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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2003年, 第23卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2003-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    东北地区智力资源开发与区域竞争力
    张平宇, 赵艳霞, 马延吉
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 513-518.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.513
    摘要   PDF (577KB)
    经过几十年的高强度开发利用,东北地区传统意义上的自然资源优势日趋丧失,区域竞争力下降。面对新世纪的机遇和挑战,东北地区应把智力资源开发作为提升区域竞争力的战略对策之一。该区智力资源的比较优势是总量大,质量高,科研院所和大中专院校聚集,科技进步基础处于全国前列。智力资源开发现存的突出问题是科技经费不足,投入结构不合理,企业未能成为研究与开发(R&D)的主体,科技体制改革落后,科技意识有待进一步提高。东北地区智力资源开发存在巨大潜力,但也存在明显的区域差异。采用层次分析法的评价结果表明,智力资源开发潜力分5个等级。基于智力资源的开发潜力,东北地区可在如下4个方面提升区域竞争力,即加快改造传统工业优势部门,大力发展高新技术产业;依靠科技提高农业竞争力;把东北地区建设成中国科研和高等教育基地之一;积极发展城市服务业,增强城市综合经济实力。东北地区智力资源开发应采取综合性对策,迫切需要在体制、投资、人才政策和管理等方面取得突破。
    Intellectual resources is a key factor of the regional competitiveness as well as the object which a city or region competes for.Therefore, the development of regional intellectual resources plays a much important role in improving regional competitiveness in the coming of knowledge-based economy.After several decades of high intensive exploitation, Northeast China lost its traditional advantages of nature resources, the regional competitiveness decreased in recent years.In the face of the new challenge and opportunity of the 21st century, this area needs to develop regional intellectual resources, which is a strategic policy for improving regional competitiveness.Northeast China is rich of high quality intellectual resources compared with most central and western China areas.There are 2.07 million skilled personnel in state-owned sectors and 140 colleges and universities, which respectively occupy higher percentage of 9.91%and 13.70% of the whole nation, in contrast to 8.39% of the total population of China.Moreover the substantial factors for science progress surpass most areas of the country, and the indices for assessing regional intellectual resources rank ahead the like.However this region is lack of investment in education and technology development in recent decade, and the investment structure is not rational.The enterprises have not become the main players for investing R&D, the system reform of science and technology still has a long way to go.Anyway it is true that there is a huge potential for developing intellectual resources, yet the intellectual resources differentiate unevenly in this region.Furthermore this study makes an assessment on the intellectual resources development potential in this region by the method of AHP.33 sample areas are rated to 5 level groups.Based on the regional intellectual resources potential, the paper addresses 4 aspects for upgrading regional competitiveness.The first is to reconstruct old industrial sectors paralleling with hi-tech industry development, the second is to improve agricultural competitiveness; the third is to develop this area to be one of key scientific research and high education base for the country; the fourth is to strengthen urban economic competitiveness by reviving service industries.In this regard, Northeast China needs to establish comprehensive polices dealing with intellectual resources, and to make breakthrough in system, investment, human capital policy and management etc.
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    中国航空客运网络的空间演化模式研究
    王法辉, 金凤君, 曾光
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 519-525.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.519
    摘要   PDF (672KB)
    利用定量模型分析的方法,从经济转型期航空运输发展的驱动力、地域非均衡性、民航客运网络演化三方面对1980~1998年中国航空运输体系发展特征进行了分析。结果显示,经过20多年的发展,中国航空运输网络以及服务的地域范围得到了显著改善,平均每个机场服务的空间半径缩短了27%,旅客的平均旅行距离下降了17%;由于沿海地区社会经济的快速发展,中国航空体系的空间重心向东南偏移;层次分明的航空客运网络结构逐步形成;通过对经济发展与航空运输发展间关系的统计分析表明,中国经济每增长1%,则航空运量增长1.72%。航空运输的发展将在中国社会经济空间结构调整中发挥越来越重要作用。
    This research analyzed the geographic patterns of domestic air passenger transport in China from 1980 to 1998, with three focuses:(1) impacts of economic reforms with transforming towards a free market economy, (2) regional inequality in air transport development, and (3) network development.During the study period, 1% growth in GDP corresponded to 1.62% growth in air passengers.Accessibility to air transport improved significantly as China expanded its air transport system.Major airports dominated China's air passenger transport, but such dominance declined as medium and small airports gained higher shares.Cities of non-political centers also gained more grounds, reflecting the impact of China's transformation from a central-planned to a free market economy.The centroid of air passengers migrated towards southeast, consistent with the movement of economic centroid as economies in coastal areas grew faster.The average air travel distance in China dropped from 1,342 km in 1985 to 1,114 km in 1998 as airlines expanded the business to medium-distance travelers.The rule of distance decay in air traffic was more applicable to China in 1998 than in 1985 as the market economy worked its way into China's air transport market.For various reasons, cities in the East and West Regions enjoyed faster development in air transport than the Middle, displaying an interesting "flyover effect".
