolve the problem of rationally locating productivity through developing nature resources. 5.Micro-countermeasure of territory planning means that of rational location of concrete productivity and so on.And macro-countermeasure is an overall one which has a notable impact on territory planning,
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    我国积温变化的若干特征分析
    王馥棠, 王石立
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 201-208.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.201
    摘要   PDF (397KB)
    热量是农作物生长发育和产量形成的重要条件,一定界限的温度,尤其是0℃和10℃以上的累积温度又是衡量一地热量多寡的常用指标之一。目前,随着气候异常问题日益引起重视以及农业生产发展的需要,人们十分注重积温的时空演变特点及其对农业生产影响的研究。
    Accumulated temperature above 10℃ is one of the important indices of thermal condition.The research on characteristics of accumulated temperature variation in time and space scope and their effects on agricultural production has become more important with the appearance of abnormal climate and the requirement in agricultural production.Through analysing some characteristics of accumulated temperature(above 10℃) variation in China,it is found that in the recent century there are three phases in variation of accumulated temperature in China:cold,warm and cold.They are reversed in 1930’s and 1950’s respectively.Through calculating and analysing the standard deviation of accumulated temperature above 10℃ in various regions it is noticed that there are some small fluctuations in the cold trend of climate during the last 30 years and they have certain effects on agricultural production in various regions.In order to compare the stabilities of accumulated temperature above 10℃ in various regions,the coefficients of variation of accumulated temperature above 10℃ are calculated.The CV values increase with increasing of latitudes in space and they are correlated to accumulated temperature (less 6000℃) with exponential. Various guarantee(accumulated probability) curves of accumulated temperature above 10℃ for different length of data-series are compared.It is shown that these curves are more stable when the length of data-series is over 50 years.In addition,guarantee curves in different regions are compared,too.Their characteristics and classification are studied preliminarily. According to the slope of guarantee curves within 10-90%,various guarantee curves in different regions in China are classified into three types:stable, instable and neutral. In the end,the relationship between guarantee and return period is also analysed and disccused.It is suggested that guarantee is related to return period with opposite if their non-biased estimators are omitted,
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    土壤-植物系统硒传输研究 Ⅰ.我国一些天然土壤中的硒
    郑达贤, 李日邦, 谭见安
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 209-217.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.209
    摘要   PDF (455KB)
    土壤—植物系统硒的生态传输链是环境—人硒关系的中间环节,因而,这一传输链的研究是改良低硒环境、预防硒反应症的基础。自本世纪30年代确定硒中毒是美国中西部广大地区家畜碱性病和盲目蹒跚病的主要病因以来,尤其是50至60年代确定硒缺乏是家畜白肌病等一系列动物硒反应症的基本病因以来。世界各国对土壤硒和作物硒都进行了大量的研究。我国克山病和大骨节病与缺硒关系的发现及70年代以来世界环境问题的提出,更加强了人们对环境中硒的关注。
    In order to study the transmission of Se in soil-plant system,the author collected 62 samples from 11 typically natural soil profiles in different natural zones in China,measured Se content in them and other properties,respectively,analysed the distribution of Se in soil profiles and calculated its enrichment coefficient (EF),and then discussed the correlation of Se content to soil proprties and the origination of Se. Based on EF>1 and the close correlation of Se with I content,it is noted that Se accumulation originated from an external source is absolutely not negligible quantity in the enrichment.Through studing the samples,it is found that there are obviously correlations of Se with organic matter content in soil of disease region and Se with R2O3 content in soil of no-disease region.These factors show that the combined forms of Se in soil of the two kinds of region above are so different that they effect certainly on the"efficiency"of Se and its transmission in soil-plant system.
