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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2001年, 第21卷, 第3期 刊出日期:2001-05-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    地理科学的信息化与现代化
    陈述彭
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 193-197.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.193
    摘要   PDF (630KB)
    20世纪我国地理学的成就是空前辉煌的,奠定了现代化的科学基础。21世纪面对全球化、网络化和知识经济的机遇和挑战,需要把全球研究提到日程上来。对地观测技术系统的进步和时、空分辨率的提高,已使全球化同步动态监测成为现实,"地球信息科学"和"数字地球"战略研究提高了对城市化与资源、生态、环境问题的再认识;增强了地理战略决策和参予工程规划、设计的能力。地理学本来就是取法自然、又以人为本的综合性学科,从来就很注重探索时间规律与空间格局及其转换,通过全球化、网络化和智能化,21世纪的地理科学,必将焕然一新。
    In the 20th century, the achievement of geo-science was resplendent in China, which established the modern scientific basis. Confronted with chance and challenge to globalization, network and knowledge economy in 21st century, global study need to be emphasized. The earth's surface between ionosphere and Moho surface is the mean layer of information transmission and the most active human civilization, all of these belong to comprehensive research fields of geo-system science. Progress in the earth observation technology system and advancement of temporal and spatial resolution have made global synchronous dynamic monitoring into reality, information source is very profuse. Networkation has strategically exploited some new research areas, such as "Geo-information science" and "Digital Earth"; which has enhanced our reunderstanding to urbanization, resource, ecology and environment; and strengthened the ability of geographical strategy decision and participating in project programming and planning. Geography is comprehensive subject derived from nature and based on human, which always pays attention to exploit temporal law and spatial structure and it's transformation, geographical science must deeply mine profound geo-information resources, accelerate its informalization and modernization, thus it can fully bring whole and traditional predominance into play. With globalization, network and intelligence together, geo-science must have splendent future in the 21st century.
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    我国知识集约型可持续农业的发展机制研究
    刘盛和, 鲁奇
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 198-204.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.198
    摘要   PDF (1413KB)
    阐述了知识集约型可持续农业的理论内涵和本质特征,论述了知识集约型可持续农业是我国的必然选择和未来希望。并通过深入剖析我国农业知识化程度低下的现状特征及形成原因,具体地提出了我国知识集约型可持续农业的发展机制。
    The fundamental characteristics of sustainable knowledge-intensive agriculture are to use more knowledge capital to substitute limited and exhaustible natural resources and material capital and to transform the primary driving force of agricultural growth from the input increase of material capital and natural resources to more knowledge application and consumption. Based on China's basic conditions of huge population and scarce natural resources and the weak economic basis and low modernization degree of agriculture characteristics, this paper argues that the sustainable development of China's agriculture can only choose the model of sustainable knowledge-intensive agriculture, rather than the so-called sustainable material-intensive agriculture mode or the popular western model of sustainable low-input agriculture. This paper is composed of 4parts: Part 1 is the definition and basic characteristics of sustainable knowledge-intensive agriculture. Part 2 substantiates that the model of sustainable knowledge-intensive agriculture is China's only choice and future hope of agricultural development. Part 3 analyzes the causes of low knowledgeable degree of China's agriculture. Part 4 explores the development mechanisms of China's sustainable knowledge-intensive agriculture. In order to facilitate the development of China's sustainable knowledge-intensive agriculture, the following inspiring mechanisms should be established: A market-orientated mechanism for rural population migration and rural land transfer to inspire farmers' inner demands for technologies. A strong and efficient supply mechanism of agricultural technologies which is majored by the state innovative system of agricultural technologies and supplemented with agricultural technology market, through the sustained increase of state investment on agricultural researches. A consolidated mechanism of agricultural technology extension and supporting service network through the introduction of market mechanism. An efficient inspiring mechanism for technological development through the readjustment of agricultural development goals.
