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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2001年, 第21卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2001-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国区域发展规划编制与实施的病理分析及根治途径
    方创琳
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 97-102.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.97
    摘要   PDF (1828KB)
    分析了我国区域发展规划编制与实施效果的问卷调查,认为中国区域发展规划编制与实施效果总体良好,但在编制与实施中依然存在着六大病理,即规划意图表现为面向权力完成计划或追求政绩、规划阵容要么是"永久牌",要么是"飞鸽牌";规划目标追求脱离实际的"一步锁定"目标;规划程序沿袭自上而下的集权制;规划服务的对象追求成果至上和官至上;规划评审实行编审连体制。针对这些问题,应当立足规划病理,厉行对症下药;转换经营机制,倡导风险规划;做好规划实施追踪监控,提高规划应用导向前景。
    By analyzing the questionnaires about the effects of compiling and implementing the regional development planning in China, it is considered that the effects are well on the whole, but there are six symptoms existing respectively in planning intents as follows. Planning intentions are to complete plans and seek achievement. Planning line-ups are for all time or unabiding. Planning procedures follow unitarianism from up to down. Planning appraisements implement the integration of compiling and censoring. Planning targets seeks ivory-towered "a skyrocketing rise". Planning service objects are fruit and officer conciliarism. In view of these planning symptoms, it is wise to suit the remedy to the symptom. convert the operation mechanism, advocate the venture planning, track and supervise the implementation of the planning, improve the implication-oriented foreground of the planning.
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    我国棉花主产省区比较优势分析
    盛承发, 王红托, 苏建伟, 宣维健
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 103-107.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.103
    摘要   PDF (2263KB)
    1992~1998年平均,我国12个棉花主产省(区)的粮棉单产比和植棉相对效益分别为1.94~7.24和0.95~5.41。经统计分析,这一单产比和相对效益每上升1,一个省1999年与1992年棉花产量之比就分别下降34.0个百分点、上升48.3个百分比。据此比较优势分析,在1999年我国棉花总产下调的形势下,甘肃、新疆宜保持原有产量水平,江苏、浙江、山东、河北、四川5省宜适当下调,而江西、安徽、河南、湖南、湖北5省则宜酌情处理。基于近期国际棉花市场形势的变化,作者认为,与其它省份一样,2001年甘肃、新疆的棉花产量也有较大的上调空间。
    In 1992-1998, mean unit yield ratios of food grain to lint cotton and cotton-growing profits relative to other agricultural activities ranged from 1.94 to 7.24 and from 0.95 to 5.41 in 12 major cotton-producing provinces, respectively. By statistical analysis, every 1 increase in the ratio will probably cause a 34.0% decrease and 48.3% increase in the ratio of cotton yield in 1999 to that in 1992, respectively. Based on this analysis of comparative advantages in the 12 provinces, under the nation-wide condition of reducing cotton production, it is reasonable to maintain the production levels in Gansu and Xinjiang, reduce the production to rational levels in 5 provinces of Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Shandong, Hebei and Sichuan, and adjust properly the production levels in the other 5 provinces of Jiangxi, Anhui, Henan, Hunan and Hubei. Considering the change in international market in the near future, the authors believe that cotton yield in Xinjiang and Gansu will further increase, and keeps the pace with the national production in 2001.
