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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2004年, 第24卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2004-11-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    近20年来广州市人口增长与分布的时空间演化分析
    周春山, 罗彦, 陈素素
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 641-647.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.641
    摘要   PDF (815KB)
    广州作为改革开放的前沿地带,不仅人口增长迅速,而且内部迁居也频繁。利用第三、四和五次人口普查资料,采用数学模型对近20年来广州市人口分布的变化特点进行深入的探讨。首先分析了广州市人口的增长情况,广州市人口增长较前20年要缓,人口增长地区差异比较明显,城市中心的周边地区人口增长迅速,中心城区总体上人口减少;其次分析了广州市的人口分布状况,广州人口分布趋向规则化,均衡化,人口分布重心向东北向偏移,人口密度由单中心向多中心的趋势变化,郊区化现象比较明显等;最后对广州城市人口的增长和分布随城市规模和时空间变化特点进行了模型归纳。
    It is well known that the growth and distribution of population have great influence on the city growth, which is more distinct in big cities in China after opening and reform policies were taken out. Furthermore, this phenomenon is more obvious in Guangzhou. Using the recent data of the third, forth and fifth census, the authors try to find some laws of the distribution of population in Guangzhou. First of all, the characteristics of population growth in Guangzhou are analyzed and the spatial models of population growth of different district are developed. Secondly, the distribution of population in Guangzhou tend to be regularization, equilibrium and the density of population change into more centers. Finally, the spatial-temporal models are developed out based on growth and distribution of population in Guangzhou.
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    山东省产业结构生态评价与循环经济模式构建思路
    任建兰, 张淑敏, 周鹏
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 648-653.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.648
    摘要   PDF (837KB)
    产业结构的生态评价和循环经济模式构建是实施区域可持续发展的重要途径。在判断山东省工业化发展阶段和产业结构特点的基础上,依据经济效益、环境承载力和资源效率三者相互关系建立了产业结构生态评价模型。通过辨识产业结构存在的问题,提出了在循环经济理念下产业结构调整的新思路和相应对策。
    Ecological appraisal of industrial structure and design models of circle economy are two important ways to implement regional sustainable development. Based on the judgment of the phases of industrialization and the characteristics of industrial structure of Shandong Province, according to the relationship among economic benefit, environmental capacity and resources support, the paper set up the model of ecological appraisal of industrial structure. And by analyzing the problems of the existing industrial structure, the paper put forward new ways to adjust it and the corresponding countermeasures under the thoughtfulness of circle economy. It has important guidance functions to push the sustainable development of Shandong Province.
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    中国区域经济增长集聚的空间统计分析
    吴玉鸣, 徐建华
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 654-659.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.654
    摘要   PDF (1067KB)
    运用空间统计和计量经济学Moran I指数法及时空数据(Panel Data)模型分析了中国31个省级区域经济增长集聚及其影响因素。结果显示:①中国省域经济增长具有明显的空间依赖性,在地理空间上存在集聚现象,区域经济增长在时空上呈现出明显的空间效应,忽视空间效应将造成模型设定的偏差和计量结果的非科学性;②空间相关以及由此带来的国际国内贸易及外资等经济活动频繁程度,在很大程度上引起了31个省域区际经济增长的空间不均衡,空间集聚使得在经济增长过程中地理区位(距离)产生的空间成本降低,但地理特征将深刻作用于区域经济增长空间集聚的中心和外围关系;③外商直接投资、国际与区际贸易、人力资本、技术创新等因素对中国区域经济增长的贡献非常重要,但它却不能轻易改变经济地理的规则,经济增长因素在地理空间上的非均衡集聚导致了迥然不同的区域经济增长格局。
    At present,the study on China's regional economic growth focuses mainly on spatial pattern, but the study on spatial correlation and the cause of formation of growth clustering and disparity distribution is seldom. This paper introduces the spatial correlation index method of Moran I and the computational and test results show that the provincial regional economic growth has an obviously spatial correlation. And the economic growth has an obviously cluster in the geographical space. We also uses the spatial econometric analysis model of spatial-temporal data(Panel Data),and the computational and test results show that the regional economic growth during time and in space takes on a distinct spatial effects. The frequent extension to economic activities produced by international and domestic trade and foreign capital etc. brings spatial correlation,and to a great extent results in the inequalities of 31 provincial economic growth. Spatial cluster makes the spatial cost which is produced by geographical location(distance)decrease during the economic growth process,but the geographical characteristics will deeply affect the relationship between core and periphery of spatial clustering in regional economic growth。At last,the econometric test show that the factors such as international and interregional trade,foreign direct investment,human capital,technological innovation have an extraordinary contribution to China's regional economic growth. But those factors cannot change the regulations of economic geography easily. The non-equilibrium clustering of regional economic growth factors in geographical space results in widely distinct patterns of regional economic growth.