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    城市体系时空演化的广义维数分析——刻划城市资源分享空间的理论基础、计算方法与应用实例
    陈彦光, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 526-534.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.526
    摘要   PDF (817KB)
    根据城市组成元素和城市体系构成要素的异速生长性质发展了一套城市体系时空演化的广义维数分析方法。只要城市和城市体系满足异速生长或准异速生长关系,就可以据之建立基于广义维数比值的分享系数矩阵,通过矩阵的特征向量计算出城市元素和各个城市在某种测度下的相对发展速度权重,进而利用先前的结果算出综合权重数值。将有关数值予以适当的处理可以揭示城市体系时空演化的复杂动态,从而借之实现城市体系的功能调控和结构优化。本方法的数学处理过程与Saaty的递阶分析方法(AHP)异曲同工,但其理论前提、建模技巧和应用方向等等都与后者具有严格的本质性区别。
    A new approach to analyzing the process of spatial-temporal evolution of urban systems was proposed in the paper using the ideas from generalized fractals as well as analytical hierarchical process.Defining an urban dynamic system as dxi/dt=fl(x1,x2,...,xn), we can derive an equation of allometric growth,xi∝xaijj, from which a generalized fractal-dimension equation is found as aij=ai/aj=Di/Dj, where the scale factor αij is called allometric coefficient, or share coefficient by ecologists,ai and aj the relative growth ratios of xi and xj, and Di and Dj the generalized dimension of the elements reflected by measurements xi and xj.Then a share coefficient matrix can be made as M=[αij]n×n=[αi/αj]n×n, which gives MD=nD by multiplying the vector D=[Di] on the left side (i,j=1,2,...,n).Obviously, M is a symmetric matrix since αii=1, αij=1/αji, and αijisjs.D is an eigenvector and the largest eigenvalue λmax=n .Now that both cities as systems and systems of cities are conformable to the law of allometric growth, that is, we can use the power equation given above to characterize the allometric relationships of urban elements such as urban area and population, or to describe the interactive relation between city A and city B based on some measurements such as population size, thus an analytical hierarchical process can be developed to study the spatial-temporal structure of systems of cities and towns.Supposing an urban system with n cities each of which comprises m elements such as population, land, transport network, etc., then according to the measurement related to the kth element, we have a share coefficient matrix of the urban system that yields an eigenvector as follows, Ak=[Wki]1*n(i=1,2,...,n;k=1,2,...,m), thus we can obtain a matrix W=[AkT]n*m=[Wik]n*m; as for the power relationships of different elements, similarly, we can gain a eigenvector B=[Wk]1*m from the share coefficient matrix related; therefore, the share space of different cities can be defined by Sf=ABT=[Wik]n*m[Wk]T1*m=[<Wik·Wk>]n*1, where <.> denotes dot product.The relationship by mathematical marriage is easy to be found between the analytical hierarchical process (AHP) developed by T.L.Saaty and the generalized dimension analysis (GNA) advanced by the authors of this paper, but they are very different at underlying rationale, practical fields, analytical purposes, and some other aspects.GNA is used to deal with the complex geographical systems with multi-elements, multi-classes, multi-variables, uniting cities as systems and systems of cities, temporal dimension as evolution and spatial dimension as interaction.The conclusions of analyses includes both characteristic values reflecting each single element or city and those illustrating the systematic regularity by synthesizing the different parts of the calculated results.Though the share coefficients can only reveal the relative superiority by one-to-one comparison of elements or measurements, but it is not difficult for us to transform the results into another kinds of vectors to show the absolute superiority of each cities or towns.However, where plan or optimization is concerned, the comparative superiority analysis is more important since it's just the ratio of generalized dimension that show us how to improve the structure and function of studied geographical systems.As a case, GNA is applied to analyzing Hangzhou urban systems with eight cities and towns (n=8), two variables being taken to reflect population and industrial output respectively (i.e.m=2).In the context the spatial-emporal regularity of studied system is illustrating while demonstrating how to utilize the new methods, which provides a typical example of GNA for others' imitation or reference in following practice or researches.
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    城市物流园区及配送中心布局规划研究——以大连市物流园区建设规划为例
    韩增林, 李亚军, 王利
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 535-541.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.535
    摘要   PDF (657KB)
    在分析以物流园区为核心的物流空间节点体系的关系及其功能基础上。结合实证研究,分析了城市物流园区形成和发展的因素,探讨了城市物流园区规划的指导思想和原则。最后,对大连市综合物流园区、专业物流中心及配送节点的布局规划加以论证。
    In China, more and more attention has been paid to logistics.Putting logistics as their supporting industry to economy development,many areas are making logistics development programming.Rational layout of logistics nodes,on the one hand is essence guarantee for realization of logistics profits,on the other hand is one of the most important keys of making the planning of logistics.At first the paper explained the distinguish of the meanings of Logistics base, Distribution park, Special logistics center, Distribution node,at the same time discussed the relationship about the logistics spacial nodes system of Distribution parks,and concluded the main functions of the Logistics park.Based on the proved research, we analysed the affecting factors of the forming and development of Distribution parks farther,which including the factors of market, government policy,and geographical environment.In the third sector the paper emphasized what is the basic idea of logistics planning.One of the purposes of modern logistics is how to realize the goods quickly move.For that purpose the building of Distribution park is helping to join the demander and the supplyer effectively and combine all kinds of transport,such as multimdal transport, container transport.The directions and principles of planning of Distribution park were brought forward in this place.The last part of this paper was aimed to take Dalian as an example for the layout and planning of the Distribution park, Special logistics center and Distribution node .The basic mode of Dalian Distribution park isThree Lays Structure:"Integrate Distribution park―Special logistics center―Distribution node".According to the relative data of planning of Distribution parks, important traffic hinges, wholesale commerce centers, warehouse position from different trades and areas in Dalian,we selected sixteen sites as objects of planning and analysed the affecting factors to each site.Through the method of Delphi the order of affecting factors was gained in percent style.Then we calculated the integrate scores of every site and through scores,we can compared the level, status, function of every site and gained six sites as main Distribution park at last.After selecting Distribution park,we choiced the suited sites as Special logistics centers according to the economy condition of Dalian,such as some special logistics center about crop, lumber, aquatic product, petroleum and so on.Distribute node belongs to either Distribution park or Special logistics center.The purpose of setting it is to improving the speed of quick reply.The third level—Distribute nodes are divided into four kinds:the service object is the living of residenter and the office work of government, corporation or other oganizations(BtoC); the service object is productive activity of industry (BtoB); the service object is business activity including wholesale, retail and terminal market (BtoB);the service object is productive activity of agriculture (BtoC).