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    北半球冬季纬向平均环流的结构及对我国气候的影响
    龚道溢, 王绍武
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 108-112.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.108
    摘要   PDF (244KB)
    冬季对流层纬圈平均纬向风(u)最主要的模态表现为两个相反符号的极值中心,一个在30°~35°N之间,另一个则在55°N。与此相联系的纬圈平均高度场最突出的模态也是有两个相反符号的中心,一个在40°N附近,另外一个则在65°N附近。因此40°N和65°N纬圈平均位势高度的差可以很好定义西风指数。西风环流的强弱不仅对北半球的气候有显著影响,对我国冬季的气温和降水也有显著关系。在高指数环流盛行的年份,我国普遍气温偏高。160个站平均气温与西风指数的相关系数达到0.63。同时华北及以南降水增加,其中黄土高原、关中平原及以东地区相关最显著。160站平均降水量与西风指数的相关达0.38。高指数年份里,西伯利亚高压和东亚大槽都减弱,低指数年份则增强,因此影响我国冬季气候。
    As revealed by the empirical orthogonal function analysis (EOF), the dominant modes of northern hemispheric zonally-mean wind (u) in winter show two centers of opposite sign, one center located near 30?-35癗 and another near 55癗. The prominent modes of geopotential heights also show two centers, one is at 40癗 and another at 65癗. These two modes connected tightly. So, the zonal index can be defined as the difference in geopotential height between 40癗 and 65癗. This kind of zonal index correlate with westerly of 55癗 at 0.96. The anomalous variation of the westerly can impact the winter surface temperature and precipitation of China significantly. During the high-index years, most of China become warmer, and the precipitation in the mid-eastern China will increase. Correlation between the zonal index and the 160-station mean temperature and precipitation is 0.63 and 0.38 respectively.The Siberia High and Eastern Asia Trough that show the powerful control of winter climate of China, usually become weak during the high zonal index years.
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    泥石流防灾优先性研究
    刘希林
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 113-117.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.113
    摘要   PDF (223KB)
    防灾优先性是减灾决策的组成部分。阐述了防灾优先性与减灾优先性的关系及其在灾害评价中的地位和作用,提出了适合我国国情的泥石流防灾优先性评价模式和计算公式,并应用于四川阿坝州。研究成果可为各级政府和灾害管理部门制定泥石流减灾规划和防治政策提供科学基础和决策依据,亦可为其它灾害类型的防灾优先性评价提供参考模式。
    Debris flow prevention priority (DFPP) is a part of debris flow mitigation priority (DFMP). DFMP is defined as in a given area and a period of time, the degree of priority for reduction of debris flows should be considered. DFMP is the sum of DFPP and debris flow relief priority (DFRP).Hence DFRP is an important component for hazard assessment.DFPP is directly related to regional hazard degree of debris flow, population density and regional development index. It is quantitatively expressed asP=H×E×M where P is DFPP(10 000 yuan/km2);H is regional hazard degree of debris flow (0-1);E is population density (person/km2);M is per capita GDP(10 000 yuan/person).H is a function of twelve variables relevant to natural characteristics of debris flow. The primary factor is distribution density of debris flow, the secondary factors are involved in environmental background, including geological, geographic, meteorological and climatic factors. Detailed findings are available in previous researches.E indicates the importance of people in the given region. The more the population density, the more important the region. M represents the situation of development in the region. The higher the per capita GDP, the more developed the region, and the more worthy to be prevented from natural hazards.Practice of this method in Aba Prefecture of Sichuan Province has demonstrated that it is significant and feasible. Assessment of DFPP could provide scientific references and decisions on debris flow management and master plan for policy makers of government agents. Furthermore, assessment of DFPP could provide assessment model for other kinds of natural hazards, so as to more widely popularize this methodology in the other parts of China.