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    徽州古村落的景观特征及机理研究
    陆林, 凌善金, 焦华富, 王莉
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 660-665.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.660
    摘要   PDF (1061KB)
    富接江南、文风昌盛和秀丽山水是明清时期徽州地理环境的主要内涵,创造了灿烂的徽州文化。古村落是历史上徽州人生产生活的中心之一,是徽州文化的主要载体。聚族而居、宛如城廓的村落以及村落中众多高大的祠堂、牌坊形成直观可视的文化景观,极大地渲染了古时徽州的宗法观念和宗法制度。文风犹存的书香村落拥有大量的书院、私塾等文化建筑,淡雅明快的居民等建筑大多饰以典雅工丽、寓意深刻的雕刻和楹联,体现了浓厚的文化氛围。园林化是徽州古村落人居环境的主要特征之一,园林化村落拥有的水口园林、书院园林和宅院园林等多种园林烘托了徽州古村落的园林情调。
    Surrounded by continuous unbroken mountains, Huizhou, which abounds in bright mountains and limpid waters, is an important settlement for people migrated from the northern China for 3times in Chinese history, as well as the hometown for Cheng-Zhu Idealist Philosophy and Hui Merchants. The geographical environment of the Ming and Qing dynasties in Huizhu boasted beautiful mountains and rivers and flourishing style of writing, and thus, had created glorious regional culture of Huizhou characteristics. As one of the center of agricultural production and living place for Hui people, ancient villages are the major carrier of Hui Culture. Inhabitants of the same clan, city-like villages and the many high-rise ancestral halls and archways scattering in the villages, together form the directly perceived cultural landscape, exaggerating greatly the patriarchal clan concept and system in ancient Huizhou. Rich cultural atmosphere are reflected in such educational architecture as academy schools and old-style tutorial schools scattered in ancient villages as well as local people's residential architecture decorated with elegant and meaningful carvings and antithetical couplets. Gardening is a major feature of the residential environment in Huizhou villages. Shuikou garden, academy school garden and residence garden, the various kinds of gardens together set off more gardening atmosphere to Huizhou ancient villages.
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    秦岭-黄淮平原交界带自然地理若干特征分析
    马建华, 千怀遂, 管华, 施其仁
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 666-673.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.666
    摘要   PDF (1292KB)
    文章探讨了秦岭-黄淮平原交界带划分的依据和方法,然后就其自然地理过渡性、暴雨频繁发生和坡地暖带及其自然地理效应进行讨论。研究表明:交界带自然地理要素不仅具有西部山地和东部平原之间的过渡性,而且北亚热带和暖温带地理成分在这里彼此交汇。交界带暴雨频繁,且以大暴雨为主,集中分布在海拔100~200 m之间。交界带冬季气温高于平原0.5~0.8℃,1月最高气温出现在海拔350~400 m之间,形成特有的坡地暖带,暖带厚度100~250 m。交界带暴雨频繁和暖坡效应是大气环流和交界带地貌格局共同作用的结果,且对本区土壤发育和植物分布等具有重大影响。
    The boundary of the transitional region between Qinling Mountains and Huanghuai Plain was divided first in this paper, then some features of physical geography in the transitional region were discussed. (1) The east boundary of the transitional region is at the contour about 100 m, and the west boundary is at the contour about 500 m. The area of the transitional region is about 26 000 km2,which makes up 15.9% of total area in Henan Province.(2) The natural features in the transitional region possess transitional characters evidently in two directions, one is from the western mountain to the eastern plain and the other is from southern subtropical zone to northern temperate zone. (3) Torrential rain especially for strong torrential rain is frequent in the transition region, and there are many torrential rain centers, such as Lushan torrential rain center, Biyang torrential rain center, and so on. A majority of torrential rain is distributed among 100-200 m above sea level. (4) The winter temperature at 100-400 m above sea level in the transitional region is not only higher than in Huanghuai Plain where its altitude is lower than the transition region's, but also higher than in Qinling Mountains where its altitude is higher than the transitional region's. The highest temperature in January appears at 350-400 m above sea level in the transitional region. The warmer belt in the transitional region is called warm slope belt, of which thickness varies from 100 m to 250 m above sea level. (5) Torrential rain and warm slope belt in the transitional region were formed by atmospheric circulation and local terrain. Frequent torrential rain and warm slope belt had tremendous influence on soil properties, plant distribution and local climate in the transitional region.
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    天山山区近40年秋季气候变化特征与南、北疆比较
    袁玉江, 魏文寿, 穆桂金
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 674-679.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.674
    摘要   PDF (725KB)
    利用新疆1959~1998年的秋季温度降水资料,分析天山山区近40年来秋季气候变化的基本特征,所得结果如下: (1) 天山山区秋季温度在冷暖变化阶段上与北疆的相似性强于南疆,但其秋季降水在干湿变化阶段上与南、北疆不同。 (2) 秋季温度空间分布的同步变化性以北疆为最好,南疆最差,天山山区居中。秋季降水空间分布的同步变化性以南疆最好,天山山区最差,北疆居中。 (3) 20世纪60~90年代,天山山区表现为波动升温,而南疆和北疆表现为持续增温,均以90年代温度最高,80年代是三大区域秋季降水最多的年代。60,70及90年代,三大区域的秋季降水均低于30年均值。
    Using the autumn temperature and precipitation dada during 1959-1998 in Xinjiang, the basic features of autumn climate change in Tianshan mountainous area are analyzed and compared with those in the southern and northern Xinjiang. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The similarity of warm-cold stage of autumn mean temperature between Tianshan mountainous area and the northern Xinjiang is better than those between Tianshan mountainous area and the southern Xinjiang. But the wet-dry stage of autumn precipitation in Tianshan mountainous area and the northern Xinjiang is different from those in the southern and northern Xinjiang. (2) The synchronous change of spatial distribution of autumn mean temperature is the best in the northern Xinjiang, the worst in the southern Xinjiang and better in Tianshan mountainous area. The synchronous change of spatial distribution of autumn precipitation is the best in the southern Xinjiang, the worst in Tianshan mountainous area and better the northern Xinjiang. ⑶ From the 1960s to the 1990s, autumn mean temperature shows wavy warming in Tianshan mountainous area and continuously increasing trend in the southern and northern Xinjiang. Autumn mean temperature is the highest in the 1990s,and 1.0℃,0.7℃,0.2℃ above the mean for 1961-1990 for Tianshan mountainous area, the southern Xinjiang and the northern Xinjiang respectively. Autumn precipitation in the 1980s is the most for the three large regions, and 17%, 16%, 34% above the mean for 1961-1990 for Tianshan mountainous area, the northern Xinjiang and the southern Xinjiang respectively. Autumn precipitation is all bellow the average for 1961-1990 for the three large regions in the 1960s, 1970s, and 1990s.