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    学习型区域:面向全球化的区域发展
    孟庆民, 李国平, 杨开忠
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 205-209.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.205
    摘要   PDF (422KB)
    全球化、知识化已经影响到区域发展模式,一种新型区域——学习型区域日显强大的竞争力。本文基于地理学界、区域科学界关于学习经济、学习企业等的最新研究,总结了这种新的区域发展模式。探讨了营建学习型区域的途径,联系的内涵,学习型区域的基本特征等四个方面的内容。进而提出营建学习型区域,必须充分发挥区域的能动性以及利用区域的复杂网络效应。
    Social development is in the face of globalization and the knowledge-based economy. Based on the knowledge-based economy and learning firms which is lately put forward in geographical science and regional science, the essay summarizes new regional development mode: the conception of learning region. Learning region is a kind of flexible network system under the environment of different challenges and opportunities, which is promoted by all kinds of regional subjects including firms, governments, civil, locals, et al., and based on the regional network and information system. It explores the route of building learning region, including relational network for firms, relational network for regions and relationship network for countries. And the main part is building relationship network for firms, the basic parts are relational network for regions and countries. The connotation of proximity is made up of social proximity, cultural proximity, organization proximity, and space proximity. At last, it puts forward the basic characteristics of learning region, which are learning and innovating progress in the fields of society, culture, organization and institution including all the local subjects of firms, government, the local and civil, in order to exert the activity of learning region and develop the networks' effect of region. And under the environment of globalization, information modernization, network modernization and knowledge modernization, the new regional development strategy is building learning region.
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    城市边缘区景观变化与人为影响的空间分异研究
    陈浮, 葛小平, 陈刚, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 210-216.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.210
    摘要   PDF (310KB)
    利用1988、1993、1998年的遥感影像,应用最大似然法和概率松驰法对马山景观组分进行了测量。在此基础上,对分类结果进行比较求得研究区景观变化的转移矩阵,分析人为改造活动与景观组分之间的对应关系和空间变化过程。马山区已经从1988年的传统农业景观转化为1998年的城郊混合景观,人口、经济、产业结构均发生了巨大变化。借助人为影响指数,利用网格采样和地统计学分析,研究了马山1988~1998年间景观的人为开发利用活动,揭示人为活动的空间变异、强度分布及景观转变过程的社会驱动力。
    Based on remote sensing images in 1988,1993 and 1998, the Mashan's landscape was conducted through methods of maximum-like and probabilistic relaxation, which revealed the city's spatial process during 11 years. The authors analyzed the relations between landscape changing and human impacting. A spatial variance, human impact index, was raised to express the spatial distribution of human exploiting and using strength. Using this index, mesh sampling method and geostatistics tool, the authors studied the landscape human impact conditions during the past 11 years, and revealed the spatial characteristics of human exploiting and using strength and their relation with the regional social and economic development.The conclusions may be distinguished as follows: (1) The results of the detection are reasonable and it is feasibility to calculate the transfer matrix of landscape to show spatial pattern of landscape distribution as unit of image pixel. (2) The main characteristics of Mashan's landscape changing are obvious reduction of the existing agricultural landscape and subsequent rapid increase of urban landscape along Guzhu road and cycle road which are main developing axes during the recent 5 years. In 1988, agricultural production was the main human impact of Mashan landscape, but in 1998, urban development and so on has be the main human active. The typical agricultural landscape in 1988 transforms to the urban fringe landscape in 1998. (3) The spatial characteristics of human exploiting and using had strong relations with the economic activities in Mashan Town. When agricultural production was the main human active in 1988, the semivariagram of impact index was very low and in short ranges. In 1993 and 1998, non-agricultural land exploitation were the most important type of human disturbance, the semivariagram was high and in long ranges. Because the north-south belt area was the main exploiting region, the semivariagram was anisotropic from 1988 to 1998, but when the northern new developing belt area and cycle road began to be constructed from 1992, it became more and more isotropic.
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    SOTER的建立及其在世界上的传播
    龚子同, 张学雷, 骆国保, 张甘霖
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 217-223.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.217
    摘要   PDF (767KB)
    介绍SOTER数据库方法的创立背景、兴起和发展的主要阶段,论述了SOTER方法的主要研究内容和特点,并分析了SOTER方法在世界上的主要传播范围和应用领域。认为SOTER方法在土壤数据库的管理和应用上有独到之处,目前乃至将来在世界上的传播具有良好的前景。
    The paper presents the brief progress of SOTER related studies all over the world. The SOTER program is a system which can store detailed information on natural response in such a way that these data can be readily accessed, combined and analyzed from the point of view of potential use, in relation to food requirements, environmental impact and conservation. The methodology was created by ISRIC for world land evaluation and management purpose in the late 1980's, then put into wide uses in some developing countries in Africa and South America and came to Asian nations in the late 1990's, including China. Some advantages of this methodology can be seen through the above practice. SOTER provides an orderly arrangement of natural resource information through the creation of a computerized database containing all available attributes on topography, soil, climate, vegetation and landuse, linked to GIS, through which each type of information or combination of attributes can be displayed as a separate layer or overlay, or in tabular form. The national SOTER programs are all carried out by the national soil research organizations. The number of requests for SOTER developments at national level from the developing countries is indicative of the demand for, and importance attached to the land resource database, land evaluation and landuse planning system which SOTER is capable of providing. A good foreground of this methodology for both theoretical and practical purposes can be seen from the discussed above.