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    产业集群与日本区域经济发展及其对中国东北区的启示
    杨晓慧
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 542-546.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.542
    摘要   PDF (2466KB)
    分析了日本区域经济发展的基本态势,得出日本区域经济仍具有非均衡发展的特点,用传统经济地理学对日本区域经济非均衡发展作出了解释;然后运用新经济地理学的产业集群理论,分析了日本产业集群的发展特点,探讨了产业集群的发展机制,提出了日本产业集群的发展状况与区域经济非均衡发展关系十分密切的结论。最后,从培育产业集群的角度,探讨了促进中国东北区产业集群发展,推动东北区区域经济发展的途径。
    Although Japan is a small and developed country, its regional economic uneven development is not changed.Taking Location Theory as theoretical basis, traditional economic geography mainly explained the reasons of regional uneven development of Japan by analyzing the regional difference of some external factors, such as geographical locality, physical condition and resource, population distribution, market location, and so on, and it is still feeble in making the inner reasons clear.The author tries to strengthen the weakness of traditional economic geography in analyzing regional uneven development of Japan.In this paper, the author analyzed the basic situation of unevenly regional economic development in Japan firstly; then stated the main theoretical viewpoint of traditional economic geography and its explanation on the regional structure of uneven development in Japan; finally, using industrial clustering theory of new economic geography, the author analyzed the characteristics of Japanese industrial clusters development and the relation between them and regional economic development, basing on that the author concluded that the relationship between the situation of industrial clusters development and the regional economic development was closed:the number of castle town-style industrial districts was biggest in Japan, and these industrial districts played an important role in regional economic development in the past, their development used to be the main reason of forming the regional differences, such as income per capita, population density and economic density.But in the age of economic globalization, these industrial districts made the phenomena of "hollowing out" appear because the rapid growth of FDI of the big companies in it which resulted to decline its subcontractors of small and medium-sized enterprises and slow the growth of the related regions.Comparatively, the traditional production districts and urban industrial districts composed of small and medium-sized enterprises did not hollow out in the age of economic globalization and maintained growing to facilitat the development of the related regions.On the basis of the theoretical and practical study on the influence of industrial cluster on regional economy, this paper discusses the measures of promoting the industrial cluster development consequently to pull the economic development in Northeast China.
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    旅游中心地研究及其规划应用
    柴彦威, 林涛, 刘志林, 曹艺民
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 547-553.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.547
    摘要   PDF (752KB)
    在对已有旅游中心地相关研究回顾的基础上,探讨了旅游中心地的概念与界定方法,分析了旅游中心地理论在旅游空间规划中的指导意义,并以吉林省旅游发展总体规划为例,介绍如何将旅游中心地的理论运用到实际的旅游规划当中。
    Inspired by the rapid development of tourism industry in China since the late 1980s, studies on tourism planning and related theories have been becoming a major topic in planning, geography and economics.Considering the tight relationship and active interaction of tourism industry and urban development as well as urban system spatial structure, regional central places, viz.a variety of cities, assume an increasingly important role in tourism development, which is characterized by their concentration and transference function of tourist, capital and information.These centers are defined as tourism central places concerning the tourism services provided by them, such as transport for the tourists, accommodation, tourism management, tourism information services, and so on.Among the functions provided by a certain regional center, the tourist services are more and more important because of the expansion of the regional tourism while the centrality of tourism central places are more and more evident.Furthermore, all the regional tourism central places form the hierarchical structures of function, dimension and space.Higher-level tourism centers offer more functions and normally have better establishments, better circumstances and even larger population size.Also, higher-level tourist centers occur less frequently, are spaced more widely apart, and serve larger tourist areas.This article tried a creative research with both theoretical and practical perspective by focusing on the concept of tourism central places.Theoretically, a review as well as criticism of previous studies on related theories of tourism central place was briefly represented at first.Then an attempt at a new theoretical construction of tourism central place analysis was made, following an explicit definition of the concept range of tourism central place including the methodologies to analyze tourism centrality of the cities, which describes the relationship between the number, size, and distribution of tourism central places.Practically, we applied the theory to the analysis of the tourism spatial structure of Jilin Province, constituting a central part of the Tourism Development Planning of Jilin Province.By this case study, we learned that the application of the concept of tourism central places is important to comprehend the regional tourism spatial structure.Totally, this study definitely revealed that tourism central places exert an important influence on regional tourism development and should be among the key topics of tourism planning.
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    关中地区全新世大暖期的土壤与气候变迁
    赵景波
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 554-559.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.554
    摘要   PDF (2767KB)
    资料表明,关中地区全新世大暖期土壤中的CaCO3受到了明显淋溶,部分土壤的CaCO3淀积层脱离了粘化层,发育了淋溶性土壤所特有的风化淋滤母质层;该层土壤发生了明显的化学粘化作用,并有Fe2O3和 Al2O3形成以及亚热带土壤所具有的淀积型红色光性粘土胶膜发育;粘土胶膜含量明显大于淋溶褐土而与黄棕壤接近。由此得出,全新世中期成壤作用比现今显著强,土壤应为发育弱的黄棕壤,当时气候比今明显暖湿;在全新世中期,来自东南的夏季降水气团能够较频繁地到达该区,秦岭已失去温带与亚热带气候分界线的作用,其南北两侧均为亚热带气候。
    Based on the investigation of the Holocene soil in the Guanzhong area and data of the appraisal of soil microstructure from optical microscope and electronic microscope and chemical analysis, the subdivision of soil profile, soil type developed in the Holocene Megathermal were studied in the paper.The investigation shows that Holocene soil profile generally consists of organic horizon (A), clay grouting horizon(Bts) and illuvial horizon of CaCO3(Ck), but some of soil profiles consist of organic horizon, clay grouting horizon, weathering-leaching parent loess horizon(Cl) which only occurs in leaching soil and illuvial horizon of CaCO3.The analysis of CaCO3 shows that CaCO3 content is low in clay grouting horizon and weathering-leaching parent loess horizon in the Holocene soil, and generally is less than 0.8%, which indicats a stronger leaching process during the formation of the soil.The content difference of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 from the upper to the lower of the Holocene soil profile is 1.0% and 0.7% respectively, indicating the formation of Al2O3 and Fe2O3 in soil formation process and a stronger chemical weathering process.There is reddish brown illuvial clay films, which is a characteristic of leaching soil, about from 5% to 10% in the middle of clay grouting horizon in the Holocene soil, and its content is more than luvic cinnamon soil and is close to weakly developing subtropical yellow-brown earth.Clay content in clay grouting horizon is from 38% to 58.6%, and in the weathering-leaching loess horizon is from 32.3% to 40.7%, which is higher than that in unweathering loess horizon and is a result produced by stronger clay grouting.The appraisal from electronic microscope shows that transparent clay film in the Holocene soil was mostly composed of secondary clay mineral micro-crystals, and the micro-crystals was ranged directionally, which is the reason why clay films posses optical character that like a crystal.By x-ray diffraction, it is known that mineral of mixed layer of illite and askanite is dominant in micro-crystals in clay films.Based on above data, the soil in the Middle Holocene was leaching soil, and soil formation action was stronger at that time than at present, soil type should be weakly developed subtropical yellow-brown earth, the climate was obviously warmer and wetter at that time than at present; in the Middle Holocene, air masses bearing water in summer coming from southeast sea can frequently reached the area,and the Qinling Mountains had lost the function as the boundary between temperate zone and subtropical zone, and two sides of the Qinling Mountains both were subtropical climate.