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    从动乱与水旱灾害的关系看清代山东气候变化的区域社会响应与适应
    叶瑜, 方修琦, 葛全胜, 郑景云
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 680-686.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.680
    摘要   PDF (947KB)
    文章分析了清代中后期山东发生动乱与旱涝的时空关系及该时期山东人口、田赋、政策等因素,以期了解气候变化背景下的区域适应行为方式的变化和机制。结果显示:1800~1850年,山东动乱与干旱在时空分布上都呈现较好的对应关系,动乱是封建社会农民对气候变化所采取的一种极端响应方式。随着人地矛盾深化和赋税的日益增重,1870年后动乱与干旱的对应关系反而不再显著,移民作为一种新的适应方式改变了山东省对气候变化的适应机制,减缓了气候变化对动乱的影响。
    The paper analyzed the spatial-temporal relationship between revolt and drought-flood, and influence of factors such as population, land tax and policy, in Shandong Province during the middle and late Qing Dynasty (1800-1911AD), in order to understand the regional adaptation to climate change. The results indicated that there was good spatial-temporal relationship between revolt and drought-flood. During 1800 to 1850, the relationship was the best, when climate change was the main factor that arose the revolt as an extreme and drastic response by peasants to the intolerable climate change in feudal society. During the 1850s-1870s, disasters occurred frequently, revolt broke out continually, and society contradiction became intensified. After then, the corresponding relationship between revolt and drought was not as better as before. It may be contributed to that Qing government's policy that abolished the ban of migration to Northeast China in 1861AD, which provided a new way to respond to the climate change for the people in Shandong Province and weakened the impact of climate change on revolt.
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    塔里木盆地南缘策勒绿洲近4000年来的环境变化
    钟巍, 熊黑钢, 王立国, 塔西甫拉提·特依甫
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 687-692.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.687
    摘要   PDF (761KB)
    根据位于塔里木盆地南缘的策勒绿洲两个剖面的孢粉和化学元素的古气候意义的研究,恢复了近 4.0 ka B. P.以来此地区环境变化的历史,揭示出了4个相对湿润期,分别发生于约4.0~2.0 ka B.P.、约2.0~1.0 ka B.P.、550~300 a B.P.、100 a B.P.前后。研究还揭示了1 500 a B.P.、1 000 aB.P.和200 a B.P.前后可能是此地区环境变化的重要时间界线。塔里木盆地古城废弃事件与环境变化记录之间的耦合表明,环境变化对此地区人地关系的内容及其演化具有重要的内在影响。
    Based on two sediment sections obtained in Cele oasis, which is located at the southern margin of Tarim Basin in southern Xinjiang, by applying the pollen combination and geochemical elements as the proxy records of environmental changes, this paper revealed 4 relatively (cold) wet periods, which occurred at 4.0-2.0 ka B.P., about 2.0-1.0 ka B.P., 550-300 a B.P. and around 100 a B.P. respectively. Three possible important boundaries of environmental changes in the research area, which occurred at around 1500 a B. P., 1000 a B. P. and 200 a B. P. respectively, have also been found. The coupled relationship between environmental changes and the human's activities, taking the abandonment of ancient towns as example, shows that climate and environmental changes may be one of the most important factors affecting the man-land relationship in arid area.
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    西峰剖面有机质记录的黄土高原L6-L1古湿度演变
    贾蓉芬, 彭先芝
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 693-697.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.693
    摘要   PDF (612KB)
    对甘肃西峰黄土剖面L6~ L1层段162块样品进行了(Rock-Eval)2+PLUS 分析,获得了TOC和热解烃的含量,以及有机质最高热解峰温(Tmax)的数据,并以与下降水有关的有机质和与蒸发水有关的矿物包裹有机质之比估算了古湿度的分布。结果表明,古土壤层的湿度比相邻黄土层的大, 湿度的变化范围为47%~80%,其中湿度最大的层段为S5上部,次之为S1,湿度最小的层段为L6, 次之为L4, L2-S1-L1层段的古湿度变化与陕西渭南剖面的相当层位具有很好的对应性。上述结果与黄土研究中常用的矿物粒度分析、CaCO3 、Fe2+ 和Fe3+及磁化率等方法的测定结果具有良好的可比性。西峰剖面L6-S5-L4层段有机质和湿度的变化都很大,反映大气环流在这段时间异常活跃,具有热湿事件或黄土高原气候变化的边界特征。而在L4以来,特别是L4-S3-L3层段,湿度变化幅度相对较稳定,总的趋势向湿度减小方向发展,而在S2以后湿度演变有增大的趋势。
    Here pHC2-1 is hydrocarbon pyrolyzed at 300-500℃, which presents organic matter combined with organism residue in sample and correlated to supergene water, rain or other surface water in the area, pHC2-2 is hydrocarbon pyrolyzed at 500-600℃, which presents organic matter combined with special secondary carbonate and correlated to evaporation water. The calculated result shows that the paleohumidity is bigger in the paleosol layer than that in the adjacent loess layers. The range of paleohumidity in the section is 47%-80%, the highest is in S5-1, the secondary is in S1, the lowest is in L6, the secondary is in L4. The paleohumidity change of L2-S1-LI in Xifengg section could correlate with the same layers in Weinan section of Shaanxi Province, Which could compared with the results of mineral partial size, content of CaCO3, iron changes of Fe, as well as susceptibility used often in the research on loess section. The paleohimidity evolution in Xifeng section shows that during L6-L4 layers, the paleohumidity changed intensively, it means that the general circulation of atmosphere was very activity and may be reflect an event of hot-humidity or the climatic boundary of the dry and humid general circulations. After L4, special in L4-L2 layers, the amplitude of paleohumidity changes to gentle, and the trend of humidity to decrease, but since S2 the trend of the humidity have changed to increase.
