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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1998年, 第18卷, 第5期 刊出日期:1998-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    面向21世纪的我国区域经济地理学科理论体系建设
    陈才, 刘曙光
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 393-400.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.393
    摘要   PDF (870KB)
    通过分析影响我国区域经济地理学理论发展的因素,探讨了区域经济地理学科的研究对象、理论主线、主要分支理论以及学科理论框架等理论建设问题。文章提出劳动地域分工理论和经济地域运动理论同为学科理论基础;阐述了经济地域条件与要素的区别与联系;强调经济地域结构-功能研究与经济地域类型分析评价;在已有经济地域系统类型基础上提出地缘经济地域系统。在学科建设的原则中强调学科间交叉渗透与自主发展并重,指出本学科与区域经济学的联系与区别。文章最后提出学科理论体系建设的对策与措施。
    Through the analysis of the factors influencing the development of regional economic geography as well as the evaluation of the present situation of reional economic geography, the authors of the paper probe into the research object, the fundamental theories, the main sub theories, as well as the theoretical structure of regional economic geography in China in the 21st century. The paper suggests that (1) the theories of territorial division of labor and motion of economic regions are regarded as the fundamental theories of the subject; (2) the conditions and the elements of the economic regions should be both inter-related and distinguished with each other; (3) the study of the structure (i.e, the industrial structure and the spatial structure) and the function of the economic regions, as well as the analysis and evaluation of the economic regional types, should be emphasized; (4) the geo economic regional system should be added to the already existed economic regional systems. In addition, the paper puts forward several principles on the theoretical construction of the subject, in which the relationship of the inter infiltration, inter-competition and the independent development of regional economic geography and other neighboring subjects, especially regional economic geography and regional economics, is stressed on. As a result, the paper advances countermeasures for the construction of the theoretical system of regional economic geography.
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    黄山山地演化与环境变迁
    黄培华, R. F. Diffenal, Jr., 杨明钦, P. E. Helland
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 401-408.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.401
    摘要   PDF (1302KB)

    黄山位于安徽省南部,北纬30°11′,东径118°11′。山体由花岗岩构成,最高峰莲花峰海拔1864m.1990年列入联合国的“世界文化和自然遗产”目录。现已成为世界着名旅游点之一。本文首先对黄山花岗岩浆侵入和黄山山体的形成年代和过程进行了探讨。对黄山老第三纪和新第三纪古地貌及第四纪中山峡谷地貌的演化过程进行了系统的研究。深入研究了黄山自然环境的变化及其发育第四纪山地冰川的可能性,对李四光的“冰川遗址”论点的不确凿之处进行了详细的讨论和分析。对由寒冻风化作用,而不是冰川作用形成的奇峰巧石机制进行了简要的探讨。


    Huangshan (Yellow Mountain) is located in south part of the lower reaches of the Yangtze River, 30°31′N and 118°11′E. It is composed of the Huangshan granite and its highest Lotus Flower Peak is 1864 m above sea level. It is one of the World Natural and Cultural Heritage List by UNESCO in 1990. Intrusive age of the Huangshan granite was dated 120-125 Ma, in Cretaceous. The granitic pluton uplifted and formed granitic mountains in the first episode of Himalayan movement, about 50 Ma. The mountains were eroded a denudation surface with low hills and shallow valley of late mature stage, this erosive stage is called Bright Summit Stage, about 30 Ma, the first dedudation surface at the mountain top is 1600-1800 m above sea level now. The second denudation surface was a lower mountain and wide valleys of mature stage after the second episode of Himalayan movement (about 20 Ma). The formation stage of the second denudation surface is called Old Man Peak Stage, about 5 Ma. Its height is 1100-1500 m above sea level now. The Huangshan granitic pluton with its first and second paleo denudation surfaces was uplifted by the Late Himalayan Movement along the mountain front fault zones in the Quaternary. It was eroded by streams to form deep canyons and middle mountains at present. The piedmont belt of Huangshan was a humid forest environment of subtropics in the Middle Pleistocene. At valley mouth of the southeastern piedmont belt distribute some pluvial fans which consist of red boulder clay in the Middle Pleistocene. The top of Huangshan was a cold frozen active environment in the last cold stage of the Late Pleistocene, the stage corresponded to the last Dali glaciation in western China, about 20 ka. The granitic mass of the mountain top part was degradeted and dilapidated along joints and crevices due to frost work, not glaciation, and formed beautiful peaks and fascinating rocks. Porf. Lee has proposed that the “confirmatory evidence of Pleistocene glaciation from Huangshan” is questionable and the “glacial evidence” is also discussed in this paper.