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    南极伊利莎白公主地250年来海、陆盐离子浓度特征
    张明军, 任贾文, 效存德, 李忠勤, 秦大河, 康建成, 李军
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 560-563.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.560
    摘要   PDF (344KB)
    中国首次南极内陆冰盖考察获得的50m冰芯的雪冰化学资料研究表明:南极伊利莎白公主地海盐离子浓度季节变化特征明显,为冰芯定年提供了可靠的依据。伊利莎白公主地雪冰中Cl-、Na+和Mg2+等海盐离子浓度与南极冰盖其它地方相当,而Ca2+含量异常的高,可能与局地较强的陆地源有关。近150年来,伊利莎白公主地海盐离子浓度具有明显升高的趋势,可能是整个南半球100多年来升温的结果。
    A 50m firn core drilled in Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica, during the 1996/1997 Chinese First Antarctic Inland Expedition, has been measured for major ions.Based on the high quality of the seasonal variations of major ions, the firn core was dated with errors within ?3 years.The 51.85 m firn core record extends for 251 years (A.D.1745-1996).The results of the glaciochemistry data of the firn core show that the mean concentrations of Cl-, Na+ and Mg2+ are similar to those reported from other coastal areas in East Antarctica.However, mean concentrations of Ca2+ are much higher than those reported from other regions, this anomaly phenomenon may be related to the strong local terrestrial sources.It is found that the variations of three kinds of sea salt ions (Cl-, Na+ and Mg2+) in the past 150 years show very similarly rising trends, which may be the results the Southern Hemisphere warming in the past century.
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    东北地区植被分布全球气候变化区域响应
    吴正方, 靳英华, 刘吉平, 商丽娜, 赵东升
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 564-570.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.564
    摘要   PDF (2665KB)
    根据东北地区生态气候环境和生物地理规律对Holdridge生命地带分类系统进行修正,将东北地区植被分为寒温带湿润森林、寒温带潮湿森林、温带湿润森林、暖温带湿润森林、温带半湿润森林草甸草原、温带半湿润草甸草原、温带半干旱典型草原、暖温带半湿润草甸草原和暖温带半干旱典型草原等9 个生命地带并分析了其空间分布特征。运用大气环流模式分析东北地区由于温室气体增加导致的气候变化趋势。以此为基础评价东北地区植被分布的区域响应。全球气候变暖情景下,东北地区暖温带和温带范围明显扩大,而寒温带范围缩小甚至退出东北地区,植被分布界限显著北移;同时湿润区面积减少半湿润区和半干旱区扩大,导致森林面积缩小草原面积扩大。
    In recent years, IPCC emphasizes the assessment of regional responses to global climate change, and tries to understand the climate change impacts on regional/global scales and to make mitigation adaptation.Northeast China in temperate monsoon climate is the vulnerable and sensitive area of climate change.The impact of global climate change on the vegetation in Northeast China is an important researching field.By using GCMs scenarios, the regional assessment of vegetation distribution response to climate change has been done.According to the characteristics of eco-climate and bio-geography in Northeast China, some index limits of Holdridge life zone classification system are modified.Based on bio-temperature (BT) and potential evapotranspiration ratio (PER, determined by Thornthwaite model), Northeast China climate are classified as 3 thermal zones, i.e.cold temperate zone(BT<6℃), temperate zone (6℃≤BT<9.8℃) and warm temperate zone(BT≥9.8℃).And 4 humid types i.e.moist type (PER≤0.75), humid type (PER≤1), semi-humid type (11.25).And then taking annual precipitation(P, mm) into account we divide Northeast China vegetation into 9 life zones, i.e.Cold temperate moist forests, Cold temperate humid forests, Temperate humid forests, Warm temperate humid forests, Temperate semi-humid forests/meadow, Temperate semi-humid meadow prairie, Temperate semi-arid prairie, Warm temperate semi-humid meadow prairie and Warm temperate semi-arid prairie.General Circulation Models(GCMs) simulates climate warming scenarios induced by the anthropogenic Green-House Gases(GHGs) concentration increasing in atmosphere.For Northeast China, the analysis indicate that under CO2 concentration doubling annual mean temperature increase by 3℃-4℃ and precipitation by 9%-12%, but the potential evapotranspiration increase much more than precipitation increment because of temperature increasing.Thus regional scenario of climate change in Northeast China would be with a high possibility of warming and aridity.Response to the climate change, the eco-climatic environment and distribution of vegetation life zone may change greatly in Northeast China.The assessment of regional impacts on vegetation shows:1) Under climate warming scenarios, the warm-temperate and temperate zones enlarge, but cool-temperate zone becomes small and even disappears in the northeast, which would result in the boundaries of vegetation life zones transferring northward obviously and 2 cold temperate life zones would move to a higher altitude or move out from this region; 2) At the same time, the humid area shrink, and semi-humid area and semi-arid area expend, which would make forest range shrink and grassland expand in Northeast China.