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    澜沧江河道冲淤变化与来沙系数的格兰吉尔因果分析
    邹高禄, 罗怀良
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 698-703.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.698
    摘要   PDF (898KB)
    采用格兰吉尔因果关系模型以及时间序列平稳性的ADF检验技术,结合23年的实测资料数据,分析了澜沧江天然来沙量的变化是否会导致澜沧江河道冲淤发生变化。结果发现:(1) 澜沧江历年来沙系数变化是一个不稳定的时间过程、但历年冲淤变化却是一个稳定的时间过程;(2) 澜沧江河道(允景洪断面)历年来沙系数变化对于冲淤变化不存在格兰吉尔因果关系,或前者对后者无预测关系,因此澜沧江河道来沙系数的增加(或减少)都不一定导致断面淤积量增大(或冲刷量增大)。前人得出的"随来沙系数的增大,断面淤积量有所增加,反之,则冲刷量增加"的结论值得商榷。
    The Lanchang-Meikon River is an important international river. In recent years, the basin of this river has gradually become the region where some countries or regioanl groups, located along both of its banks, have stressed research and development and invested a lot. The river is one of the most active factors in the environment of physical geography of the Lanchang River basin. Water flow and its bedload have important impact on shipment development, construction of water power stations, and land use. There Thus, a placement of stress on research of the impact of changes in the natural incoming sediments on the scouring and silting changes of the Lanchang River will provide an important basis for its terrace development. Using Granger causality model, the ADF time series stability test technique, and the available on-site collected data within a period of 23 years, this study conducts an analysis of whether or not changes in the incoming sediments of the Lanchang River will lead to scouring and silting changes. This study finds that: (1) the variable of the yearly coefficients of incoming sediments of the Lanchang River is a non-stability time series process; but in the contrary, the variable of the yearly scouring and silting changes is a stability one; (2) there are no Granger causal relations, or predictive relations, found from the changes in the incoming sediments of the Lanchang River (Yunjinghong Section) to those in the scouring and silting. Thus, an increase (or decrease) in the coefficient of incoming sediments of the Lanchang River will uncertainly lead to an increase in the section silting (or an increase in the section scouring). This does not accord with the suggstion in the past research. Thus, we suggest that the former study's suggestion may be discussible.
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    珠江虎门潮汐水道难降解有机污染物入海通量研究
    杨清书, 麦碧娴, 傅家谟, 盛国英, 罗孝俊, 林峥
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 704-709.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.704
    摘要   PDF (1027KB)
    对采自虎门潮汐水道狮子洋4个采样点表层水样中的多环芳烃、有机氯农药进行了定量分析。洪、枯水期水体中多环芳烃总量(颗粒相和溶解相) 分别是786~964 ng/L、11 360~19 603 ng/L;有机氯农药总量分别是9.68~26.29 ng/L、41.65~96.23 ng/L。根据4个采样点洪、枯水期有机污染物浓度的平均值估算多环芳烃、有机氯农药的年均入海通量。初步估算结果显示:多环芳烃的总入海通量(溶解相和颗粒相)为438.4×103 kg/a,其中颗粒相是52.5×103 kg/a;16种优控多环芳烃的入海通量为247.9×103 kg/a。有机氯农药的总入海通量是2.6×103 kg/a,其中六六六的入海通量为1.1×103 kg/a,滴滴涕类的入海通量为0.3×103 kg/a,其它有机氯农药的入海通量为1.2×103 kg/a。
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface water samples from Humen tidal channel were identified and measured quantitatively, based on USEPA 8000 series methods and under quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC). The total (particulate plus dissolved phase) concentrations of PAHs in surface water from Humen tidal channel in both high flow season and low flow season were 786-964 ng/L and 11 360-19 603 ng/L respectively, and the total concentrations of OCPs in both seasons were 9.68-26.29 ng/L and 41.65-96.23 ng/L respectively. The average of concentrations of the 4 water samples from Humen tidal channel both in high flow season and in low flow season was used to estimate the annual fluxes of PAHs and OCPs. The results are as follows: the total PAHs (particulate and dissolved phase) flux from the Pearl River Artery to the Lingdingyang Estuary was 438.4?103 kg/a,and the flux of the particulate phase PAHs was 52.5?103 kg/a; the flux of 16 PAHs was estimated to be 247.9?103 kg/a. The total OCPs flux was 2.6?103 kg/a,of which the HCHs, DDTs and other OCPs were 1.1?103 kg/a,0.3?103 kg/aand 1.2?103 kg/a respectively.
