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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1995年, 第15卷, 第4期 刊出日期:1995-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    徽州文化生态初步研究
    黄成林
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 299-306,393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.299
    摘要   PDF (2809KB)
    从文化生态学角度,论述了徽州文化形成发展的地理背景,徽州地理环境对徽州物质文化与精神文化的影响,指出徽州地理环境与徽州文化二者之间存在协调和谐的关系.
    From the point of view of culturel ecology, this paper discusses preliminarily the geography background of the formation and development of Huizhou Culture, the influence of Huizhou geographical conditions upon its cultural phenomena, and the relation between Huizhou Culture and its natural environment. The paper puts forward some views as follows: 1. The geographical position and natural environment of Huizhou is an important prerequisite of the formation and development of Huizhou Culture. 2. Huizhou geographical environment influences directly its material culture, and affects indirectly its mental culture. 3. Huizhou Chulture is in harmony with its natural conditions. The relation between Huizhou Culture and Huizhou natrual environment embraces four aspects: restriction, adaptation, reappearance and selection.
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    太湖流域洪涝灾害的形成和演变
    杨世伦, 陈吉余
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 307-314,393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.307
    摘要   PDF (2787KB)
    洪涝是太糊流域最大的自然灾害.其形成和演变除了与充沛而集中的雨量和碟形洼地地势有关外,还与海平面的相对上升、长江三角洲向海推进以及人口的激增有关.史料中统计口径的差异是影响灾害记录的因素之一.下一世纪洪涝的威胁呈增长趋势.
    Flood is the prime natural disaster in the Taihu Lake drainage area. Based on the data of climate, relief, human activity and disaster records, this article mainly deals with the factors which control the formation and evolution of flood.The formative factors include rainfall and relief. The peak rainfall can reach to 203 mm/h, 582 mm/d and 2356 mm/a at individual station. Three-fourths of the drainage area is plain, half of which is below high tide level. Permanent waters (lakes, rivers and ponds) and paddy fields together cover 55% of the drainnage area (36500 km2) in summer, the main flood season. The gradient of water surface in the major discharge waterway, the Huangpu River, is 6.5?10-6 in average and is even negative at high tide.The frequency of flood has been increasing in the past two thousand years. The major causes are:(1) the crust of this area has been sinking at the rate of 1.2 mm/a; (2) the coastline of the Changjiang River delta has been continuously moving toward the East China Sea; (3) as a result of (1) and (2), the gradient of the discharge waterway has remarkably decreased to 1/3; (4) the population density has increased from 6/km2 to 900/km2.In the 21st century, the rainfall of the drainage will increase by 40%-50% due to the global warming climate, the sea level of the Changjiang Estuary will rise about 40 cm-60 cm. Consequently, the threat of flood will be aggravated in the next century.
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    我国不同地带沙地盐分特征研究
    赵文智, 荔克让, 何欣东
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 315-320,393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.315
    摘要   PDF (2578KB)
    在野外采样、室内分析和前人研究资料的基础上,对我国不同地带沙地盐分状况及其分异规律、盐分含量与气象要素的关系、沙地植被对土壤盐分淋溶的影响等方面进行了探讨.
    According to the results which use PCA and hierachical clustering to analyse salt content of drifting sand, 12 sandlands (sandy deserts) of our country are devided into 4 types of salt leaching sandland, i.e. strong leaching, leaching, weak leaching and non-leaching. Analysis shows that the ratio of evaporation to precipitation is a key factor that affect the salt status of sandland, rather than air temperatrue. Existence of vegetation can weaken salt leaching to different extent in each natural zone.
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    转换函数与南黄海13万年来海水深度的变化
    王建, 杨怀仁
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 321-326,393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.321
    摘要   PDF (2568KB)
    通过南黄海现代有孔虫含量与水深的相关分析,建立了水深—有孔虫含量转换函数.通过时空适用范围的判别检验,选取适宜的转换函数,对QC2孔化石有孔虫数据进行计算,定量估算出南黄海130 ka来海水深度的变化.