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    江苏省农业气候资源生产潜力及区划的研究
    龙斯玉
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 218-226.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.218
    摘要   PDF (472KB)
    气候、土壤和人的生产劳动是构成农业生产力的三大因素。其中土壤是相对稳定的因素,可以通过人的劳动逐步定向改变。气候则在时间和空间上的变化都很大,而且难以人为改变,故其对产量的影响极大。作物种和品种的选择,播栽期的确定,耕作制度等,在很大程度上是适应和利用光、温、水条件。各地气候不同,光、温、水资源的强度,数量及其季节分配不同,农业气候生产潜力亦不相同。农业气候生产潜力是评价农业气候资源的判据之一。研究它不仅为制定农业发展规划提供农业气候依据。又能根据实际产量和潜在产量之间的差距,分析和设法改变限制产量提高的环境因素,努力使实际产量接近潜在产量,为向自然界索取更多的农产品提供科学依据。
    The potential productivity of photo-energy,photo-therm and climate (light,temperature and water),and their availabilities in Jiangsu province are evaluated on the basis of survey.It is shown that the agroclimatic potential productivity would be twice to four times of the present yield.It is possible to raise utilization level for the agroclimatic production-potential of whole province from present rate of 16-55% up to 65-75%,and double the food production by the end of this century.Three climatic-production regions and eight subregions are divided into based on the magnitude of agroclimatic production potential and its rate of availablity.
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    太湖地区全新世以来古地理环境的演变
    景存义
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 227-234.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.227
    摘要   PDF (515KB)
    太湖地区,包括江苏省南部茅山以东,宜溧山地以北,浙江省的杭嘉湖平原及上海市的部分地区。在地质构造上,太湖地区处于江南古陆的东北端,中生代末期,由于强烈的构造运动,产生了上海、阳澄湖、太湖、常州几个断陷盆地。新生代以来,由于该区断续的下沉,在几个盆地内填满了第三纪、第四纪的沉积物。今日的太湖即位于古太湖构造盆地里。它是发育于冲积平原上的宽浅型构造湖。晚更新世玉木冰期,气候寒冷,海面下降,在太湖平原上沉积了一层黄褐色、棕黄色、暗绿色粉砂质亚粘土(即下蜀粘土),在区内形成由西南向东北倾斜的地面。根据太湖地区全新世以来的沉积物、动植物化石(亚化石)、泥炭层、古文化遗址,特别是气候变化等分析,全新世的古地理环境演变可分为:早全新世(距今10,000~7500年),中伞新世(距今7500~2500年),晚全新世(距今2500~现在)。
    Based on sediments,fossils,cultural remains and peat layer,three phrases of the palaeogeographyic change of tbe Tai Hu region can be distinguished:early Holocene (about 10000 B.P-7500 B.P),middle Holocene (7500 B. P-2500 B.P),late Holocene (2500 B.P to present). In the early Holocene when the climate was cold and dry,yellow,grey silt-clay and subclay had been covered on the depressions and plains in the region,the vegetation consistes of deciducous broad-leaved and coniferous mixedforests and steppes. In the middle Holocene when the climate became hot and humid,and the sea level rose to present sea level,the Tai Hu Lake formed.Lacustrine deposit of grey clay and peat were found widely in the region.In Neolithic age man started to settle on the hills of this region.In that time,the vegetation mainly consisted of evergreen broad leaved forests. In the late Holocene when the climate turned to warm and moist,the Tai Hu Lake was expanded,with Yangcheng Hu,Cheng Hu and Dianshan Hu being formed one after another.A alluvial-lacustrine plain with a dense network of river and lake took shape in this region,The vegetation mainly consisted of coniferous mixed forest and hydrophyte such as Potamogetom Sp., Sphagnum Sp.widely grew.