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    黄土丘陵区小流域土壤表面特性变化规律研究
    张光辉, 刘国彬
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 118-122.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.118
    摘要   PDF (235KB)
    土壤表面特性是建立流域土壤侵蚀模型的重要参数,为建立适合黄土高原的流域侵蚀模型,采用随机糙率仪、微型粘结力仪及常水头滴定法,系统研究了黄土丘陵区大南沟小流域不同土地利用条件下,地面随机糙率、土壤粘结力和土壤团粒稳定性的时空变化规律。结果表明受农事活动、植物及其根系分布、有机质含量等因素的影响,流域内土壤表面特性变化显著,在流域水土保持措施配置时应予以充分考虑。
    In order to establish the suitable soil erosion model for the loess hilly region of Loess Plateau, one typical catchment is selected, and a lot of experiments are carried out in this catchment. Soil surface properties are the basic input information and have very significance for establishing soil erosion model at catchment level. The spatial and temporal variability of soil surface properties of different land use system were analyzed by means of roughness meter, micro cohesion meter, and constant pressure head method. The results indicate that the random roughness (RR) change very largely due to the effect of tillage, fertilizing, plant, harvest and so on. The RR of farmland is the highest among 5 kinds of land use and is 1.05, 2.10, 1.70, 1.95 times to orchard, woodland, shrub and wasteland respectively. The soil cohesion of wasteland and shrub varied very sharply and had no significant change in woodland, farmland, and orchard. Wasteland had the highest cohesion and then is shrub, woodland, orchard and farmland, and the measured data are 0.222, 0.144, 0.097, 0.084, and 0.068 kg/cm2. Organic matter content is the main factor, which influence soil aggregated stability. The organic content is different in different land use and due to its impact, the variability of aggregated stability changed widely. From high to low, the turn was woodland, shrub, orchard, farmland and wasteland respectively. The average measured data were 6.38, 4.01, 3.64, 3.62 and 3.06. The measured results indicated that because the farmland had low soil cohesion and aggregated stability, the serious soil erosion is very easy happening when heavy storm takes place. Therefore, more attention should be paid to farmland for soil conservation purpose. Meanwhile, the wasteland also has low aggregated stability, when runoff covers waste ground, the soil is very easy to be disposed. So a great of attention need be paid to the wasteland at the same time when soil and water comprehensive control measure is designed.
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    三峡与南水北调工程建设及海平面上升对上海城市供水水质的可能影响
    杨桂山
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 123-129.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.123
    摘要   PDF (1307KB)
    上海城市供水水源地水质除受沿岸地区经济发展过程中大量污染物排放的影响外,主要受河口盐水入侵的危害,导致严重的水质型缺水问题。正在建设的三峡水利枢纽和拟议中的南水北调工程与全球变暖引起的海平面上升效应相叠加,无疑将影响长江河口段和黄埔江的盐水入侵强度,进而危及上海城市供水水质。着重探讨三峡与南水北调工程建设运营及海平面上升对上海城市供水水源地水质可能产生的综合影响,并提出适应和防范对策。
    The Yangtze River mouth is a main headwaters of Shanghai, the water quality of the mouth is affected by both salt water intrusion and pollution from economic development and people's daily life. In recent years, decline in water quality of the mouth has resulted in serious problems of the shortage of water supply in this region. In constructing Three Gorge Water Control Project and in planning the Project of Transporting Water from the Yangtze River to North China, in addition, sea level rise caused by global warming will all affect water quality of the mouth through exacerbated salt water intrusion. Based on the analysis of the affected factors of water quality of the Yangtze River mouth, this paper emphatically studies the integrated impacts of the construction of key water conservancy projects and sea level rise on water quality of Shanghai water intake. The result shows that the construction of Three Gorge Water Control Project and the Project of Transporting Water from the Yangtze River to Northern China as well as future sea level rise will result in the decline of water quality of Shanghai water intake in both South Branch of the Yangtze River and Huangpu River, the obvious effects will appear in October and the dry season of the Yangtze River(from December of this year to March of the next year).
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    汉水水系水环境中稀土元素的分布特征
    闫百兴, 何岩
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 130-134.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.130
    摘要   PDF (224KB)
    系统探讨了汉水水系水相(原水、滤水、悬浮物)、沉积物相中8个稀土元素的含量水平、丰度模式、悬浮物含量对水中元素含量的影响及沉积物粒度对元素的富集与分散作用等。结果表明:Eu、Lu主要以溶解态存在于水相中,而Sm主要存在于悬浮物中;汉水水中稀土元素的含量基本在世界淡水的范围内;湖库悬浮物中稀土元素含量均低于江河悬浮物,悬浮物和细粒沉积物中稀土元素含量相近,序列也基本一致;粒度对汉水沉积物中稀土元素含量的影响不明显;地表径流对水中悬浮物含量和悬浮物中稀土元素含量均有一定影响;稀土元素在汉水悬浮物、沉积物中均有一定程度的富集现象;汉水各相中均以轻稀土为主,重稀土含量较少。
    This paper discusses systematically distribution characteristics,content levels,abundance modes, influence of suspended solid on element contents, effect of sediment granularity on enrichment and dispersion of eight rare earth elements in water phase (original water, filtrated water, suspended solid) and sediment phase in the Hanshui River.The results show the following laws. Eu,Lu are dissolved mainly in water column, and Sm is contained mostly in suspended solid;basically, contents of rare earth elements in the Hanshui River are within the range of average that of global fresh water;because of similarity of source and granularity of suspended solid and fine sediment, contents and abundance orders of rare earth elements in them are consistent basically; surface runofff affects on the content of suspended solid and rare earth elements in water. In all kinds of phases, the content of light rare earth elements(LREE) is higher than that of heavy rare earth elements(HREE).