    Five transfer functions (depth/foraminifera percentage) are established in terms of the calculation of modern foraminifera data which are derived from 77 sea-bed surface samples of the South Yellow Sea. After adaptability analysis, D=35.60-0.95 PAm.bec+0.864 PAm.keli (R=0.911, ε=9.7 m) is selected and used to estimate the depth changes of the South Yellow Sea for the last 130000 years.In the past 130000 years, relative deeper sea appeared in 120, 100, 80 ka B. P. and nowadays, relative shallower sea appeared in 110, 90, 70-50, 20-15 ka B. P. In general speaking, the changes of sea depth indicate the changes of glacial-eustatic changes. The greatest depth during the last interglacial was 5-10 meters greater than that at present. This suggests that the highest sea level during the last Interglacial might be 5-10 meters higher than that at present.
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    东南沿海外向型农业的发展
    帅江平
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 327-336,393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.327
    摘要   PDF (3049KB)
    论述了东南沿海地区外向型农业发展的区域优势、市场条件、模式与特征以及外向型农业的发展方向与重点.指出三资农业企业在发展外向型农业方面具有的独特作用,并指出本区应引导外资形成几个较大的外资投资区.
    Based on the analysis of the development advantages and the evaluation of market potentials, the author concluded that the development of export-oriented agriculture in the southeastern region of China is possible. The drive for the growth of export-oriented agriculture in the region is the overseas market, which stimulate the development of high-efficency agricultural production and then enhance the change of regional agriculture to "high-productivity, high quality and high-efficiency."The further development of export-oriented agriculture in the region should be sustainable and coordinated with the regional agriculture, adapt to the international market and competition. The cooperation with the agricultural production and capitals are very important. In addition, reformation on system, trade and organization are also necessary.The foreign investment and ventures have played an important role in the development of export-oriented agriculture in the region, for they increased the export, utilized the advantages and became one of the source of expanding reproduction investement. To guide the foreign investment ventures, three different investment districts of local fine agricultural varieties, closed special development zones and new agricultural varieties introduction areas can be built.
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    松嫩沙地末次冰期以来降水量和干燥度的时空变化
    介冬梅, 吕金福
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 337-343,393.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.337
    摘要   PDF (2759KB)
    根据表土花粉与降水量和干燥度相关的原理,选择对降水量和干燥度有指示意义的花粉的百分含量,运用多元线性回归分析的方法,推算了松嫩沙地末次冰期以来的古降水量和古干燥度,并在此基础上推测了沙地的环境演化过程.
    Songnen sandland lying in the middle of northeast China is in the continental monsoon climatic region of transitional belt between semi-humid and semi-arid temperate zone. It is the first-grade susceptible belt of environmental evolution in China.Since the last glacial age, the nature environment of Songnen sandland have undergone complex evolution process. Based on the principle that vegetation is related to precipitation and aridity degree, using pluralistic linear regression analysis, the authors calculated quantitatively the precipitetion and aridity degree of Songnen sandland since the last glacial age, and drew the change curves of precipitation and aridity degree in different periods, and 1.1-1.2 isogram of aridity degree. Since the last glacial age Songnen sandland underwent 5 periods of high precipitation and low aridity degree. And the east boundary of the sandland in different periods have also been estimeted.
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    古土壤CaCO3淀积层与大气降水入渗形式研究
    赵景波
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 344-350,394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.344
    摘要   PDF (3618KB)
    根据黄土中古土壤CaCO3淀积深度、CaCO3含量和淋深裂隙等的研究,确定了CaCO3淀积层分布深度代表了重力水入渗的深度,古土壤顶部到CaCO3淀积层底部之间的距间为重力水入渗带的厚度范围.重力水入渗深度可反映降水量的高低,并可用作研究薄膜水入渗带和潜水位埋深的依据.