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    东北地区泥炭植物残体的初步研究
    郑萱风, 丁守琴
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 235-240.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.235
    摘要   PDF (1795KB)
    植物残体是沼泽植物死亡后,在过湿的嫌气环境条件下未完全分解的植物遗体,如根、根状茎、茎、叶、果实、种子、孢子和花粉等。东北是我国沼泽主要分布地区之一,沼泽面积达3万3千多平方公里。其中泥炭沼泽面积较大,是我国泥炭贮量丰富地区。植物残体是泥炭的主要组成部分,也是沼泽地的特殊产物。目前,国内外学者对泥炭分类,经常采用植物残体为分类指标之一。因此,植物残体既是泥炭的分类基础,又是泥炭利用的重要依据。所以研究泥炭中植物残体对泥炭的成因、类型、泥炭的理化性质、评定泥炭的利用以及对古植物、古地理、古气候的研究方面均有重要意义。
    The Northeast Region is one of concentrical distribution area of peat lands in China.In this region there are rich peat reserves constructed by various plant residues.Those residues have become basis of peat classification and utilization. The paper introduced the concept of plant residue,its signification and study way,and then proposed a classification system for plant residue.In additions9 the authors also made preliminary approach to types,characteristics, component and micro-structure of plant residue in peat in the Northeast Region.
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    中比例尺土地类型图编制方法的研究——以1:50万吉林省西北部土地类型图为例
    王化群
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 241-249.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.241
    摘要   PDF (541KB)
    土地是人类赖以生存的场所和生产资料。土地类型图作为从事土地类型研究的重要手段和最终成果的一种表现形式,已越来越被人们所认识。全国1:100万土地类型图已列入全国科学发展规划、全国自然科学地学规划有关项目的重要内容,从而促进了各省(区)土地类型研究和制图工作的全面开展。1:50万吉林省西北部土地类型图,是为配合全国1:100万土地类型图的编制所取得的阶段性成果之一。它是一种中比例尺的专题地图,是1:50万吉林省土地类型图的重要组成部分。本制图区介于东经121°20′~126°,北纬44°~46。16′之间,地跨两个自然地区——温带湿润、半湿润地区和温带半干旱地区。地貌上除东南端属大黑山中段丘陵、西北隅为大兴安岭山地东麓低山丘陵外,基本上属于松嫩平原。行政区划上包括白城地区全部及长春地区一部分。
    The compilation of land type map is a more complicatedly systematical work.According to the author’s experience of compilation practice,taking the land type map of the North-west Jilin Province as an example,some problems on compilation method were discussed in this paper. 1.Basic contents of the land type map--cartographic classification of land types:Here 15 land groups,27 subgroups and 77 land families were divided into in this catographic area,in which land family is basic unit. 2.Representation method and colour design:In order to represent the three levels of land type above,the qualitative base method combining colour with symbols was adopted.Colour designed expresses both the action of geomorphologic factors and mirrors the effect of water and heat on land types. 3.Compilation method:Based on the specific conditions of information in the cartographic area,the methods of indoors synthetical analysis of cartographic informations and integration with field observation and examination were used in the compilation. The basic works consist of three steps: 1.Indoors synthetically analysing and using cartographic information, such as interpreting and utilising Landsat image,piling and utilising thematic maps,and analysing and utilising topographic maps etc. 2.carting out sample survey in field work. 3.drawing up compilation principle and procedure.
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    洛河流域土壤的金属元素背景值
    黄润华, 由文斌, 郭峰, 蒋廉洁
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 250-254.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.250
    摘要   PDF (253KB)
    洛河发源于陕西省洛南公社木岔沟,流经陕西省洛南县、河南省卢氏、洛宁、宜阳三县,经洛阳市于偃师县与伊河汇合,称为伊洛河,最后经巩县注入黄河,全长446.9公里,是黄河的十大支流之一。洛河全长410公里,集水面积12,037平方公里。其中陕西境内长121公里,集水面积3037平方公里;河南境内长289公里,集水面积8818平方公里。
    Based on study of the geographical environment of the Luohe River basin about 120 soil samples were collected in different geographical units.This paper deals with the background values of metal.element in soil of the basin. After conventional test and statisitcal treatment9 it is found that most of the background values of soils in the basin are in the range reported in the literature at home and abroad.The correlation coefficient matrix of background values is also calculated and the results show that the correlation coefficients of some elements are significant at different levels.This may probably be attributed to the transformation and accumulation processes of these elements during weathering and soil genesis processes.
