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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      1997年, 第17卷, 第2期 刊出日期:1997-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    区域开发与区域划分——中国古代的历史经验
    陈述彭, 曾杉
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 97-104.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.97
    摘要   PDF (647KB)
    中国人很早以前就有区域分异的概念,由此产生的区域可持续发展思维成功地运用到三角洲的开发和三角洲文明的形成之中。在以海岸带为基线、面向内陆和面向海洋的区域开发与区域交往的漫长历程中,古代留下众多历史启示。古往今来,区域划分一直是中国区域开发的重要组成部分。5000年文明成功的经验与失败的教训,锤炼出区域划分的目标:寻求区域内部的向心力和亲和力、保持中央集权与地方分权的最佳临界状态、分级处理模糊边界。并且,由此而发展了一套区域划分的准则:行政管理区域与自然单元吻合、经济发展优势互补、尊重民族、文化和历史传统以及以城市为区域核心。如此保障了区域开发的可持续性。古为今用,浩瀚历史包容的经验,值得吸取,以正确对待和处理勘界、腹地扩张、流域分割等当前区域工作中的新问题。展望21世纪,区域开发的突破点:面向海洋,以海港城市为核心。
    Chinese had noticed regional differences in ancient times and thus arouse the concept of regional sustainable development which was successfully applied to delta cultivation and civilization. Over the long term of regional development and regional exchange, much experience therefore was accumulated based on coastal zones, toward both inner land and open ocean. Regionalization, a basic job preceding sustainable development of a region, has also been carried out in China since ancient times. More important, patterns of regionalization were retained, and serve as references even today. Reflections on China’s historical enlightenment can assist us in locating the breakthroughs in regional development in the 21st century: facing the oceans with the seaport cities as nucleuses.
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    遥感及多源地理数据分类中的人工神经网络模型
    王野乔
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 105-112.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.105
    摘要   PDF (842KB)
    人工神经网络模型为包括遥感数据在内的多源高维空间数据提供了有效的分类方法。从理论上介绍了后向散射误差传导模型和模块化模型,并在应用上对上述模型进行评价。
    Improving land cover classification and mapping accuracy has long been an important objective for remote sensing and spatial data investigators. It is generally recognized that improvements to classification can be made by coupling the information contained in multispectral, multitemporal, and multisource spatial data with human analyst’s expertise and methodology. A direct application of conventional statistically based classification approaches, however, may not be appropriate because of the differences in measurement scales and violation of distribution assumptions for multisource spatial data. Therefore, a distribution free and scale free classification scheme is desirable. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) technology is one of the optimal choices for this type of application. In this paper, two ANN models of backpropagation (BP) and modular ANN (MANN)were discussed and applied in land cover classification. Conceptually, ANN models have the potential to operate similarly to the way in which human image interpreters do. ANN features corresponding to the synapses, neurons, and axons of the brain are input weights, processing elements, and output paths. The BP model consists of three layers. The input layer represents the input data patterns, the output layer represents the classification scheme, and the hidden layer is responsible for information transformation and calculation. MANN model consists of several subnets or individual backpropagation networks (referred to as “local experts”). Each subnet is responsible for interpreting a subset of the input data. In multisource spatial data cases, while the unique spectral information from each season can be employed by individual subnets, spectral mixings among different land cover categories in single date remote sensing data can be filtered. MANN model provide the mechanism to improve the classification performance of simple BP model. Multisource spatial data combinations on (1) multispectral, multitemporal Landsat TM data, (2) multispectral, multitemporal Landsat TM and transportation data, and (3) Multispectral, multitemporal Landsat TM and illumination model data, were classified by the two ANN models, respectively. It concluded that both BP and MANN models performed well in high dimensional multisource spatial data classification. With modular and competition mechanism, the MANN model performed better than the BP model.
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    长江产业带建设特征、问题与发展思路
    陈雯, 虞孝感
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 113-119.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.113
    摘要   PDF (668KB)
    90年代以来,长江沿江地区经济增长迅速,沿江产业带初具规模,但产业带建设还面临着总体实力弱、地区差距大、产业结构和区域整体性差,粮食、交通、能源、环境保障不足等限制性因素。今后长江产业带建设应以重点开发与整体推进相结合,促进区域经济协调和整体优势的发挥,调整产业结构,加快开发步伐,加强能源、交通、环境等保障工程建设,促进经济适度高速、持续增长。
    Since the critical strategy of developing the Changjiang(Yangtze) River Basin has been put forward from the beginning of the 1990s, economic development in this area has proceeded quite rapidly and industrial corridor has begun to take shape. Under the rational and complete utilization of the regional advantages, the region is expected to be the largest river industrial corridor in the world. However, this area is also facing such significant problems that there is not enough strong economic power, but there is enlarged regional disparity, low degree of industrial structure, weak regional integration and insufficient guarantee of energy, transportation and environment. Thus it is imperative to perform the development strategy to combine focal exploitation with integral development so as to harmonize the regional economy and bring integral advantages into full play. Moreover, It is also critical to adjust the industrial structure, quicken the open pace and set up the guarantee projects of energy, transportation and environment in order to assure the proper fast and sustainable growth.