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    沙尘暴过程地面测量与卫星同步观测实验及数据分析——以2002年沙尘暴事件为例
    刘志丽, 马建文, 李启青, 张小曳, 张仁键, 王宏, 布和敖斯尔, 安井
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 571-578.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.571
    摘要   PDF (1193KB)
    2001年中日亚洲沙尘暴项目ADEC在中国的新疆、甘肃、陕西、内蒙、北京、青岛以及韩国和日本布设了雷达气溶胶探测仪、沙尘颗粒收集仪、风速测量仪,结合利用卫星技术,于2002年4~5月对起沙、输送和沉降开展了实时监测和测量,获得地面风速、TSP、PM及地表温度等实测数据。以2002年3(4月沙尘天气为例,空中观测与地面监测密切结合,综合分析卫星遥感数据和地面实测数据,为沙尘暴综合分析与预测提供了基础数据。
    In 2001, some in situ measurement stations were setup by Asia Dust Storm Project, ADEC, in Korea, Japan and Xinjiang, Gansu, Shaanxi, Nei Mongol, Beijing, Qingdao of China.Many instruments were fixed in those places, for example aerosol detector, dust particle gatherer, wind speed measuring apparatus and so on.Combined with remote sensing technology, they were used to measure the emission, transport and deposition of dust storm.In April and May, 2002, through these instruments, the wind speed, TSP, PM and LST(land cover temperature) data were obtained.In this article, taking example for the dust storm in March and April, 2002, combining satellite data with in situ measurement data, some basic data may be provided to general analysis and forecast of dust storm.
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    影响中尺度对流系统移动的知识发现
    过仲阳, 林珲, 戴晓燕, 江吉喜, 吴健平
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 579-584.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.579
    摘要   PDF (739KB)
    空间数据挖掘是近年来迅速发展起来的面向应用的新技术。运用1998年夏季日本静止气象卫星(GMS) 探测反演出的红外辐射亮温资料和国家卫星气象中心高分辨率有限区域分析预报系统产品中的数值格点预报资料 (HLAFS) 对青藏高原上的中尺度对流系统 (MCS) 进行了自动追踪。在此基础上,运用空间关联规则研究了移出高原的MCS与其环境场之间的关系,结果表明, 在400 hPa这一层次,等压面高度、相对湿度、涡度、散度、垂直速度这5 个物理量是影响其移出高原的主要因子;而在500 hPa 层次,移出高原的MCS与等压面高度、相对湿度、温度、垂直速度和K指数关系密切。
    Recently, the evidences have indicated that the heavy rainfall in Yangtze River Basin is directly caused by Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau in China.In this project, the trajectories of MCS over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau are automatically tracked using GMS (Geostationary Meteorological Satellite) infrared black-body temperature (Tbb) and High Resolution Limited Area Analysis and Forecasting System (HLAFS) values provided by China National Satellite Meteorological Center from June to August 1998.Among these data, spatial resolution of Tbb is 0.5° lat (0.5°long, time resolution of Tbb is one hour).And, spatial resolution of HLAFS is 1° lat ( 1° long and time resolution of HLAFS is twelve hours).On the other hand, research range of latitude is from 27° to 40°N, and longitude is from 80° to 105°E.While levels include 400hPa and 500hPa.Furthermore, the study focuses on MCS that cover at least 3 connected pixels having Tbb≤-32℃ in each Tbb image, and last for at least 3 consecutive hours.Before spatial association rule mining, MCS is firstly tracked.in this project, if an MCS moves across 105°E, then the MCS is defined as "move-out of the Plateau", otherwise, it is defined as "stay in".Results indicate that there are 749 MCSs over the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau from June to August 1998.While the total number of MCS, which move out of the plateau, is 55.And, results also show that the initiation locations of most of MCSs, which moving out of the Qinghai-Xizang, are between 100°E and 105°E.Therefore, the initiation location of each MCS is defined near 100°E.On the other hand, in the course of spatial association rule mining, the parameters, isobaric surface height, temperature, relative humidity, vorticity, divergence, vertical velocity, water vapor flux divergence, θSE, K index, area, the lowest Tbb, position and shape of MCS are included.Based on these, the relationships between the trajectories of MCSs of moving out of the Qinghai-Xizang and their environmental physical field values are analysed using spatial association rule mining technique, the results indicate that at a level of 400 hPa, the MCSs, which move out of the plateau and to east, are not related with temperature, the lowest Tbb, area and location of MCS.Furthermore, the association rules, with the confidence of 1.0, are only related with isobaric surface height, relative humidity, vorticity, divergence, vertical velocity and K index.By and large, at this level, the MCS of moving out of the plateau to east is mostly determined by isobaric surface height, relative humidity, vorticity, divergence and vertical velocity.While at a level of 500 hPa, the MCSs, which moving out of the plateau, are not related with θSE, water vapor flux divergence, location and area of MCS.Furthermore, the trajectories of MCSs are less influenced by vorticity, divergence, the lowest Tbb and shape of MCS.By and large, at this level, the trajectories of MCSs are mainly influenced by isobaric surface, relative humidity, temperature, vertical velocity and Kindex.