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    清初地理学家刘献廷及其学术思想
    王祥珩
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 255-258.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.255
    摘要   PDF (266KB)
    清初地理学家刘献廷(1648—1695,即清顺治五年至康熙三十四年),字继庄,别号广阳子,大兴(今北京市)人。重要著作唯有《广阳杂记》流传于世。刘献廷"不肯为词章之学",终生不入仕宦之途,怀着与世俗不同的抱负,主张以"经世"为主,讲究实用。以为人苟不能利济天下,徒以其知能为一身家之谋,"则不得谓之人"。这就突出了"经世致用"的思想。在这种注重实用的思想指导下,他对于前人的研究和著作,常视其实用意义而衡量其价值。例如《管子》是春秋战国时期著作,对许多自然现象,能从描述进至理论分析。
    Geograper Liu Xianting in the Early Qing dynasty and his contributions to geography were introduced in this paper.Liu’s thought of geography and works,such as measuring geographical location based on latitude,studing climatic change regularities,establishing a series of correlations between phonology and latitude,topography and wind and rainfall,city development and traffic conditions,and so on,all of those were expounded here,In additions, he suggested that the study work for geography should be carried sistematically and overall.
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    综述
    我国部门地貌调查与制图的新进展
    陈志明
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 259-266.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.259
    摘要   PDF (527KB)
    建国以来,广大地貌工作者参加了交通建设、黄河中游水土保持、南水北调、农业区划、南方山地利用水土保持、华南热带生物资源综合考察,及汉江、湘江、海河流域规划、新疆、黑龙江、甘肃、宁夏、内蒙、青海、西藏等边远地区的综合考察,使地貌学及其各分支学科都得到较快的发展。特别冰川、冻土、沙漠地貌、海岸与海底地貌、黄土与喀斯特地貌、地震与火山地貌、古地貌等方面发展较快,其主要进展分述如下。
    This paper aims to give a brief account of the latest achievements over the past decade in sueh fields as glaciology,frozen earth,desert,coastal and submarine,loess and karst,seismology and volcanology as well as paleogeomorphology from the viewpoints of branch geomorphologieal survey and mapping in our country,various kinds of geomorphologically distributed areas and or their characteristic aspects speak volumes for the richer and varied patterns in gemorphology of China,with special reference to the results in geomorphological classification of various types and the representation in its mapping,thus opening before us a bright prospect for the researches in branch geomorphology as well as its mapping.
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    问题讨论
    关于自然地理区划原则的探讨
    李万
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 267-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.267
    摘要   PDF (445KB)
    自然地理区划原则问题是一个值得商讨的问题。因为目前出现了既前进又混乱的局面。值得高兴的是最近二、三十年来,国内外出现许多自然地理区划的原则,充分说明自然地理区划这一门科学在迅速成长。但至今国内外自然地理区划的理论和方法还没有形成一个令人信服的系统。大多数都是把综合自然地理区划需要的东西称作原则,摆在自然地理区划报告前面部分。就是那些"自然地理区划"的专著中也有许多的原则。因此把众多的"自然地理区划原则"进行分析、研究,尽快结束那种把观点、方法、实质、注意事项等都称作原则的时代,乃是刻不容缓的事。否则,自然地理区划这门学科就很难规范化、标准化。
    It is worth to discuss the question of regionalism principles of physiography,in order to reach unanimity of opinions.At present,there are various principles for the regionalism,such as genetic principle,composite principle, dominant factor principle and agricultural planning principle etc.The first two principles obviously belong to the category of philosophy opinion,and the last two are methodology ane teleology.In additions,the"zonality and no-zonality" principle is also short of scientific basis for regionalization.After analysing those principles above,the paper suggests that the zonality principle is suitable for regionalism of physiography.That consists of three regularities,i.e. latitude zonality,altitude zonality and geographic distribution zonality of sea and continent,