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    乡村工业化对中国乡村城市转型的影响
    苗长虹
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 409-417.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.409
    摘要   PDF (893KB)
    本文从“乡村空间变化”的观点出发,分析了乡村工业化对新乡村经济空间、新乡村社会空间和新乡村地理空间形成和发展的影响,探讨了乡村工业化与乡村城市转型的区域不平衡性,提出了中国乡村城市转型过程中几个应重视和研究的问题。
    Since the 1980s, rural urban transition has become one of the most important aspects in China’s fast transformation from traditional to modern modes.From the perspective of changes of rural spaces,this paper examines the special background of the simultaneous transformations of the social economic structures and the economic system. After an introduction to the issue of rural-urban transition in rural urban continuum,a historical overview of the transformations of China’s rural spaces in economic,social and geographical structures is presented. This is followed by an analysis of regional uneven development among provinces in rural industrialization and rural-urban transitions. It is concluded that the fast industrialization of rural areas has brought on many radical transformations of rural spaces in China.This has had serious consequences for the formation of China’s new rural spaces, especially in the change of economic social structures and the development of Rurbans and "desakota" regions,and especially in the eastern coastal developed areas. However, some problems and negative effects, such as the uneven transition in economic,social and geographical space and uneven development among the eastern,middle and western zones,should be weighed.
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    城乡交错带人地系统的特征及其演变机制分析
    陈佑启, 武伟
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 418-424.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.418
    摘要   PDF (611KB)
    城乡交错带位于城市与乡村交互作用的地带,是我国21世纪人地关系最为紧张的地区。从区域的角度,揭示城乡交错带人地关系地域系统的特征,分析其动态演变机制,对该地区合理开发利用资源,协调人地矛盾,实现社会经济的可持续发展具有指导意义。
    Urban rural interlocking belt will be of the most serious relationship between man and land in the next century. In a geographic view, this article analyzes the characteristics and dynamics of man land system in the urban-rural interlocking belt, which will be instructive to the rational development of resources, coordination of human and environment, and implementation of social and economic sustainable development in this area.
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    中小城市用地扩展中节约用地措施的探索——以东南沿海地区为例
    陈爽, 姚士谋
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 425-432.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.425
    摘要   PDF (929KB)
    中小城市将是我国挖掘城市用地潜力的主要对象,而节约用地的主要措施在于对土地的统筹安排,包括调整城市现有用地结构、倡导综合性土地开发、强化城市土地利用规划等方面。
    In the initial period of industrialization a great deal of land is needed for Chinese industrial development, land resource per capita of China is much lower than the average value in the world, thus it is absolutely necessary to save land in Chinese urban construction. This paper mainly discusseds the features of urban land use in medium sized and small cities: one is that the index of urban land per capita is higher than large cities; another is that urban land has not been used highly and strongly; the third is that the industrial land occupieds an irrationally large percentage of whole urban land; the fourth is that little town enterprises took up a quantity of land. Thereafter, this paper puts forward five land saving measures: the first is, to adopt the idea of saving land; the second is to regulate the structure of urban land use; the third is to develop land comprehensively; the fourth is to improve rules and regulation of using land by payment; and the last is to enhance urban land use planning.