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    胶州湾养殖海区沉积物中酸可挥发性硫的研究
    霍文毅, 李全生, 马锡年
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 135-139.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.135
    摘要   PDF (1387KB)
    沉积物中酸可挥发性硫化物(AVS)的含量对控制重金属在沉积物/间隙水中的分配和重金属的生物可利用性方面有重要意义,也是海洋养殖业的重要指标之一,研究改正目前《海洋监测规范》中沉积物酸可挥发硫化物的测定方法基础上,建立了一套简单易行的仪器装置和分析程序。讨论了N2流量、反应时间、酸强度、硫总量4个方面对测定结果的影响。给出了胶州湾海区沉积物中AVS的定量数据。表明胶州湾养殖海区沉积物中AVS的含量显著高于非养殖海区和其它海湾沉积物中AVS的含量。探讨了应用AVS归一化沉积物中二价有毒金属评价其化学活性和生物可用性的可能性。
    Acid-volatile sulfide is operationally defined for the analysis of sulfide in aquatic sediment. The AVS has been shown significance in controlling heavy metal partitioning between sediment and pore water and in explaining the bioavailability of metal toxicants. Also,it is an important index of sediment quality in mariculture. This paper describes apparatus that can be used in the evolution of sulfide from sediment and a method for the analysis of the evolved sulfide. The method was studied with respect to N2 gas flow rate,reaction time,acid concentration and sulfide amounts. The evolution of sulfide was determined by iodimetric methods of analysis. Using the apparatus and conditions described in this paper,the iodimetric method of analysis is capable of detecting AVS at concentration normally encountered with a recovery of sulfide of at least 90%. Meanwhile,samples of sediment were compiled from mariculture region of Jiaozhou Bay and shrimp ponds and the AVS concentration was determined by this approach. The average concentration of AVS in mariculture sediment was 11.41 μmol/L, which was higher than that in shrimp ponds and other natural marine sediment. The richness of AVS in sediment of northeast region of Jiaozhou Bay was likely resulted form the discharge of mariculture waste water. Furthermore, it was discussed for the method of normalization by AVS in predicting chemical activity and bioavailability of divalent metal.
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    基于遥感与GIS技术的吉林省西部土地沙漠化现状及发展趋势研究
    朱金花, 黎劲松
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 140-144.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.140
    摘要   PDF (1066KB)
    对吉林省西部20世纪80年代与90年代中期卫星遥感图像进行解译,利用GIS技术,结合野外调查,研究了吉林省西部土地沙漠化现状、发展趋势、成因及防治对策,认为吉林省西部土地沙漠化仍有扩张的趋势,人类的生产活动是本区土地沙漠化最主要的原因。
    The paper discusses the desertification of west Jilin Province, including its development trends, its forming causes and countermeasures by comparing the interpretations of imageries of the 1980s and the 1990s there. It is thought that the desertification there will develop still, the main reason is human activities suchas unreasonable land use and over depasturation.