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    研究报道
    长白山南坡农业自然条件与农业结构的决策分析——以吉林省长白朝鲜族自治县为例
    王文卿
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 273-282.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.273
    摘要   PDF (510KB)
    长白朝鲜族自治县位于吉林省东南部,鸭绿江上游的右岸,长白山的南坡。境内由海拔450米的鸭绿江谷地到海拔2559米的白头山(本县境内),高差达2100余米。全县90%的土地位于海拔800米以上,是东北位势最高的县分。本县地势高峻,由火山锥体和熔岩高原组成。鸭绿江源于白头山和望天鹅峰,放射状水系将高原开析成桌状台地和波状台地。鸭绿江沿本县南缘自东而西横流,塑出多级阶地和河漫滩。全县地势北高南低,南缘谷地自东向西倾斜,呈现以火山锥体为中心,大体呈同心园状分布的中山、高台地、低台地、台地谷缘斜坡、河谷平地等层状地形带。
    The Changbai county is situated on the south slope of the Changbai Mountains,90% of its area being over 800 metres above the sea level.The mountaineous forest resources of the cold-temperature zone markedly predominates,with obviously vertical landscape.These advantageous conditions did not give a great of economic and ecologic effects in past time because of the irrational structure of the agriculture.In this paper,based on analysis of agriculturally natural conditions,the author attempt to use the theory of system engineering to find the main factors which might bring the influences upon agriculture structure9 in order to choose an optical decision of the structure. At the same time,the paper make an approach to the qualities of land systems,providing a scientific basis for the adjustment of the county’s agricultural structure.Moreover,a discussion of the researching meathods is involved in the paper.
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    学术活动
    1:100万地貌图东北片协调会暨东北区地貌与第四纪学术讨论会在长春召开
    李风华
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 282-282.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.282
    摘要   PDF (63KB)
    吉林省地理学会地貌与第四纪地质专业委员会与中国1:100万地貌图编委会东北协作片,于1985年4月18月至21日在长春联合召开了以如何进一步开展东北1:100万地貌图和第四纪地层划分为中心的地貌与第四纪地质学术讨论会。来自东北三省及北京,南京、青岛的有关高等院校、生产及科研等24个单位的40余名代表出席了会议。会议收到论文和论文摘要共28篇,其中19篇在大会上进行了宣读。
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    东北地区煤炭资源潜力分析与评价
    李国平
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 283-286.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.283
    摘要   PDF (227KB)
    东北地区包括辽宁省、吉林省、黑龙江省和内蒙古自治区东部三盟一市(简称三盟一市)。是我国煤炭工业基础较好和煤炭产量较大的地区,但为适应区域经济和社会发展需要,煤炭开发规模仍必须适时加大。煤炭开发规模受资源条件制约,煤炭资源潜力分析与评价是煤炭资源开发的基础工作,对合理确定煤炭开发规模和时序有重要意义。
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    日本国土资源农业综合利用考察
    赵焕宸
    地理科学. 1985, 5 (3): 287-288.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1985.03.287
    摘要   PDF (157KB)
    结合我所承担三江平原地区农业综合开发与国土整治的科技攻关项目,由自然地理、植被、经济地理、气候专业共五人组成国土资源农业综合利用考察团,应日本"日中地理学会议"邀请,并得到日本"北海道泥炭地研究会"的大力协助,于一九八四年九月一日至十月一日对日本以北海道为中心的沼泽泥炭地进行了综合考察与访问。整个考察过程中,我们自始至终紧紧围绕沼泽开发、综合利用与保护;山地资源综合利用与牧场改良为主的国土合理开发与整治。考察地区北起日本最北端宗谷丘陵南至本州群马县一带,几乎包括日本所有的泥炭沼泽地。
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