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    南京汤山猿人生存古环境重建探讨
    朱诚, 张建新, 俞锦标
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 433-441.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.433
    摘要   PDF (903KB)
    由铀系法测定的5组化石年代数据表明,南京汤山猿人年代为280~430kaB.P.之间;以剑齿象、李氏野猪、肿骨鹿、葛氏斑鹿、三门马等为主的古动物群化石,证实了南京猿人生活在中更新世中期偏晚,距今约350ka左右。鉴定的孢粉主要为喜暖湿、暖干的落叶阔叶与针叶及蕨类混交林以及偏干凉的(松)针叶林,既未发现反映寒冷的云杉、冷杉,也未发现反映干旱的黄连木,表明本区猿人生存时并未经历中更新世冰期时的冰川环境和明显的干旱环境,其生存环境比周口店猿人生境要温和湿润得多。本区猿人用火和制作石器的方式尚有待对葫芦洞大厅坡积体的彻底发掘才能最后了解。
    Five group date of the fossil by Uranium series age method shows that the age of the Nanjing Ape Man is between 280-430 ka B.P. Combining with the analysis of fossil mammalian from Stegodon, Sus. lydekeri Zdansky, M. pachyosteus Young, P. grayi Zdansky, and E. sanmeniensis Teilhard et Piveteau, etc. which are located in the same stratum, the authors think that the Nanjing Ape Man should be lived in the late Middle Pleistocene (about 350 ka B.P.). Based upon the spores and pollen in the cave sediments of the area, we can find that most of spores and pollen are subtropical and warm temperate types, for instance, broad leaved trees which are fond of warm climate include Pterocarya, Alnus, Betula, Quercus, Juglans, Salix, Liquidambar and Ulmus; coniferous trees which are also fond of warm climate include Cunninghamia, Tsuga and Pinus, as well as Morus, Carpinus and Ptendium. Among of above spores and pollen, all of Tsuga, Liquidambar, Betula, Ulmus and Salix are the remainders of Humid hot environment from Tertiary period. Above evidences illustrate that the living environment of the Nanjing Ape Man not only was not colder, but also was not drier than Peking Man’s. It can be said that the spores and pollen of the cave sediments in the region does not show a glacial environmentin, the ice age of the Middle Pleistocene didn’t undergo the area. As for the manner of the Ape Man’s making stone artifact and using fire, because now we have not found the evidence of the stone artifact and the ash, therefore, the further excavation to the talus of the Huludong cave should be needed.
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    我国境外旅游本底趋势线的建立及科学意义
    孙根年
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 442-448.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.442
    摘要   PDF (1207KB)
    提出了旅游本底趋势线的概念,依据1978~1996年共计19年境外客流量统计数据,经过“滤波”订正,建立了外国人、港澳台胞、华桥及境外客流总量4条本底趋势线;利用旅游本底趋势线“晴雨表”功能说明‘89风波对我国境外旅游业的影响,利用预测功能预估了未来4年我国境外旅游业的发展趋势。
    The conception of tourist background trend line is put forward in this paper. Based on the statistic data of tourists from abroad from 1978 to 1996, by inner insertion method and eliminated the major interference, 4 tourist background trend lines were founded by optimization simulated method. They are tourists from foreign countries, tourists from Hongkang, Macao and Taiwan, tourists who are overseas Chinese and total number of above three. Two scientific functions of tourist background trend ine are discovered: (1) Compared with statistic line, it indicates the rise and fall of tourism just as tourism barometer. (2) The extension of the line can predict the future. As applications, this paper with two functions above, explained the concave curve induced in 89’s politic wave and forecasts the next 4-year development trends of tourists from abroad in China.
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    区域城镇土地价格体系研究——南京市域城镇案例分析
    陈浮, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 449-456.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.449
    摘要   PDF (973KB)
    建立了区域城镇土地类(型)、等(级)、级(别)和基准地价、宗地地价、商业路线价的城镇土地价格体系,为区域城镇土地管理工作提供了科学依据,并在南京市域城镇土地定级估价工作中得到了较好的实践。
    In this paper the urban land price system of a certain region is set up. The system includes the categories, grades and ranks of land and the datum land price, parcel price, commercial street price. This work provides a scientific basis of the land management of different levels for a certain region. This theory has been used with the land grading and appraising of the towns in Nanjing region, and has comparatively good theoretical and practical research significance to deepening the reform of the land use-with-compensation system of China, establishing the reasonable land market, and making the land resource a property.