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    卫星遥感影像中耕地信息的自动提取方法研究
    赵庚星, 窦益湘, 田文新, 张银辉
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 224-229.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.224
    摘要   PDF (653KB)
    以县(市区)为基本单位,采用遥感图像处理ENVI3.2软件和TM资料,进行了7个县(市区)10个时相的耕地信息自动提取技术研究。结果证明,选择春季时相,TM432波段合成,经几何校正和增强处理,通过交互的非监督分类提取耕地信息,可以获得满意的结果,平均分类精度达到98.22%。
    Taking a county (city or district) as basic units, using remote sensing image processing software ENVI3.2 and TM data, the automatic abstraction techniques on cultivated land information of seven counties and ten temporal phases were studied. Because of the spectral characteristic difference between cultivated land subtypes, the interactive unsupervised classification method can be used for obtaining a good result. Among supervised classification methods the ENVI Spectral Angle Mapper can reach a better result because of its data purification function to maintain the typicality of training samples. Compared with salty and mountainous regions, the classification precision can be higher in inner plain region where cultivated land has comparatively accordant spectral information. Based on comparison analysis the best temporal phase of cultivated land information abstraction is in spring which is from March to May. In addition the using of non-remote sensed data such as land use map as well as expert experience is also important for promoting the precision of cultivated land acquiring.Selecting spring TM432 band composite images, processed by geometric calibration and enhancing processing, using interactive unsupervised classification method; the average precision of cultivated land classification is up to 98.22%.
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    清代科尔沁农耕北界的变迁
    乌兰图雅, 张雪芹
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 230-235.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.230
    摘要   PDF (1255KB)
    根据清代对蒙政策及其对蒙旗土地垦殖的影响,结合当时科尔沁建置的时空特征,恢复了清代科尔沁土地垦殖典型时期的农耕北界,发现:清代科尔沁农耕北界具有两次显著的北跃。其中,农垦的第一次扩展是在18世纪末到20世纪初的"请旨招垦"时期,导致农耕北界从清代初期的"柳条边墙"北上至今长春-四平-昌图以及敖汉、翁牛特旗南部,哲里木盟东南部、卓索图盟大部以及昭乌达盟南部变成农牧并举、以农为主的交错区。农耕的第二次发展是在清末时期,农垦推到洮儿河下游及西辽河两岸地区,此时的农耕北界北起黑龙江大庆县,经白城西、通辽北、开鲁县到林西县。今吉林省西部、辽宁省北部以及西辽河沿岸地带发展成为以农为主的农牧交错区。事实证明:清朝对蒙政策及其变化是导致科尔沁农耕北界跃变的主要驱动因子之一,是科尔沁农牧交错区形成的重要人文条件。
    Based on the analysis of the Qing Dynasty polices towards the Inner Mongolian lands and its impacts on the cultivation, and the spatial-temporal characteristics of the organizational system in Horqin region, the cultivation northern limits of Horqin region within different stages in the Qing Dynasty are reconstructed. Analysis indicates that the cultivation northern limit jumped northward twice remarkably in Horqin region in the Qing Dynasty. (1) During the early Qing Dynasty, cultivation still confined in the lower reaches of the Liaohe River, and the "Wicker Frontier Wall" became obviously dividing line between agriculture and animal husbandry. (2) The first leaping of cultivation northern limit occurred within the period from the late 18th Century to the early 20th Century, namely, the period of "Presenting memorial to the Emperor for Cultivation the Inner Mongolian Lands". The northern limit moved northward from the "Wicker Frontier Wall" to Changchun City, Siping City-the southern Aohen and Ongniut counties. As a result, the plain regions of the eastern and southern Horqin region transferred to the transition zone between agriculture and animal husbandry with the animal husbandry as the dominant style. (3) The second leaping of cultivation northern limit happened within approximately decade at the end of the Qing Dynasty. At that time, the Qing Dynasty adopted series of policies by which quantities of population migrated from inland to Inner Mongolia to cultivation. The result was that the cultivation range extended to the hinterland of the Inner Mongolian lands. The cultivation region pushed northward to the lower reaches of the Taoerhe River Valley and both banks of the West Liaohe River. And the cultivation northern limit extended from the Daqing City, across western Baicheng City, northern Tongliao City and Kailu County to Linxi County. Seen from the changes of cultivation northern limit of Horqin region in the Qing Dynasty, it can be concluded that the Qing Dynasty policies towards the Inner Mongolian lands had dominated the direction and amplitude of the change of the northern limit. These policies not only controlled the amount of agricultural population, but also influenced the speed and scale of the agricultural development in the Inner Mongolia, which demonstrated as the appearance and enlargement of migration organizational agencies. In a word, the Qing Dynasty policies concerning the Inner Mongolia were the major driving force for the changes of cultivation northern limit in Horqin region, and were the important human dimensional factor for the formation of modern transition zone between agriculture and animal husbandry.