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    土壤多样性及其测度——以海南岛不同母岩上发育的土壤为例
    陈杰, 张学雷, 赵文君, 张甘霖, 骆国保, 赵玉国
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 145-151.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.145
    摘要   PDF (980KB)
    利用多样性理论与测度方法对我国海南岛地区不同母岩上发育土壤的类型多样性及其分布模式进行定量化分析和研究,结果表明:发育于不同类型母岩上的土壤多样性指数从大到小依次为火成岩、沉积岩、松散沉积物和变质岩,其中以发育在滨海堆积物上的土壤的多样性指数最高,发育于流纹岩上的最低;不同类型的母岩上发育土壤的面积分布均不同程度地符合对数正态分布。
    Spatial soil variation is a fundamental notion of pedology, formally expressed in the hierarchical system of soil taxonomy and soil associations. Recently, a possible approach to systematically analyze taxonomic diversity of pedosphere by methods employed in ecological studies was presented, drawing a parallel with the concept of biodiversity in ecology. By introducing diversity concept and its measurement methodology, the padeotaxa diversity of the soils developedondifferent kinds parent rocksin Hainan Province was analyzed on the basis of data complied in 1: 200 000 SOTER database. Here, proportional abundance (Shannon Index) of pedotaxa were used to estimate diversity in terms of richness (number of taxonomic categories: main soil groups) and evenness (distribution of pedotaxa by areal abundance). The results show that peoddiversity of the soils developed on the different parent rocks followed such a sequence: igneous rocks, sedimentary rocks, loose sediments and metamorphic rocks (with diversity indices 2.02, 1.65, 1.25 and 0.96 respectively), while of all kinds of rocks, the highest diversity index was measured in the soils developed on seashore accumulations (with the value 1.99), and the lowest on rhyolitic rocks (with the value 0.42). Furthermore, the relationships between areas of parent rocks and richness, pedodiversity, evenness of the soils developed were discussed for a better understanding of the so-called area-diversity effect. Besides, the algorithms of object abundance model employed in ecological study were introduced to demonstrate distribution model of the soils. It was indicated that the area distributions of the soils developed on different kinds of rocks, at various degrees, seemed to fit the logarithmic normal distribution model. Although the most of the conclusions drawn from this case study concerning soil richness, diversity and distribution at a moderate scale were axiomatic or already known from general soil concepts and models, as an innovative methodology, pedodiversity should exert its impact on further assessments of regional soil system, land use and management and environmental protection. In fact, it was already suggested that pedodiversity could be useful in a number of practical applications and be expected to play an important role in exploring, quantifying and comparing the complexity of soil patterns in different areas and environments.
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    尽快建设隆百铁路以适应大西南地区经济持续发展需要
    陈航
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 152-157.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.152
    摘要   PDF (267KB)
    从西南地区为适应西部大开发与对外开放,打通便捷出海通道;加快各种优势资源开发,保证国民经济可持续发展;方便各省会城市及许多中心城市之间的相互联系,完善大区域铁路干线网络;以及为沿线及附近许多贫困县根本脱贫致富提供必要条件等等方面,来论证隆百铁路建设的必要性与迫切性。
    Long-Bai Rail starts from the Longchang Station of Chengyu Rail in Sichuan Province to the north, going through Luzhou, Bijie of Guizhou to the south and linking at Huangtong to Gui(Guiyan)-Kun(Kunming)Rail. It further goes to the south through the east of Nanzhou of the west Guizhou Province and finally ends at Baise of the Guangxi Autonomous Region to Nan(Nanning)-Kun(Kunming)Rail. The total length is 800 km.From the view of regional conditions by comparing and analyzing, as well sa the actual demands of economic development of the great southwest area, the rail should constructed as soon as possible. The reasons are as follows:1. It is the main access of the southwest economic core area to the sea. It will provide better conditions for open door and various international economic and trade relationship.2. It is the short-cut of many provincial capital cities and major economic centres of the great southwest area. The rail would be convenient for the inter-linkages among them.3. Its construction will fasten the development of areas with advanced mining resources along the rail. It is the requirements to ensure the national economic sustainable development of the southwest area and certain parts of South China.4. The construction of the rail will decentralize the volume of nearby rails, which are at their saturation. It will be an indispensable major rail to improve the network of the great southwest area.5. It will play an important role in helping the poverty reduction along the railway.