    According to the study on the illuvial depth of CaCO3, CaCO3 content and leached cracks, it is determined that moving depth of CaCO3 illuvial horizon represents the permeated depth of gravitative water, and the distance from the top of paleosol to the bottom of CaCO3 illuvial horizon is the thickness for the permeated zone for gravitative water.The permeated depth of gravitative water can reliably reflect the precipitation and can be used as the basis for determining the depth of film water zone and groundwater level. In general, groundwater can be classified into the gravitative water zone and the film water zone, but the gravitative water may stretch down to the groundwater level and film water zone is lacking in the area with rich rainfall.The precipitation during the development of the paleosols from 1st to 7th layer was between 600 and 1000 mm, with maximum difference less than one time. However the permeated depth for gravitative water of seven layers of paleosol is between 7.4 and 0.7 m, with maximum difference more than ten times, which demonstrates that the rainfall during warm and moist periods of Pleistocene was uneven, rain season and dry season were obvious, that increased rainfall mainly concentrated in rain season, and the difference in rainfall between dry period and moist pertod was great in rain season and little in dry season.
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    莱州湾地区云水资源及开发利用
    于志良, 孙绪馥
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 351-358,394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.351
    摘要   PDF (2716KB)
    莱州湾地区海咸水侵染危害十分严重.根据气象资料计算结果,莱州湾地区云水资源量是丰富的,实施人工催化增雨是该地区增加地面降水、提高地下水位,进而御防海咸水侵染的重要措施.
    Inland encroachment by salt seawater over Laizhou Bay area makes serious endan-germents. Scientific calculation resulting from a great quantity of meteorological dada sets have shown that about 15 billion tons of cloud water resource can be used for precipitation enhancement from March to October every year over Laizhou Bay area. For example, more than 0.9-1.2 billion tons of cloud water resource can be increased by artificial enhancement for stratus clouds and 7. 5 billion tons for cumulus cloud. So, the cloud water resource is considered to be rich over Laizhou Bay area. Precipitation enhancement by cloud seeding is a very significant and efficient way to increase the surface precipitation, to raise the subterranean water level, and to keep salt seawater from intrusion.
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    问题讨论
    持续发展与地理学之管见
    刘盛佳
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 359-367,394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.359
    摘要   PDF (2855KB)
    影响持续发展的主要问题是人口、资源、环境和发展在分布失衡状态下的不协调关系,解决此问题的关键是加快人类社会的全面发展和人口、能量、物质、信息的合理流动.面对持续发展问题,地理学必须将地域差异规律和分布不平衡规律统一起来,将流、网络、界线构成空间系统,并将流的建设——地理建设作为服务于人类社会持续发展的舞台.
    Sustainable development can be summarized as the establishment and development of the coordinated relationship among population, resources, environments and development. Excessive population growth, lack of natural resources, aggravated environment problems have seriously hampered the sustainable development of human society of the 21st century. In this thesis, the author thinks that the main problem of the sustainable development and the coordinated relationship is the unbalanced distribution of population, resources, environments and development in the material world, while the unbalanced development of human society intensifies the unbalanced distribution of the material world, therefore, it brings about the uncoordinated relatonship under the unbalanced conditions. Besides the controlling of excessive growth of population, the key point to resolve this problem is to promote the all-round development of human society, especially to quicken the development of the developing countries and strengthen the reasonable flow of population, energy, material and information, so that it can establish a scientific intelligent adjusting system.Geography always takes the coordinated relationship among population, resources, environments and development, that is, the relationship between the development of human society and geography conditions as one of the most concerned study fields. Facing the sustainable development problems which the whole world concerns, geography must unify the regional difference law with the material unbalanced distribution law, and reveal the movement developing law of the coordinated relationship among population, resources, environments and development by the space system which is consisted of flow, network and boundry line, and take the construction of flow-geographic construction as a stage where it will serve the sustainable development of human society, so geography will serve the sustainable development of human society, and achieve a revolutionized development.
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    研究报道
    云南东川古泥石流堆积物ESR测年的初步研究
    业渝光, 刁光波, 和杰, 高钧成, 雷祥义
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 374-377,394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.374
    摘要   PDF (2463KB)
    用ESR方法对该区古泥石流堆积物的形成年代进行了初步研究,并讨论了此方法的可靠性、测年机理以及所得ESR年龄的地质意义.