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    20年来部分黑土耕层有机质和全氮含量的变化
    杨学明, 张晓平, 方华军, 梁爱珍
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 710-714.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.710
    摘要   PDF (442KB)
    黑土有机质含量的变化一直倍受社会关注。根据第二次全国土壤普查的采样记录,2001年在吉林省黑土区采集了27个土壤样品,分析测定了耕层土壤(深度与第二次土普数据相同)的有机质和全氮含量。与第二次土普查数据对比发现,过去20年间,吉林省黑土土壤有机质和全氮含量有增有减,但平均水平无明显变化。与已有的研究对比分析,高产玉米生产条件下的根系碳输入量可能抵消矿化损失的有机质量,使水土流失不严重区域的黑土土壤有机质水平维持平衡,有机质含量下降的土壤可能是水土流失的结果。而在水土流失不严重地区土壤有机质则可能增加。
    Black soils are main agricultural soils in Northeast China and the organic matter content of these soils has been one of the hot research topics for many years. By referencing the data and sampling locations in the Second National Soil Surveys of Jilin Province conducted in the 1980s, we re-sampled 27 black soils along the Jing-Ha (Beijing-Harbin) railway in central Jilin. The contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen of those soils were determined and compared in pair with the data measured 20 years ago on an equivalent depth. We found that 2-decades intensive farming affected differently the contents of soil organic matter and total nitrogen, with increasing for some soils and decreasing for others. However, there was no significant difference in overall average of soil organic matter. By comparing the results with other studies, we believe that the present corn dominated production has balanced soil organic matter level of black soils through roots alone in areas where soil erosion was not a problem. However, the soils that organic matter decreased during the past two decades might be subject to severe soil erosion. During the same time, some black soils gained organic matter.
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    川江中坝遗址5000年来洪水事件研究
    张强, 杨达源, 施雅风, 葛兆帅, 姜彤
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 715-720.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.715
    摘要   PDF (704KB)
    川江中坝遗址自然地层与文化层测年、粒度分析及其与长江沿岸现代洪积物粒度分析对比研究表明,中坝遗址自然沉积层为多期洪水泛滥成因。文化层中大量破碎陶罐、瓦片以及窑址的发现,结合实地调查表明当时遗址区主要以制盐为主。一定数量未燃尽的段木的发现,表明人们为制盐或烧制陶器而砍伐树木,导致水土流失与生态恶化,水土流失导致河床淤积,储水量减少,从而加重洪灾程度、加剧河床演变。频繁的洪水泛滥使研究区河床发生较大变化,使遗址从河岸孤立出去,成为河中心的一个孤岛。
    Field investigation was performed on Zhongba site, the Chuanjiang River, and at the same time, sampling for grain size analysis and 14C dating were also collected for the research of flood events and its possible influences on the human activities in the study region. For exact determination of the flood sediments of Zhongba site, modern flood sediments along the Changjiang River were taken for comparison research. Grain size analysis is performed on these samples along the bank of the Changjiang River for determining the sedimentary environment. Research results indicate that the grain size characteristics of the modern flood sediments along the Changjiang River are similar when compared to those samples from the natural layers of the Zhongba site, which means that the natural layers of Zhongba site were the results of flood events in different periods. Geomorphological investigation in the study region also provides evidences for this viewpoint. On-the-spot investigation of the site indicates that natural layers characterized by flooding alluvium interrupted the cultural layers. It can be said that floods of different periods exert great influences on human activities, interrupting the sequence of the sedimentation of the section. The main phenomenon is the cultural hiatus of the site section. Large amount of broken keramics and utensils for salt producing and the large kiln were excavated near the site indicating that the salt production was the main economic activities. Large amount of burned trees were found in the natural layers. People here destroyed forest for making keramics and utensils or for salt production, which leaded to the great loss of loss and water and resulted in deterioration of ecological environment in the study region, which in turn leaded to the deteriorating and more serious flood disasters. That is the main reason for the phenomenon that the natural layers were interrupted by the natural layers (flood alluvium layer). Frequently occurred flood inundation caused fast evolutions of the riverbed. Floods and evolution of the river channel cut the site off from the riverbank, making the site the geographically isolated island. Therefore, the human economic activities along the bank of the Changjiang River are receiving tremendous impacts from the floods. And at the same time, improper human activities exert negative influences on ecological environment. In the near future, under the influences of the global warming, stress should be put on the research of the influences from the occurrence of the flood events and riverbed evolution on the local human social economic activities.