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    用TM影像和DEM获取黑河流域地表反射率和反照率
    刘三超, 张万昌, 蒋建军, 赵登忠
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 585-591.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.585
    摘要   PDF (767KB)
    传统的大气校正方法原理比较复杂,而且有些参数特别是实时的大气剖面资料难以获取。本文利用DEM对TM 影像进行地形校正后,用简便而又实用的方法对TM影像进行了大气校正,较精确地反演出黑河流域河西走廊中段对应于Landsat TM 1~5 和7波段的地表反射率。在此基础上,通过不同波段地表反射率的组合,获得了地表反照率。通过与实地观测数据对比分析,表明对于植被覆盖区用TM 2,4,7波段组合结果较好,而在非植被覆盖区用TM 1~5,7这6 个波段组合结果更佳。
    Traditional atmospheric correction methods are complicated in theory, difficult in practice owning to some parameters, especially field real-time atmospheric profile data, are seldom available.This study presents an easy, fast approach that takes the best use of DEM in association with the application of an atmospheric correction model to obtain the surface reflectance from Landsat TM imaginary over the Heihe River Basin.Based on surface reflectance imaginaries for TM Band 1-5 and 7, different band integration approaches were attempted to obtain the total continuous spectral albedo over the study site for comparing with the field observed ones.It was found that for vegetated area the TM band 2, 4, 7 integration approach performs better, while for non-vegetation area band integration using TM 1-5 and 7 bands data is more reliable.
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    徐州张集水源地浅层地下水动态及其对不同开采方案响应
    钱家忠, 李如忠, 吴剑锋, 葛晓光, 朱学愚
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 592-596.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.592
    摘要   PDF (2587KB)
    张集水源地是徐州市一个拟建水源地。了解浅层地下水动态变化规律是设计水源地最优取水方案、满足当地居民生活及工农业生产需水和水源地环境保护的重要前提条件之一。分析了水源地在现状以及不同开采条件下浅层地下水动态影响因素,建立了三维等参有限元数学模型模拟水源地地下水运动规律,利用大型群孔抽水试验资料进行参数识别和模型校正,预报了不同开采方案对水源地浅层地下水动态的影响,结果表明:水源地开采后,水源地开采将成为浅层地下水动态的主要影响因素之一;水源地允许开采量为13.71万m3/d是适合的,它不会引起地下水位的持续下降,不仅可满足当地居民用水需求,而且可以向徐州市稳定供水。
    Zhangji well field is going to be established in Xuzhou City.To know the characteristics of phreatic water dynamic drift is an important precondition for designing the optimal exploitation project, satisfying the water demands for the villager, agriculture and industry, and protecting the environment of the well field.Based on the hydrogeology characteristics, factors affecting phreatic water dynamic drift are analyzed under different exploitation conditions, a 3-D groundwater model is established by an isoparameteric finite element method.The data of pumping test are used for the identification and calibation of the model.The phreatic water table is predicted respectively under the exploitation projects.Results show that after the well field is established, pumping will become the main factor affecting the phreatic water dynamic.And that pumping rate is designed to be 137.1?103 m3/d is compatible.The pumping rate can make sure the groundwater table stable, also satisfy the water demands for local people, local industry, local agriculture, and Xuzhou City.
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    农业生态环境数字信息系统的建立及应用
    林年丰, 汤洁, 卞建民
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 597-603.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.597
    摘要   PDF (666KB)
    阐述了中国三北地区农业生态环境恶化的严重性,提出了农业生产内部环境和农业生产外部环境的概念,为进行农业生态环境研究指出了新的方向。从数字地球的角度讨论了应用数字化方法开展农业生态环境研究的必要性。在建立农业生态环境系统概念模型和指标体系的基础上,建立了农业生态环境数字信息系统。将农业生态环境模拟系统与GIS耦合,进行数字信息技术集成,实现了农业生态环境研究的信息化、数字化、模型化及可视化。借助于用户界面可对有关的农业生态环境问题进行检索、咨询。通过变量调控、优化决策,可以达到调整系统结构,提高系统功能,促进农业可持续发展的目的。
    This paper discusses the gravity of agricultural eco-environment problems and tremendous potential of developing the agro-pastoral in the northern China.From the point of system the agricultural eco-environment conceptual model and index system have been set up, which includes the sub-system of climate, water,land, living things and social environment.Every sub-system has many environmental factors respectively.An agricultural eco-environment digital information system has been set up based on 3S and EIS-GIS integration system,using the digital information technology.It is a hiberarchy conceptual model of multiple layers, which has 7 layers of A-G layer.With the help of the system, the environment imitation can be fulfilled, and the problems of evaluation, forecast, precaution, program, decision management and optimization on the eco-environment can be solved.Coupling the agricultural eco-environment digital information system with GIS the system will have strong functions of the spatial management of data and environment imitation and realize the agricultural eco-environment study with information, digitization, model and visualization.We take the western Songnen Plain as an example to make the soil alkalinized desertification evaluation and precaution, and use the SD (system dynamic) model to make the optimization about ecological environment remediation and comprehensive development decision.By the means of the user interface we may have the search and consultation.The knowledge and information in the system can be enlarged, modified and renewed.As well as the system structure can be adjusted and system function can be developed.Thus, the agricultural eco-environmental digital information system has extensive foreground of development and application.