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    新时期大都市周边地区城市定位研究——以苏州与上海关系为例
    刘荣增, 崔功豪, 冯德显
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 158-163.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.158
    摘要   PDF (1159KB)
    以大都市圈理论、区位理论、比较优势理论和共生理论为基础,从区域分工与协作的角度,探讨了在经济全球化和市场一体化背景下,大都市上海周边的大城市苏州未来发展的区域空间定位、产业定位和城市特色定位以及实现定位的途径。为长江三角洲都市连绵区诸城市之间的协调发展提供借鉴。
    On the basis of the theories of metropolitan area, location, comparative advantage and symbiosis, this article probes into the future orientations of Suzhou, which is located in the peripheral areas of Shanghai metropolitan area, under the background of economic globalization and market integration from the perspective of labor division and coordination between regions. It draws following conclusions: (1) In terms of city space orientation, Suzhou, as a subsidiary city, should lay particular emphasis on the construction of its processing function and manufacturing base. It should actively take part in international activities of Shanghai metropolitan areas, and share out the work and cooperate with Shanghai in tourism, banking and port construction. (2) In terms of industry orientation, Suzhou should give priority to high technology and export- oriented industries, and coordinate relationship among primary industry, secondary industry and tertiary industry. (3) In terms of urban feature, Suzhou should pay particular attention to its famous historical and cultural characteristics and the amenity of living environment. In the end, the article puts forward thinking on how to develop and how to carry out these orientations. The precondition of implementing these orientations is strengthening construction of regional infrastructure network.The key of implementing these orientations is enhancing labor division and cooperation between Suzhou and Shanghai. The impetus of implementing the orientation is constructing regional innovation network of integration of Suzhou and Shanghai. The basis of implementing these orientation is strengthening the harmony development of ecology and environment. The authos hope that the article can serve as a references to the sound development between other cities in the metropolitan area in the Yangtze River Delta.
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    能源与社会经济环境协调发展的多目标决策——以江苏省为例
    赵媛, 梁中, 袁林旺, 管卫华
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 164-169.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.164
    摘要   PDF (540KB)
    以江苏省为实际背景,运用多目标线性规划法,对能源与社会经济、环境协调发展的能源结构优化模型进行研究,从定量角度探讨江苏省可持续能源发展的对策方案。
    Since the latter half of 1996, the contradiction between energy supply and demand in China has been moderating. The contents of energy development strategy have been changing from showing concern for balance between supply and demand of energy system to showing concern for the coordinative development among energy social-economy and environment. Taking Jiangsu Province for example, this thesis builds the multiobjective decision model in coordinative development among energy social-economy and environment. This model provides a useful decision method for the policymaker. The calculation shows as follows:(1) From the economic benefit point of view, nuclear power generation and wind power generation aren't able to compete with fossil fuel power generation in short term, because of the comparatively large investment in the early period of construction. In 2005, coal will still make up 72% of energy consumption in Jiangsu. Since then, the in crease of coal consumption will be tending to tardy along with the in crease of the expenses of preventing pollution and pollution emission limit. It is essential to lay equal stress on coal,oil and natural gas 、and nuclear energy in the energy structure of Jiangsu Province in 2020.(2) Coal still occupies an important place in energy consumption in Jiangsu. It not only tallies with the characteristics of energy resources in China, but also is economical. The key is to lay stress on developing domestic large-typed fossil fuel power plant and clean coal technologies.(3) After the year of 2005, oil and gas will increase in a rapid speed. In view of limited oil and gas resources in Jiangsu and limited average resources per capita in our country, it is necessary to expand imports of oil and gas, and to develop the outward oriented energy economy based on making full use of domestic or international resources and markets.(4) Nuclear power will play an important role in promoting the coordinative development among energy social-economy and environment in Jiangsu. Jiangsu possesses developed economy and technology, and has an advantage in developing nuclear power stations. But the developing speed is not at all quick. One of the most important reasons is to worry about safety, because Jiangsu has a large population, average 700 people per square kilometre. In fact the safety of nuclear power station is indubitable. Jiangsu should unswervingly develop nuclear power generation. While constructing Tianwan nuclear power station in Lianyungang, the second and the third phases of the project should be started as quickly as possible.(5) Jiangsu has comparatively rich wind energy resources. But their utilization is still in the lower degree. In China wind power generation has been main attack direction of developing new energy. Jiangsu should grab at this opportunity to quicken the tempo of construction of the large and middle-sized wind power stations.