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    云南气象灾害特征及成因分析
    解明恩, 程建刚
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 721-726.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.721
    摘要   PDF (749KB)
    用1950~1999年气象灾害资料,分析云南气象灾害的主要特征,具有种类多、频率高、重叠交错;分布广、季节性、区域性突出;成灾面积小、累积损失大的特征。指出地理环境、气候、人类活动是形成云南气象灾害的主要原因。特殊的低纬高原、邻近热带海洋、地形地貌复杂、山高坡陡、植被少、降雨集中、地质构造复杂、断裂活动强烈是形成云南气象灾害的地理环境因素。季风强弱与冬夏大气环流差异是决定云南气象灾害的主要气候背景。人口剧增,垦植过度,滥伐森林,水土流失严重指出是加剧云南气象灾害频繁发生和损失严重的主要人为因素,提出了云南气象灾害的防灾减灾对策。
    The major characteristics of weather disasters in Yunnan Province is analyzed by using weather disasters data in the period of 1950-1999, weather disasters in Yunnan Province have characteristics of multi-kinds,high frequence,overlapping,wide distribution,obvious seasonality and regionalization,few disaster formation area and serious accumulated losses. The formation mechanism and occurrence background of weather disasters in Yunnan Province has also discussed. The results show that geographical environment,climate and human activities are main factors to form weather disasters in Yunnan Province. The geographical environment elements to form weather disasters in yunnan include low latitude plateau,approaching tropical oceans,complicated topographical features,cliffy mountain,few vegetation,concentrated rainfall,complicated geological structure and strong fault actions. The strong or weak monsoon activities and the difference of general atmospheric circulation in winter and summer over Yunnan are the climatic background to form weather disasters. Population increase,excessive wasteland reclamation,denudation forest,serious water and soil erosion are main human factors to intensify weather disasters occurrence frequently and loss seriousness in yunnan. At last countermeasure of weather disasters prevention and reduction were put forward.
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    基于生态价值核算的土地利用政策环境评价
    于书霞, 尚金城, 郭怀成
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 727-732.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.727
    摘要   PDF (764KB)
    作为战略环境评价的一种类型,政策环境评价是指对已有的或计划制定的政策及其替代方案可能产生的环境影响进行的系统、综合的评价过程。文章以生态系统服务功能价值为评价指标,通过对政策实施前后生态服务功能价值变化的比较分析,对吉林省生态省建设中土地利用政策的环境影响进行定量分析评价。结果表明,从生态环境和自然资源保护角度出发,该政策基本可行,但需要加强对社会用地等方面的控制。文章对生态系统服务功能价值核算理论的应用以及政策环境评价方法进行了探索。
    Being one type of strategic environmental assessment (SEA), policy environmental assessment (policy EA) is to analysis, predict and assess the significance of the potential environmental impacts of policy and its options or alternatives, both negative and active, in a systematic, comprehensive procedure, and then to make sure the results are considered by the policy makers and integrated into decision-making process as early as possible. Being in the higher hierarchy of decision-making, and because of the complexity and uncertainty of the proposed policies, policy EA are falling behind that of program and planning EA both in the academic researches and practices. The effective, systematic and universal methodology to policy SEA is still not formed, which is the main obstacle for its application in practice. In this study, the environmental assessment of land-use policy in Jilin Province is navigated using the possible changes of ecological service values as criteria. The ecological service values were considered to be the combined, quantitative exhibition of the conditions of ecosystem. The changes of ecological service values can reflect the impacts of land-use policy execution. It is shown that the land-use policy of Jilin Province proposed during the process of constructing ecological province is generally rational from the environmental and natural resources preservation perspectives, while the common land expansion should be controlled strictly. It is significant to apply the ecological services evaluation theory to quantitative policy SEA methods in the further studies.
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    基于盲数理论的地下水允许开采量计算初探
    李如忠, 钱家忠, 汪家权, 孙世群
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 733-737.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.733
    摘要   PDF (1049KB)
    基于地下水系统所具有的多种不确定性特征,运用盲数理论,定义了水文地质参量盲数等基本概念,在此基础上,尝试性地提出了盲信息下地下水资源允许开采量计算模型。由此模型不仅可以求得地下水补给量(或允许开采量)的各种可能取值区间,也能得到各灰区间对应的主观可信度,从而为地下水资源管理决策提供了更为科学、丰富的信息,也为地下水开采的风险分析提供了依据。实例研究表明,运用盲数理论进行地下水允许开采量计算,所得结果较传统水文地质学方法计算结果更加符合实际情况。
    Groundwater is an important water supply source for the northen cities in China. Because of without scientific evaluation and management on groundwater withdrawal in the past years, the phenomena of over-mining of groundwater resources are universal in these cities. In groundwater allowable withdrawal evaluation, the traditional method is based on determination model. In fact, there are some uncertainties in groundwater system. Based on the characteristics of objective randomness and subjective uncertainty of it, the blind number theory in unascertained mathematics is applied to groundwater resources evaluation. On the basis of defination of hydrogeological parameter blind numbers, a model for groundwater allowable withdrawal calcualtion is proposed. Using the model established, not only the possible interval values of groundwater supply but also their corresponding faith degree can be obtained. According to these useful information, the risk results of groundwater allowable withdrawal evaluation can be carried out. Case study shows that the results derived from the unascertained mathematics theory accord closer with practical situation than that of traditional method of groundwater allowable withdrawal calcualtion.