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    伊洛河流域不同地貌类型区的景观空间结构对比分析——以洛宁县为例
    钱乐祥, 丁圣彦, 许叔明
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 604-611.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.604
    摘要   PDF (3008KB)
    运用景观生态学原理,借助遥感和地理信息系统技术,选取斑块密度、边缘密度、分维数、景观多样性、景观优势度和破碎化指数等指标,对比分析了伊洛河流域的洛宁县不同地貌类型区的景观空间分布和空间格局特征,探讨了该地区不同地貌类型区人类活动与景观结构之间的关系。结果显示从南北中山区向内到南北低山区到南北塬陵区再到川涧区,斑块破碎化指数从0.0190到0.3225到0.4378再到0.1794,总体呈增加趋势,破碎化程度增大,川涧区则由于遥感影像解析精度问题,使得破碎化指数低于塬陵区;景观多样性指数从0.1828到0.3586到0.2983再到0.3634,总体也呈增大趋势;平均斑块分维数从1.1148到1.3854到1.2263再到1.3680,呈两低两高分布。
    The patch density, edge density, fractal dimension of patches, landscape diversity, landscape dominance and fragment index were caculated by models and GIS to analyze spatial distribution and spatial structure of landscape types in Yiluo River basin.In the study, spatial database consists of land use/land cover which comes from topography map (1975, 1:50000) and TM images, field investigation and interpreted landsat imagine.Classification and imagine description of various land covers were gained by compounding these data.Although training location was afforded to help classify in field mapping, land modification was not performed in order to identify classification accuracy.The processing of remote sensing data is to use ERDAS and ARC/INFO software.In order to study the relation between the structure of landscape and human activities, the characteristics of landscape structure in Luoning County were analyzed using landscape property index above.Based on analyses above, some conclusions are drawn as follows:(1) In Luoning County, spatial pattern mainly consists of big patches and main body landscape were desolate hills, grass slope, arable land in the slope, and deciduous broad-leaved forest.(2) Influences of human activities on landscape dominance were very obvious.With human activities intensifying, landscape dominance of human landscape or physical landscape affected by human activities increases, for instances, landscape dominance of desolate hills, grass slope and arable land in the slope was 67.99%, which are distributed in low-mountains and hills to plains.(3) It was obvious that human activities affected landscape fragment in various landscape type areas, and the more intense the human activities, the more higher the landscape fragment.From plateau form and hills and low-mountains to mid-mountains, the fragmental index of patches changed from 0.4378, 0.3225 to 0.0190, which showed that the intensity of human activities decreases.TM image resolution may make fragmental index lower in the plains, which are seriously affected by people than that in the plateau form and hills.(4) Because of special landform type and the influences of human activities, the mean patch fractal dimension and landscape diversity represents the pattern of undulance.(5) Using GIS to compare special characteristics of landscape structure of various landform type areas was a feasible method and technique.At the same time, GIS has a better conjunction with RS and can abstract and renew regional information quickly, which can help better to study landscape spatial structure in a region, so they have a beautiful future in studying this problem.
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    地图质量可拓综合评价模型
    汪明武, 金菊良, 李丽
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 612-616.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.612
    摘要   PDF (409KB)
    可拓学是解决矛盾问题的新兴交叉学科,理论支柱是物元理论和可拓集合。它以物元为基本元,通过物元变换来建立物元模型,化矛盾问题为相容问题。基于可拓论探讨了地图质量的可拓综合评价新模型,即通过构造各评定等级的经典域和全体等级的节域物元矩阵,计算待评物元与各评定等级之间的关联度,判定对各评定等级的符合程度而作出综合评定。文中给出了具体评价流程,并应用于实际地图的质量综合评价,结果同其它方法进行了对比,取得了较好的结果。
    Extenics, a new theory for study of contradictory problems in the realistic world is a crossing subject among mathematics subject, and system subject and thoughts subject.Its theoretical pillars are the theory of matter-element and the theory of extension set.Based on matter-element and extension set, contradictory problems can be transformed compatible problems by matter-elements transformation.A concept of matter-element matrix with the same characteristics is introduced, and the concept of level variable characteristic value of extension assessment method is suggested.The method for determination of extension weights by simple dependent function is proposed.The problem of map quality evaluation is a complicated problem because it contains certain factors and uncertain factors.In fact, the problem of map quality evaluation is a non-compatible problem.The former evaluation method did not resolve this problem.On these bases, the extension assessment method is firstly used to evaluate map quality.A new extension synthesis model has been discussed in this paper.Moreover, the flowchart of the extension evaluation method is developed.The basic idea of this method is shown as following:In order to describe the non-compatibility among the indexes of map evaluation and the results of single indexes, the matter-element transformation was used for transforming the non-compatible problem into compatible problem.The classification of object is described by the value of the correlation function of extension set.So the qualitative evaluation can expand to quantitative evaluation.On the basis of designing the classical matter-element matrixes of each evaluation class, extensional matter-element matrix include all evaluation classes, calculating the correlation degrees between the standard to be evaluated and each evaluation class.The coincidences of standard to be evaluated with each evaluation classes were evaluated and the comprehensive evaluation was made further according the quantities of correlation degrees.The concrete steps of synthesize evaluation are as follows:Firstly, in order to construct the condition set, select the evaluation indexes and design the classification criterion of map quality.Second, with a view to calculate the correlation value of sample with practical data, establish the correlation function and weight function.Finally, in accordance with the calculated value, the category is selected.At the same time a practical example is introduced.In this example, the general error and failure report, great normal error and failure report, technique modification, mathematical precision, line print quality, sign quality and annotate quality, groom quality, legend factor are selected as evaluation indexes.And the grade of map quality is divided into 6 kinds of class, excellent, above good, good, under good, normal, and under standard.The comprehensive appraisement is made for map quality evaluation using the extension method and other evaluation methods.Results form the extension method is good.Moreover, compared with the other methods, it has shown that this method is feasible to assess map qualities, which is objectively reasonable and widely applicable.And the authors believe that the application of the extension theory to map quality evaluation has profound practical prospect because the extenics has profound practical background.
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    红壤丘陵区耕层土壤颗粒的分形特征
    程先富, 史学正, 王洪杰
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 617-621.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.617
    摘要   PDF (2565KB)
    以土壤颗粒组成数据为基础,运用分形模型分析了红壤丘陵区耕层土壤颗粒的分形维数。结果表明,13个耕层土壤颗粒的分形维数D为2.772~2.897,其中紧砂土2.788,砂壤土2.807,中壤土2.814,轻壤土2.817。分形维数随土壤质地的变细而增大;由北向南,逐渐增加;成土母质对土壤颗粒的分形维数影响较大;D与全氮含量达极显著正相关,与有机质含量、全磷含量达显著正相关,D与有机质含量、全氮含量、速效磷含量、速效钾含量的复相关达极显著水平。
    This paper analyzed the fractal dimensions of particle in plow layers of red soil, according to the data of soil particle and fractal model.The results showed that fractal dimensions of particle were 2.772 -2.897 in the plowed layers of 13 cropped fields.Among them, tighten sandy soil was 2.788,sandy loam soil was 2.807, medium loam soil was 2.814 and light loam soil was 2.817.The fractal dimensions of soil particle increased with soil texture fining.From north to south, there was decreasing tendencies.The parental materials had evident influence on the fractal dimensions of particle of soils.The fractal dimensions were in highly significant positive correlation with the contents of total nitrogen, and in very significant positive correlation with the contents of organic matter and the contents of total phosphorus.In addition, in the partial correlation with the contents of organic matter, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, available potassium, available phosphorus was highly significant.