    The ages of palaeo-accumulation of mud-rock flow in Dongchuan, Yunnan are ob-tained by ESR dating technique, they are consistent with 14C ages. The ESR ages show that the palaeo-accumulation of mud-rock flow is the product during the humid periods of the Late Pleistocene. The simulative experiments and analyses under SEM show that the reset mechanism of Ge center in quartz is most likely attributed to the collisions between quartz grains during the periods of quick transportation of mud-rock flow, besides the bleaching exposed to the sun.
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    大兴安岭森林火灾对沼泽土壤的影响
    刘银良, 阎敏华, 孟宪民, 张文芬
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 378-384,394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.378
    摘要   PDF (2773KB)
    通过对大兴安岭“6·5”森林火灾后沼泽土壤变化的研究表明,火灾对土壤的土体构型、物理性质、化学性质及微生物特征均产生了不同程度的影响,并且有利于沼泽土壤的发生发育.
    In this paper, we have researched the changes of swamp soil after the great fire event occurred on 6 May, 1987 in the Da Hinggan Mountain. It is revealed that the fire had severely effected the soil profile by burning away the organic matter in topsoil. Soil thermal situation has been changed, and soil temperature rise. Soil water content has been altered because the water reservation condition has been changed by the fire. Soil pH and the content of P2O5, K2O, CaO, MgO increase after the fire, on the contrary, the organic matter content and N content decrease, the quantity of microorganism greatly increased after the fire. It is considered that the fire is beneficial to the development and genesis of swamp soil in this area.
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    呼伦贝尔草原区辉河下游芦苇资源研究
    张柏, 孙伯达, 王祁春
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 385-390,394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.385
    摘要   PDF (2505KB)
    利用遥感图象和实测数据相结合的方法,对呼伦贝尔草原区辉河下游芦苇资源的分布及动态进行研究,并提出保护性利用措施,为本区芦苇资源的保护和利用提供基本数据.
    The paper mainly analyses the distribution and change of reed resources in the lower reaches of the Huihe River in Hulun Buir grassland of China on the basis of remote sensing information and specimen spot data. In order to preserve and use effectively reed resources, a proposal is also put forward. 1) Though the area belongs to semi-dry grassland zone, the climate is not suitable to reed growing, which need a lot of water, there are many wetlands caused by the winding course of swamp stream on the smooth grasslands (gradient is about 1:2500), they provide fine natural conditions for reed growing, so that in the wetlands the reed comnunity covers an area of more than 300 km2. 2) The moisture difference, caused by the geomorphologic difference results in the difference of reed growth. The reed there can be divided into three degrees according to the qualitative features (height, major diameter, density), grantiative feature (weight per unit) and remote sensing images (colour, tone, etc.). 3) Compared with the historical data it is shown that the reed in the area has been already degenerated. The major reasons are climatic changes and improper utilization. In order to preserve and use the read resources most properly, it is necessary to build irrigation works and improve production management.
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    生物气候带对土壤中锰的赋存形态及其有效性的影响
    丁维新
    地理科学. 1995, 15 (4): 398-373,394.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1995.04.398
    摘要   PDF (2496KB)
    随着生物气候带由低纬度的热带、亚热带向高纬度的暖温带的过渡,土壤中活性锰的含量与代换态锰随着纬度升高而明显降低,且其存在的形态,南北方土壤迥异.
    The paper deals with the effect of bioclimatic zone on the morphology and availability of manganese in soils of China by using a sequential extraction method. The distribution of manganese in soil fractions varies with bioclimatic zone. The ratios of exchangeable Mn, amorphous iron oxides bound Mn and crystalline iron oxides bound Mn to total Mn in soils in China decrease slowly, however the ratio of Mn oxides to total Mn increases from tropical zone, subtropical zone to warm-temperate zone, temperate zone. the rate of organical bound Mn to total Mn shows another model, i. e. increase from tropical zone to subtropical zone and then decrease from subtropical zone to warm-temperate zone and temperate zone. The variation of available Mn in soils is the same as that of exchangeable Mn. The available Mn in acid soils in South China comes from ex-changeable Mn and organical bound Mn and mainly from Mn oxides and exchangeable Mn in alkaline soils of North Chian.
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