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    综述
    关于中国古代“海上丝绸之路”最早始发港研究述评
    韩湖初, 杨士弘
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 738-745.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.738
    摘要   PDF (2282KB)
    通过广东近年有关中国古代海上丝绸之路始发港的研究,得出比较一致的意见是:①番禺(广州)虽是岭南有名的大都会,但并非最早始发港;②中国西汉对外海上贸易和交通中心在北部湾,故其沿海地区的合浦、徐闻和日南(今越南境内)成为海丝路的最早始发港;至吴晋以后海上贸易中心始转移到番禺;③合浦与徐闻同为始发港,但合浦的自然条件更为优越,其地位比徐闻更为重要,汉时也比徐闻繁荣。
    This paper provides a review on the researches in the earliest departure harbor of the Silk Road on Sea in ancient China, and concludes three opinions of consensus: (1)Though Pan-yu(Guangzhou) is a famous city in South China, it was not the earliest departure harbor of the Silk Road on Sea in ancient China. (2)Before being moved to Pan-Yu City in Wu-Jun dynasty, the center for traffic and overseas trade is always in Beibu Gulf in western Han dynasty, so the coastal cities in Beibu Gulf, like He-Pu City,Xu-Wen City and Ri-Nan City (in Viet Nam today), were the earliest departure harbors of the Silk Road on Sea in ancient China. (3)Though being the same earliest departure harbor as Xu-Wen City, He-Pu City was superior to Xu-Wen City in geographic position and natural conditions, and being more prosperous in Han dynasty.
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    山东地区黄土研究综述
    张祖陆, 辛良杰, 聂晓红
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 746-752.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.746
    摘要   PDF (1003KB)
    山东地区黄土开始堆积时期普遍较晚,目前已见的剖面中,以青州傅家庄剖面堆积厚度最大(30 m以上),起始堆积时间最早,出露的最老层位为L9,TL测年时间约为0.8 Ma B.P.。山东地区黄土成因类型多样,物质来源广泛,其岩性特征与其他地区的黄土有明显的差别;在本地区内部,黄土的差异也比较明显,大体可分为两大成因分布区:渤海湾滨海与岛屿区和鲁中山前区。前者黄土粒度较粗,且普遍含有海相微体化石,其物质来源主要为末次冰期时期出露的渤海陆架物质,西北气流携带而来的内陆远源物质占次要地位。而后者黄土类型成因多样,东部的潍坊、青州黄土分布区,受到末次冰期时强劲冬季风的影响,物质来源主要为北部出露的渤海湾,向西至淄博、济南地区则已逐渐过渡为西北内陆风尘物质成分占据主导。
    The loess of Shandong, located in the margin of Eastern China,shows some stripes as a whole,especially on the windward slopes,the terraces of the central mountainous region and northwest coastal zone of Jiaodong hills.Among the loess sections distributed in Shandong,the Fujiazhuang section(30m)at Qingzhou is the best,and can be regarded as the typical section of Shandong.TL dating results of Fujiazhuang loess show that the lowest layer of Shandong loess is L9,with the age of 0.8 Ma B.P.,which accords with the third borderline determined by Liu Dongsheng.Many sections have the tertiary red clay layers. Based on the main researches on loess spreading all over Shandong enumerated in this paper,the authors conclude that the grain sizes, composition and origins of loess between Shandong and inland regions is obviously different,and the same within Shandong. Based on the characters, two areas can be allocated: the coastal district, islands and islets of the Bohai Sea and the central district of Shandong.The former loess in which many tiny marine fossils have been found and whose grain sizes are much coarser, however,the latter has more complex material sources and characters.According to the analytical results of grain sizes and spore,the sea level of Shandong has been known to have several fluctuations between transgression and regression since the middle Pleistocene,so bald Bohai shelf was the main material sources for the continental loess during ice ages,and it severely influences the loess of Qingzhou,Weifang etc,the districts of the central district of Shandong. But the loess of Zibo and Jinan,the west of the central district, mostly originates from western Gobies and deserts.
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    研究报道
    1954年长江巨洪中物理因子的叠加作用
    冯利华, 陈雄
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 753-756.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.753
    摘要   PDF (585KB)
    分析了形成1954年长江巨洪的物理因子,指出现有研究主要侧重单个物理因子对1954年长江巨洪的影响。事实上,1954年长江巨洪是这些因子叠加作用的结果,并且因子越多,叠加作用越强,巨洪的量级也就越大。
    Super-huge flood along the Changjiang River refers to extra large flood in the entire drainage basin of the Changjiang River. Known from the measured records on floods at Hankou Station since 1865, the largest flood is occurred in 1954 (highest flood level 29.73m). Based on current available studies, major physical factors for the formation of super-huge flood along the Changjiang River in 1954 include: (1) sunspot activity, (2) El Nino event, (3) strong earthquake in the south of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, (4) solar eclipse, (5) cross eclipse year of perihelion, (6) astronomical cycle, (7) inter-star gravitation, (8) subtropical high of West Pacific, (9) anomalous field of sea temperature at previous winter. The effect of these physical factors on super-huge flood along the Changjiang River is strong also weak. Example, the effect of sunspot activity, El Nino event, strong earthquake in the south of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau on super-huge flood along the Yangtze River is relatively strong which belongs to strong signal, while astronomical cycle, inter-star gravitation to weak signal. As they result in super-huge flood along the Yangtze River in the light of large-scale anomaly of general circulation, sunspot activity, El Nino event, strong earthquake in the south of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, solar eclipse may be named sun-air interaction, ocean-air interaction, land-air interaction, eclipse-air interaction respectively. The general researches are mainly focused on the impact of single physical factor on super-huge flood along the Changjiang River in 1954. In fact, super-huge flood along the Yangtze River in 1954 is the superposition result of these factors. Because of the most physical factors and the strongest superposition in 1954 compared with the other floods in the 20th century, the grade of super-huge flood along the Changjiang River in 1954 is the greatest.