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    综述
    湿地生态系统碳循环研究进展
    宋长春
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 622-628.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.622
    摘要   PDF (699KB)
    碳在不同类型湿地中储藏量约占地球陆地碳总量的15%。由于全球湿地面积迅速减少,湿地生态系统正常的水循环和碳循环过程产生一定的变化,湿地生态系统的演变也可能是全球大气CO2含量升高的一个不可忽视的重要因素。气候条件是湿地碳循环生物地球化学过程的重要驱动因素,湿地特殊的生态水文过程和土壤环境条件,使得湿地碳循环具有区别于其它生态系统碳循环的特征。影响湿地中碳积累与分解过程的重要控制因子是温度、水文条件和植物群落,特别是水文条件对湿地碳循环过程影响较大。湿地土壤呼吸通量与根层土壤温度呈正相关关系,并受地表积水深度和地下潜水水位的影响,另外,洪泛作用会增加湿地CO2的排放率,湿地水文过程决定溶解有机碳的输入与输出过程。
    Wetlands have an important role in storing carbon and the carbon stored in which accounts for 15% of the total terrestrial carbon storage.The area of wetlands decreased rapidly due to climatic change and human activities.The normal hydrologic cycling process and carbon cycling process have been changed and the evolution of wetlands maybe a very important factor that is responsible for the rise of global CO2.Climatic condition is the main driving factor of carbon biogeochemical cycling in wetlands.Carbon cycling in wetlands distinguishes from that in other types of ecosystems because of special eco-hydrological process and soil environment.The key factors influencing carbon accumulation and decomposition are vegetation community, temperature and hydrological conditions (especially water table).Transpiration of soil and vegetation has positive correlation with the soil temperature and increases linearly as water table decreases.Similarly, flooding can increase CO2 emission of wetlands and hydrological process of wetlands determines the input and output of dissolved organic carbon.
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    研究报道
    能源消费与气候关系的中美比较研究
    袁顺全, 千怀遂
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 629-634.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.629
    摘要   PDF (2684KB)
    应用多项式模型把气候耗能量从能源消费总量中分离出来,用统计分析的方法探讨了中国和美国气候耗能量与气候因子之间的关系及其变化。研究表明:温度是美国近50年来影响气候耗能量的主要气候因子,中国从20世纪50年代到80年代初,旱涝灾害一直是影响中国气候耗能量的主要气候因子,它们之间存在有明显的线性相关关系,自20世纪80年代初以来,随着经济的发展和人民生活水平的提高,旱涝灾害对气候耗能量的影响明显减弱,温度对气候耗能量的影响逐渐增强,如果仅考虑气候耗能量,目前中国的能源消费变化正处于由气象灾害驱动型向温度驱动型的过渡时期。
    In this thesis, the climatic energy consumption is separated from the total energy consumption by polynomial model and the method for statistical analysis is used to explore the relationship between the climatic energy consumption and the climatic factors and its changes in China and America.It shows that temperature has drived the climate energy consumption in the recent 50 years in America; while in China the disaster of drought and flood is the main factor that affects climatic energy consumption from the 1950's to the 1980's.There is an obvious linear correlation between climatic energy consumption and the disaster of drought and flood.Since the early 1980's, with the development of economy and the improvement of people's living level, the disaster of drought and flood has obviously less effect on the climatic energy consumption, but the influence of temperature on the climatic energy consumption has become gradually strong.Considering only the climatic energy consumption, the energy consumption in China now is changing from the type driven by climatic disaster to that driven by temperature.
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    江苏灌河口湿地景观生态规划:可持续发展的方案
    李杨帆, 朱晓东
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (5): 635-640.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.05.635
    摘要   PDF (564KB)
    灌河是江苏省除长江外唯一的未在入海口建闸的河流,上通盐河、京杭运河和淮河,腹地广大,灌河河口段可满足万吨轮航运条件,有巨大的开发价值。在分析研究灌河口湿地资源、环境与景观生态特征的基础上,利用景观生态学中景观生态规划的方法和原理,提出了建立景观生态保护区,开发河海牧场、生态农业和生态旅游资源,加快中等港口群和临港产业区建设并举的景观生态规划方案,通过灌河口湿地一体化开发、保护和管理的示范作用,带动整个流域的经济与生态环境保护的协调发展。
    Occurrence of schools of cetaceans in the Guan River estuary wetland of Jiangsu gave an great and wide impetus to rethink the resources, environment and sustainable development of that region.The Guan River estuary wetland is located on the boundary of Lianyungang and Yancheng in Jiangsu Province.It is rich in natural resources, but constrained by various unfavorable natural conditions and facing human-activity-induced problems, such as baymouth bar limitation, poor infrastructure and harbor facilities, environmental quality degradation, lack of rational development plans, and so on.Landscape eco-planning plays a role in the conservation of biodiversity and environmental improvement.It will not only satisfy the natural functions of landscape and human requirements, but also satisfy the future development.As regard to the future model of natural conservation and resources development, the concept, principle, procedures and main model of landscape eco-planning are introduced.This paper makes a comprehensive survey and summary of the landscape ecological characteristics of the Guan River estuary wetland and proposes some corresponding landscape eco-planning approaches towards sustainable development of the area.The project is composed of some landscape ecological protection areas, and a carefully designed ecological agriculture river-marine farm, ecotourism, planning and framework, harbor and industry estate construction along harbor.
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