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    太行山区河谷内居民点的特征及其分布格局的研究——以河北省阜平县为例
    王成, 武红, 徐化成, 郑均宝, 周怀军
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 170-176.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.170
    摘要   PDF (716KB)
    以河北省阜平县的5条河流主流河谷为案例,全面分析了河谷内居民点的斑块特征和分布格局。表明,河谷内的居民点位置基本是在的向阳一侧靠近坡脚的地方,一般以狭长形状为主;居民点面积在河谷面积中所占的比例在各个河段的变化很大,但不同河流居民点面积占河谷面积的比例十分接近,在10%~17%的范围内变动。在研究区内,河段内居民点的面积与河谷面积、河谷内农田面积是呈正相关的,表明本地区河谷内的居民对河谷土地具有很强的依赖性;河谷内的居民点增加使河谷林木急剧减少,但居民点内部和周围的河谷林木为其安全性、舒适性提供了保障。
    Based on landscape theories, taking five rivers in Fuping county of Hebei Province as an example, the patch characteristics and distribution pattern are analyzed. The results indicate that the position of settlement are mostly near the piedmont and its shapes are mainly narrow and long; the area proportions of settlement to valley vary remarkably, but the proportion between different rivers is quite similar, and vary between 10%-17%; the positive correlations of settlement area to valley and farmland area in valley are found, these show that the inhabitants have strong reliance to valley land; the increase of settlements lead the rapidly reduce of valley forest, but there are many trees distributed in and surround the settlements and those trees provide security and comfort for settlement.
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    研究报道
    地理空间意像模式的Voronoi模型
    胡志勇, 何建邦, 柯正谊
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 177-182.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.177
    摘要   PDF (979KB)
    提出用Voronoi空间模型来表达意像模式,Voronoi模型无歧义地定义空间邻近关系,构建能封装对象间空间关系的拓扑网络。使用该模型将各种空间介词映射为不同的拓扑结构。GIS采用该模型,可按自然语言中空间介词描述的定性空间关系查询检索模糊地理信息。
    Formalization of geographical spatial image schemata is one of the keys to realize GIS interoperability and standardization, ensures that geographical information sharing reaches agreement at cognitive level and on natural language understanding,and develops intelligent GIS. It is also an important element of spatial information theory. Voronoi spatial model is proposed to represent image schemata formally. The method unambiguously defines spatial neighbor relations, establishes topological networks which can encapsulate relations between objects. The model is used for map spatial prepositions into distinct topological structure. Adopting the model, GIS can implement fuzzy geographical information query and retrieval in terms of qualitative spatial relations described by spatial prepositions in natural language.