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    中国城市周边乡村旅游地空间结构
    吴必虎, 黄琢玮, 马小萌
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 757-763.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.757
    摘要   PDF (1078KB)
    根据2001年中国69个不同规模城市周边100个乡村旅游地的相关信息,对乡村旅游地与其一级客源地城市间的距离进行了测定、统计和处理,发现在一定的假设条件下,中国乡村旅游地在大、中城市周围的分布总体上呈距离衰减趋势(除了在开始的30 km内),即与城市的距离越远,乡村旅游地分布越少,84%的旅游地集中在距其一级客源地城市中心100 km以内的地区;乡村旅游地在城市周边的分布主要有两个密集带,最密集地带出现在距城市20 km左右的地区,次密集带出现在距城市70 km左右的地区;在两个密集带之间距中心城市50 km左右,出现一个明显的乡村旅游地低谷带,推论原因是那里出现了次级和/或同级中心地的干扰。
    Rural tourism development in China has witnessed a rapid growth in the last decade, and many authors went to deep understanding about definition of rural tourism, rural tourism product programming and planning, and other aspects of agro-tourism. But according to literature review, we need more knowledge about spatial structures of rural tourism development around cities where main markets are located. Seventy four rural attractions around 69 Chinese cities are randomly collected and processed by employing geographical techniques to explore spatial structure of those attractions by the authors. Under some definite assumptions, several findings could be observed: All rural attractions distributed around cities demonstrate distance decay, although with some fluctuations, which could described by a simulative equation of 6th order as:
    y =-4E-0.6x6 + 0.0004x5-0.0145x4 + 0.2622x3-2.3527x2 + 8.4049x + 2.1296
    There are as high as 88% rural tourism attractions that were built up within a distance of 100 km from their primary origin city, while two concentrated sections could be identified at about 20 km and 70 km respectively away from the central city, but the 20 km section is more higher clustered one for rural attraction development. At about 50 km section away from the central city, which is just located between the two attraction clusters, a less developed area for rural tourism appears where only a few of attractions have been built. Spatial analysis tells the story behind the curtain: sub-central cities/towns around the major origin city are often allocated at that distance and bring interference to recreational activities there.
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    吉林省旅游产业发展空间结构研究
    曹艺民, 袁家冬
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 764-766.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.764
    摘要   PDF (363KB)
    旅游产业发展空间结构是旅游产业发展战略和规划的关键与核心。为了科学合理地综合开发旅游资源,建立和发展旅游产业,有必要运用科学的方法和区域经济发展规划的系统理论,研究和分析旅游产业发展的空间结构。这对于制定和实施区域旅游发展规划有着重要的意义。
    Jilin Provice is a large ecological province in China, and it is rich in both nature and human tourism resources. Tourism industry has become a promising sector for adjusting regional industrial structure and developing Jilin ecological province. Spatial structure of tourism industry development becomes a key part for designing tourism industry strategy planning that how to develop tourism resources, tourism product, touring line and key tourism project is made up of the main content. This paper analyses development conditions for tourism industry of Jilin Province, and discusses overall strategy and master spatial structure, key sectors, key products and key projects etc.
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    老年前期男性血红蛋白正常参考值与中国地理因素
    葛淼, 肖雁飞, 刘昆, 李新艳, 梁伟, 陈宏飞
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (6): 767-770.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.06.767
    摘要   PDF (692KB)
    为制定中国老年前期男性血红蛋白正常参考值的统一标准提供科学依据,收集了中国186个单位用氰化高铁血红蛋白(HiCN)法测定的22 799例老年前期男性血红蛋白正常参考值,运用相关分析和回归分析的方法,研究了其与地理因素的关系。发现老年前期男性血红蛋白正常参考值与中国地理因素之间有很显著的相关关系。依据血红蛋白正常参考值与地理因素的依赖关系把中国分为青藏区、西南区、西北区、东南区、华北区、东北区等6个区。
    This paper aims at supplying a scientific basis for uniting the normal reference value standard of hemoglobin of Chinese presenile men,a research is made about relationship between the reference value of Chinese healthy presenile men's hemoglobin and five geographical factors in 161 areas in China, the normal reference value is determined by the hemoglobincyanide method. The ages of the volunteers range from 46 to 59 years old. It is found that the correlation of geographical factors and the reference value of Chinese presenile men's hemoglobin are quite significant (F=192.81) from the following equation:
    Ŷ=150.7+0.005 880 X1-1.452 X4+0.0113 1 X5±17.9
    F=192.81
    In the above equation, is the normal reference value of presenile men's hemoglobin (g/L); X1 is the altitude (m); X4 is the annual average temperature (℃); X5 is the annual precipitation (mm); 17.9 are the value of the 1.96 residual standard deviations. If geographical values are obtained in some areas, the reference value of Chinese presenile men's hemoglobin of this area can be reckoned using regression equation. For example, in the Beijing area, the altitude is 31.2 m, the annual average temperature is 11.5 ℃, and the annual precipitation is 644.2 mm. By means of the regression equation, the following can be calculated:
    Ŷ=150.7+0.005880×31.2-1.452×11.5+0.01131×644.2±17.9=141.5±17.9
    So, the calculated normal reference value of presenile men's hemoglobin can be obtained, the normal reference value of presenile men's hemoglobin is 141.5±17.9 g/L. Furthermore, according to the similarity of the reference value of Chinese presenile men's hemoglobin, taking the altitude as the main dividing basis and considering effects of other geographical factors and population distribution, China can be divided into six regions: Qinghai-Xizang, Southwest, Northwest, Southeast, North and Northeast regions.
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