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    长白山岳桦林化学元素生物地球化学分析
    刘景双, 朱颜明, 黄锡畴, 于君宝, 孙雪利
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 457-462.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.457
    摘要   PDF (561KB)
    从化学元素生物学和地球化学分类的角度,分析了大量营养元素、必需微量元素、可能必需元素、非必需元素和有毒元素在岳桦(Betula ermani)体内的含量特征和变化规律。结果表明:大量营养元素在岳桦体内的含量高于其它几类元素的含量;在新陈代谢旺盛的叶片中各类型元素含量均高于其它器官;化学性质和地球化学性质相近、生物学功能相似的大量营养元素和必需微量元素在岳桦不同器官中的含量变化具有相似的规律;其它三种类型的元素变化无规律可循,表明植物所必需的元素在植物体内的变化是按一定规律进行的;在不受人为因素干扰的情况下,它们之间处于相对平衡状态。
    Based on catalogue of biology and geochemistry of chemical elements, content character and variation law of the large nutrient elements, the needful trace elements, the uncertain needful elements, the non-needful elements and the toxic elements in Betula ermanii are analyzed. The result shows that the content of the large nutrient elements in Betula ermanii is higher than that of others; all kinds of elements content in foliage of vigorous metabolism is higher than that of other parts; the content variation of large nutrient elements and the needful trace elements with similar chemical property, geochemical property and biological function in different parts of Betula ermanii shows the similar law; but the other three kinds of elements variation is not, it is indicated that the variation of the needful elements in the plants follows a certain law, they are in relative equilibrium under undisturbed condition.
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    综述
    全球气候变化对自然土壤碳、氮循环的影响
    张金屯
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 463-471.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.463
    摘要   PDF (993KB)
    大气中的温室气体浓度在不断升高,近年来增加速度加快,预计2030年CO2浓度将加倍,这将引起全球气候变化,即地球表面温度升高,全球平均降水增加,但变化幅度区域差异显着。气候变化对土壤系统产生重要影响,土壤碳库和碳流将发生显着变化;土壤释放CO2和CH4的量明显增加;有机质分解加快;土壤N流失加快;土壤生物多样性会受影响。
    Atmospheric concentration of green-house gases has increased over the last century with the warmest years in the last decade. Green house gases include CO2, CH4, N2O and CFCs (Chlorofluorohydrocarbons), among which CO2 is the highest in concentration and has the greatest role in green house effects. It was predicted that the CO2 concentration will be doubled in 2030. This will result in global climate change. The five General Circulation Models, UKMO (UK Meteorological Office) models, GISS (Goddar Institute of Space Studies) model, NCAR (National Center for Atmospheric Research) model, GFDL (Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Lab) model and OSU (Oregen State University) model, provided identical predictions——global mean surface warming and global mean precipitation increase. Climate change will be uneven and poleward. The effects of global climate change on natural soils are obvious. Zonal vegetation and soils will move their boundaries toward the north and will change their areas. The south boundary of permanent zone will move 250-300km toward the north if temperature goes up two degrees. The boreal forests and tundra will move 37% and 32% respectively towards the north, and their areas will decrease obviously. The areas of temperate forests and steppe will increase correspondingly. This will influence soil C pool and C fluxes. Emission of CO2 from soils may increase due to surface warming, and respiration increase because temperature and soil water may affect mineralization and respiration of soils. Similar to CO2, the emission of CH 4 from soils may increase as well. Soils may get more organic matters from vegetation due to increasing of vegetation productivity, but decomposition of soil organic matter and litter will speed up because of increasing of soil temperature. Therefore the total C in soils will reduce. Similar to C, more soil N will lose and the total N will decrease as well. This will have effects on soil fertility and will further affect the productivity of natural soils. Soil biodiversity might be also influenced by climate change. This paper mainly reviews the research development of the relationships between the global climate change and the natural soils. Scientists need to pay more attention to the study on effects of climate change on natural soil systems in the future.