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    中国城市科教职能等级划分及空间分布研究
    王言荣, 刘洁
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 183-187.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.183
    摘要   PDF (1311KB)
    运用层次分析法和多指标加权求和方法得出中国城市科教职能综合评价指数,并用纳尔逊统计分析方法分析的结果作为科教职能等级划分的依据,把中国科教职能城市分为四个大级、六个亚级。据此分析得出中国科教中心城市的空间分布特征,无论从数量上还是从职能强度上都呈现出由东向西递减的趋势,且明显地偏集于环渤海区和华东区。针对其中存在的问题,提出了今后的发展对策:加快中西部地带科技和教育的发展,地方政府对中小型科教中心城市应给予政策倾斜和投入支持,以逐步缩小东西部的差距。
    Using Anlytical Herarchy Process and the multi-index weighted averages method, the authors have calculated the composite evaluating index of the science and technology and educational urban function in China, according to which Chinese cities of science and technology and educational function have been grouped into 4 main categories and 6 sub-categories by applying the Nelson classification measure supplementarily.The object of study is 209 Chinese cities in 1995. In order to stress the science and technology and educational function of some cities, the authors have chosen 85 cities which have Master's degree authorities as the evaluated samples.The evaluating index consists of 5 variables of the 85 cities.Two of them represent the science and technology function.They are the members of scientific and technical staff and the staff members of the professional titles above middle rank.The other three variables represent the educational function.They are the members of the students in colleges and universities, the members of enrolled Masters, and the key discipline members of institutes of higher learning,which had been promulgated by the State Council academic degree committee. The general spatial features of Chinese cities of science and technology and educational function show that whether the quantity or the functional intensity decreases progressively from the east to the west in China and most of the cities center on the areas around Bohaisea and East China.The authors have found some existing problems. 1)The functional grade difference of the 85 cities is large. 2) The middle-sized and small cities of science and technology and educational function relatively develop slowly. 3)Some cities'science and technology and educational functions are not fit in with the their development.The relavent suggestions also have been given. It is necessary to speed up the development of the science and technology and educational enterprises in the middle and in the east in China.The local states should strengthen the investment and policies, encourage the science and technology and educational strength in the east to join the west development,attract talented persons in order to promote their development strength and competition capacity. All these measures will benefit narrowing the development gap between the west and the east in China.
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    黑龙江省旅游资源评价研究
    徐淑梅
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (2): 188-192.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.02.188
    摘要   PDF (742KB)
    运用旅游学理论,对黑龙江省旅游资源从定性与定量两个方面进行综合评价,为黑龙江省旅游资源开发提供依据。
    Tourist resources are the material foundation of development of tourist trade. Good understanding and correct evaluation are a premise to develop and utilize tourist resources. Closely related to development model of the resources, to development contents, to utilization form, as well as to construction scope, evaluation of tourist resources has a directive effect on developing tourism.In the paper, in terms of tourist theory the synthetic studies are performed on evaluation of tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province using qualitative and quantitative tools, and the presented results in the paper will provide scientific basis for development of tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province. In the qualitative evaluation, the evaluation system of three values and six conditions is adopted in the paper. For the value assessment of tourist trade in Heilongjiang Province, it is pointed out that because of special geographical position, there are many natural landscapes in the province, such as original forests, ice scenery, etc. Also, because Heilongjiang Province is the origin of Man Dynasty, there are many historical sites in the province, such as Lingfu site, Angang site, etc. Besides, there are some sites for scientific investigation in the province, such as crane country, volcano, etc. for development condition aspects, it is pointed out in the paper that the geographical position of Heilongjiang Province has advantage and disadvantage. The disadvantage is that the province is far away from the center of China. However, advantage of the province is that there is a long boundary line and international tourist trade can be developed. In communication and transportation, the province has formed a transportation system including railway, highway and airline and formed a system of post and communication. However, there are severe shortage of communication and transportation in some remote scenery spots in the province. The combination condition of the scenery in the province is not quite good but a few of them are attractive, e.g. Jinpo River. In invesment aspect, financial support is not enough. Also, construction condition is not very good since there is frozen soil layer. In spite of the disadvantages, the potential of development of tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province is quite attractive and can produce great benefit for the economy of the province if some measurements are adopted adequately.The quantitative assessment on tourist resources in Heilongjiang Province is performed in the paper using the gradation analysis method. First, the model tree is established for various elements concerning the tourist resources. Then, a matrix is formed by the knowledge-based factors. The weights and order for the elements are finally obtained using computer calculation. From the results of analysis, it can be concluded that the sigh value is in first order, scientific value is in second, cultural value is in third. Some factors such as weather condition, management level, personnel quality are in last orders and it means these factors should be improved in great extent.
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