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    东北地区区域经济发展问题研究
    刘虹, 赵淑芝
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 120-126.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.120
    摘要   PDF (566KB)
    东北地区是经济联系紧密的较为成熟的经济区域,近年来经济发展相对缓慢,增长乏力,形成了所谓的东北现象。但是,东北地区具有较好的发展条件,经济增长潜力大,通过加快改革,扩大开放,加大科技投入和改善基础设施,实现经济增长方式的转变,东北地区经济将得到振兴和发展。
    Although the economy of various provinces integrates to a great extent, Northeast China develops quite slowly in recent years, which is the so called “Phenomenon of Northeast China”. However, with favorable conditions and great potential for further development, Northeast China’s economy will surely be revived through accelerating reform and opening up to the outside world, increasing investment in science and technology, improving infrastructure facilities and shifting the economic growth pattern.
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    非均质空间动态随机扩散的一般方程及其应用
    单卫东, 包浩生, 张凤轩
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 127-133.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.127
    摘要   PDF (997KB)
    通过非均质空间条件下革新随机游动扩散模式的理论推导,结合实证研究成果,建立了非均质空间动态随机扩散方程。同时,将此方程应用于城市基准地价评估,予以实例验证。
    Any spatial diffusion process is a time and dependent process. A spatial diffusion has its regularities of time and space. Since T. Hagerstrand originated the time-space analysis, the theories on spatial diffusion have been developed. But, the nonhomogeneous dynamic spatial diffusion has not been solved satisfactorily. This paper gives a second order differential equation on the nonhomogeneous dynamic spatial diffusion based on a stochastic movement. The model of the random movement is set up for three neighour grids. On the basis of principles of the random movement, a probability equation can be obtained. With expanding the equation by Tayler series and taking its limit, a general partial differential equation on the spatial diffusion with time dependent can be deduced. But it is too complicated and difficult to find general solution and is only approximately analysed by the numberical method. Deriving from the studies on the spatial diffusion by Hagerstrand, a general dynamic spatical diffusion equation in the nonhomogeneous space can be resulted. Hagerstrand proved that the accumulating amounts of spatial diffusion accord with a Logistic Curve. As a diffusion has proceeded for a long time, we can find the saturated amount of diffusion from the partial differential equation. A simplified general equation on the dynamic spatial diffusion in nonhomogeneous space can be resulted from taking the saturated amount into a Logistic Curve. Finally, we give an example applying the equation for the appraisal of land basis price in Fuyang. The computing conclusions show: as the distance to diffusion center increases or the multiple quality decreases, the difference between saturated land price and instantaneous amount increases. In about two months, most of plots of the city can reach their saturated land price.
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    图们江地区水资源现状、潜力及其对区域开发的影响
    何岩, 邓伟, 周德民
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 134-140.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.134
    摘要   PDF (850KB)
    图们江地区4个市处于城市发展的初期阶段,污染企业较多,水域功能下降,水资源潜力退化明显,对区域开发和产业布局有重要影响。目前,珲春河水质较好,水量大,可为该区开发提供重要的水资源保证。因此,其开发的重点应以珲春市为热点区。
    The Tumen River region plays an important role in the economic expoitation belt along the border. The wise use of water resource is the main factor which defines the regional sustained development. Based on analysis of the regional water resource system and the current situation of water resource exploitation and utilization, the paper discusses the development potentiality of the regional water resource, the influence of water resource on the regional exploitation and countermeasures in detail. The results indicate that although there is a large amount of water in this region, the water resource which can be exploited is limited. The paper also predicts that the demand of water quantity in 2010 will surpass the capacity of the regional water resource exploitation. Meanwhile, the water environment is being polluted and the water resource potentiality declines apparently in the region.