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    景观生态结构与生物多样性保护
    周华锋, 傅伯杰
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 472-478.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.472
    摘要   PDF (676KB)
    论述了景观结构及干扰对生物多样性的影响,景观结构主要考虑斑块大小、形状、边缘、廊道这些景观要素,干扰主要指人类干扰;阐明了这些要素对生物多样性的影响及在生物多样性保护中的意义。为指导保护区设计、物种管理及土地开发提供科学依据。
    Biodiversity is very important natural resource. It is our human beings’ material base for survival. The protection of biodiversity has been paid more and more attention to. How to protect biodiversity is a key research issue to ecologists. In this paper, we discussed protecting biodiversity from a landscape ecology prospective. Four landscape factors, patch, edge, corridor and disturbance are selected to discuss their relations with biodiversity. It has a great significance to understand and apply these relations. It will provide us with a powerful tool for reserve designing, species managing and land use planning.
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    研究报道
    内蒙古中西部地区全新世大暖期气候与环境初步研究
    杨志荣
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 479-485.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.479
    摘要   PDF (712KB)
    以大青山调角海子剖面的孢粉和地球化学分析资料为依据,结合邻区古土壤序列、湖泊演化及考古研究资料,阐明内蒙古中西部地区全新世气候最适宜期始于9250aB.P.左右,结束于4000aB.P.前后;6330aB.P.前后出现大暖期植被与气候变化的重要转折;6850~6330aB.P.为全新世气候最适宜期的鼎盛期,当时调角海子地区植被为针阔叶混交林,气温比现在高2~3℃,降水量至少高于现代150~200mm.
    According to the sporo pollen and chemical analysis of Diaojiaohaizi section on the top of Daqing Mountain, refering to paleosoil, lake evolutions and archaeological materials in the nearby regions, this paper inquires into the climate and environment during the megathermal period of the Holocene in middle west Inner Mongolia. This study reveals that: (1) the megathermal period of the Holocene started in 9400 a B.P. and ended in 3800 a B.P., however the climatic Optimum of the Holocene marked by humidity started in 9250 a B.P. and ended in 4000 a B.P.; (2) the megathermal period was divided into two parts by 6330 a B.P., the climate of the early part was temperate and wet, yet the climate of the late part was relatively warm and dry. (3) 6850-6330 a B.P. is a climatic super period of the megathermal and the Optimum of the Holocene when temperature was 2-3℃ higher and precipitation was at least 150-200 mm more than those of present, and the vegetation was coniferous and declduous broad leaved mixed forest.
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    根据冲积物孢粉恢复冀北山地古植被的意义
    许清海, 阳小兰
    地理科学. 1998, 18 (5): 486-492.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1998.05.486
    摘要   PDF (641KB)
    冲积物是第四纪孢粉分析经常遇到的研究对象。冲积物孢粉研究表明,晚全新世以来,人类活动是影响冀北山地植被演变的主要因素。人类活动对白河流域森林植被的破坏可能较早;对潮河流域森林植被的破坏较晚。
    Alluvial sediments are frequently used in Quaternary pollen studies. There are obviously differences in pollen deposition and sedimentation between alluvial pollen and lacustrine and peat pollen. There were no great changes in vegetation types in northern mountain area of Hebei Province since the Late Holocene. The major factor is that mankind caused the vegetation change. It was probable that human destroyed the forest vegetation earlier in the Baihe River drainage. The vegetation cover at the time of 2400 a B.P. was similar to that of the present . The forest vegetation was destroyed later in the Caohe River drainage, with higher forest cover (about 40-50%) than that of present at the beginning of the Late Holocene. After about 1200 a B.P., forest vegetation destroyed seriously and changed into that of the present quickly by the increasingly influences of the human activities.
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