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    红壤丘陵小区域水平上不同时段土壤质量变化的评价和分析
    王效举, 龚子同
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 141-149.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.141
    摘要   PDF (1051KB)
    引入相对土壤质量指数的概念,应用地理信息系统技术,为小区域水平上土壤质量时空变化的评价提供了一种方法,并用于千烟洲试验站开垦利用11a后土壤质量变化的评价。统计分析了农田、桔园、牧草地、人工林、天然林等多种土地利用方式下土壤质量变化的特征。
    Soil quality is one of the most important factors for sustaining the global biosphere and the basis for sustainable agriculture development. A method for evaluating soil quality changes in time and space at small regional level was developed and used to evaluate the changes of soil quality in Qian Yan Zhou Experimental Station (QYZES) located in subtropical zone in China after 11-year reclamation. The characteristics of soil quality changes in crop land, citrus orchards, pasture, sparse grass land, artificial forests, natural forests, bare land and other land use patterns were analyzed and discussed. Supported with the software of ARC/INFO and FOXBASE, the Qian-Yan-Zhou Soil Quality Information System (QYZSQIS) was developed. By introducing a concept of relative soil quality index (RSQI), soil quality and its changes were evaluated at the small regional level of QYZES from 1983 to 1994. The study proved that the development of QYZSQIS combining with database of soil changes in various periods was an effective method for evaluating changes of soil quality in time and space at small regional levels, which may be suitable to regional levels, RSQI could serve as uniform criteria making quality levels of regional soils comparative, and ΔRSQI, the changed value of RSQI, was a good standard for the evaluation of soil quality changes. After 11-year reclamation, soils with both very low quality and very high quality were decreased in area, and soil with medium quality obviously increased. As to the land use patterns, soil quality in paddy fields, vegetable fields, and citrus orchards was dominantly improved, however, in fuel woods, sparse grass land, and bare land was mainly degraded. Herb plays an important role in conservation and improvement of soil quality in subtropicalzone in China. The study also shows that soils with higher fertility were degraded more easily. It has the same significance both for improving low quality soils and conserving higher quality soils.
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    太湖地区西苕溪流域水文模型的设计
    姜彤, 许朋柱, 曹文清
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 150-157.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.150
    摘要   PDF (849KB)
    西苕溪流域位于人口众多、经济发达的太湖流域上游源头地区。受自然和气候特性的影响,该流域频繁遭到洪水灾害的袭击。为了定量研究西苕溪流域洪水发生机制和动态规律,本项目研制了一个局地尺度综合水文模型。该模型由若干个子模型组成,包括新安江模型及明渠河网非恒定流的水力学模型等。模型的检验结果表明,能被用于水利工程规划及洪水危险性评价中。
    Located in the headwater upstream of the Taihu Lake Basin, which is a dersely populated and economically developed area in China, the West Tiaoxi River catchment is a frequent flood hitted area due to its nature and characteristics of climate. A local scale integrated hydrological model has been developed for the studies of flood mechanisms and dynamics in this area. The model consists of several modules of sub models including the Xin’anjiang model and the hydraulic model of unsteady flow in open channels etc.. Testing results of the model show that it is reliable for planning the water resources engineering and for assessing flood risk.
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    大兴安岭泥炭微量元素分布特征及其环境意义
    朱颜明, 霍文毅, 陈定贵
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 158-162.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.158
    摘要   PDF (520KB)
    采用原子吸收光谱和等离子体发射光谱等现代仪器分析方法对大兴安岭泥炭垂直剖面中Cu、Pb、Zn、Cd、Hg、Cr、Ni、Co、Mn、Sr、Ba、B等12种微量元素进行了测定,结果表明,大兴安岭地区古莲、图强泥炭地和同一泥炭地沼泽泥炭发育的不同阶段,微量元素含量分布规律不十分明显,与俄罗斯典型同类泥炭相比,Mn含量俄罗斯泥炭明显高于大兴安岭泥炭,Zn、Co、B含量大兴安岭泥炭明显高于俄罗斯泥炭。大兴安岭高位泥炭中,微量元素特别是与人类活动密切相关的重金属,由下层到上层其含量有明显增高的特点,具有较重要的环境意义。通过不同地区高位泥炭微量元素地球化学谱的研究,可以再现人类活动影响下大气污染的历史。
    Samples of peat were collected from the Da Hingan Mountains. The contents of trace elements (including Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Hg, Cr, Hi, Co, Mn, Sr, Ba, B) in the vertical sections were measured with modern analytical methods (AAS and ICP). The results show that the dispersion regularity of trace clement concentrations was not very clear in Gulian peat and Tuqiang peat and in different stages of the same type of peat. Compared with the same type of Russian peat, the contents of Zn, Co and B in the Da Hingan Mountains was higher, but the content of Mn was obviously lower. In the high peat, the contents of trace elements increased from bottom layer to surface layer, especially for some heavy metals having close relationship with human activities. Studies on trace elemlent geochemistry spectrums of peat in different areas help to reconstruct the history of air pollution and have great environmertal significance.
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    宁夏灵盐地区荒漠化灾害与农牧业持续发展
    单鹏飞, 蔡昌俊, 温晋林
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 163-168.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.163
    摘要   PDF (796KB)
    分析了宁夏灵(武)盐(池)地区荒漠化灾害过程中自然环境与人为活动的相互作用,并讨论了区域农牧业经济发展和“退耕还牧”治沙等社会问题。在第四纪地质时期,荒漠化的发生发展是一种“气候-地貌”的自然过程;在人类历史时期是气候主控下人为叠加干扰的“自然-人为”地貌过程。自然环境与人为活动都具有使荒漠化发生正向或逆转变化的双重机制。
    The desertification of the earth surface is not only a kind of natural hazard but also a serious problem of eco environment. As a case study of the Lingwu-Yanchi region (i.e. Lingwu and Yanchi counties) beside the eastern bank of the Huanghe River of Ningxia, the paper first analyzes the natural environmental action, human activities and relation between them while the desertification and sand desert occurred or developed at that area in the Quaternary. The study results indicate that the changes of desertification in geological periods are a kind of climatic geomorphic processes which are completely caused and controlled by physical climatic changes of the glacial periods, but the changes in human history belong to a kind of climate human processes which are mainly controlled by climatic conditions and partly interfered by human economic activities. After that, the problems both of the desertification hazard and social continuous development are preliminarily discussed, such as the relations between land desertification and economic development of agricultural pastoral activities under the climatic warming and drying trend in the near future, and the problem of ecological and economic benefit using the way of‘decreasing the farming for increasing the grazing’ as the countermeasures on controlling the land desertification there under pouplation pressure growing fast in modern society.
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    内蒙古兴安盟旅游资源评价
    宋玉祥, 崔丽娟, 张毅
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 169-175.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.169
    摘要   PDF (947KB)
    沿边地区的开放和东北亚地区经济技术协作的推进,为兴安盟开发旅游资源、发展旅游业提供了机遇。把旅游业作为先导产业,是振兴兴安盟经济的理想选择。综合评价了兴安盟旅游资源,提出了兴安盟旅游资源的开发设想。
    There are distinctive tourist resources, special geographical position, and given historical background in Xingan League. All these provide advantages to develop tourism, such as traveler and natural resources, regional superiority. Both the opening of boundary regions and the advance of economic technology of Northeast Asia bring about chances to develop tourism and to exploit tourist resources. Taking tourism as the leading industry to develop economy in Xingan League is an ideal choice of the economic development. Through comprehensive evaluation, the paper presents the design of the distribution of tourist resources and the development of distinctive tourism.
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    黄土地区土壤重力侵蚀灰色系统模型研究
    傅炜
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 176-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.176
    摘要   PDF (1070KB)
    介绍了黄土丘陵沟壑区土壤重力侵蚀灰色系统预测模型的构造原理和方法,并用灰色关联度的方法来反映模型的预测值与山西离石王家沟流域重力侵蚀观测数据之间的关联性,用以分析模型的预测精度。同时为反映土壤重力侵蚀系统的动态变化规律,引入了残差辨识的理论和方法,以提高模型的预报水平。
    This paper presents constructive principles and building approaches of grey system prediction models for soil gravity erosion in loess hills and gullies. With the models, the author made test research on soil gravity erosion in Wangjiagou watershed in Lishi County, west Shanxi Provence. And the relationships between prediction values of the models and observed values of soil gravity erosion are reflected with gray relational extents, and prediction precisions of the models are analysed. Meanwhile, to mirror the dynamic changing rules of soil gravity erosion system, the principle and approaches of the remnant distinguishing are introduced, so as to improve prediction level of the models. The models have high prediction precisions, and provide a new way of quantitative analysis for researches on soil gravity erosion in loess regions.
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    图们江开发区组团式国际性中心城市构想
    张平宇
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 183-188.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.183
    摘要   PDF (769KB)
    从城市布局原理、中外港口城市布局实例对比,以及区域自然、环境、社会、文化和多国合作开发的特殊性等方面,论证了组团式多中心国际性中心城市是图们江开发区的最佳选择。
    This paper creates a new conception to construct the international central city of the Tumen River Development Zone on the basis of the analysis of the superiorities and problems for developing cities from the view of present condition in the Tumen River delta area and the background of Northeast Asia. The united and polycentric international city is the best distribution model not only in the spatial structrue but also in the organizing form. Its rationalization and practicability is thoroughly proved from varous aspects including the urban planning principle; comparison of port cities; specific characteristics of this area cooperation; and natural, environmental, social, cultrual factors etc.
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    黄国璋生平及其地理学术思想评述
    任志远, 黄春长, 严军平
    地理科学. 1997, 17 (2): 189-191.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1997.02.189
    摘要   PDF (421KB)
    黄国璋生平及其地理学术思想评述任志远黄春长严军平(陕西师范大学旅游与环境学院,西安710062)黄国璋先生是我国着名的地理学家、地理教育家、学术活动家、知名爱国民主人士。黄国璋先生于1928年在美国芝加哥大学获硕士学位。在他长达40多年的地理学术生。
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