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    西南地区山地不同土地退化类型特征及调控途径
    张建平
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 236-241.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.236
    摘要   PDF (258KB)
    土地退化不仅是目前全球性的重大环境问题之一,而且也是重大的社会和经济问题之一。西南地区的土地退化是以水力侵蚀为主要动力形成的。文中简述了西南地区的土地退化状况,选择了4个(楚雄市、遂宁市,毕节地区及元谋县)山地不同土地退化类型进行分析,讨论了土地退化过程,提出了土地退化调控途径。
    Land degradation is not only a great environmental problem at present, but a great economic and social problem. Land degradation in southwest China is mainly formed by water erosion. This paper, briefly descibed the land degradation status (slight, moderate and severe degraded land area is respectively 188852.5, 48128.81 and 16.393.62 km2, and respectively makes up 14.30%,3.50% and 1.10% of the total area of southwest China)in southwest China, analyzed different land degradation types of 4 choosed areas(Chuxiong City in Yunnan Plateau(degraded area is 1159.44 km2 and makes up 26.17% of the total area), Suining City in hilly area in middle Sichuan Basin(degraded area is 3188.51 km2, makes up 59.93% of the total area), Bijie Prefecture in lime stone area in Guizhou Province(degraded area is 9055.30 km2, makes up 33.70% of the total area) and Yuanmou County in dry-hot valley in Yunnan Province (degraded area below 1350m of altitude is 1006.02 km2, makes up 70.15% of the total area)),discussed land degradation process(The land degradation process is under fragile eco-environment(great height difference, steep slope, frequent heavy rain and rainstorm),human unreasonable social-economic activity (reclaim slope land, cut forest, over grazing, etc.) caused the process of land degradation), proposed ways(prevention and control of land degradation by the law; strictly control population with the N range of the equation: 0.2113K References | Related Articles | Metrics
    西辽河平原东部沼泽发育与中全新世早期以来古环境演变
    杨永兴, 黄锡畴, 王世岩, 孔昭宸
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 242-249.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.242
    摘要   PDF (927KB)
    根据典型沼泽剖面14C测年及其树木年轮校正、孢粉分析、粘土矿物X-衍射分析、泥炭植物残体鉴定和沉积物的化学元素聚集与迁移资料,研究了中全新世以来西辽河平原东部沼泽发育过程与古环境演变及其二者的关系。结果表明,位于生态环境过渡带、脆弱带的沼泽发生、发育对环境变化尤为敏感。中全新世早期以来,环境变化频繁,由此导致沼泽发育出现多次形成、发育、退化、消亡、再生循环变化。沼泽发育与古环境演变可划分为6个时期:中全新世早期沼泽孕育与萌芽发育期;中全新世中期沼泽旺盛发育期;中全新世中晚期沼泽间断发育期;中全新世晚期沼泽退化发育期;晚全新世早期沼泽复苏期;晚全新世晚期沼泽消亡期。距今5800年左右为本区全新世沼泽最早发育期。沼泽发育也遵循富营养沼泽长期发展的模式。
    This paper makes a preliminary approach to the relationship between mire development and palaeogeographical environment changes since the early period of middle Holocene in the east part of the Xiliaohe Plain by means of dating, X-ray diffraction of clay mineral, analyses of spore-pollen and plant residual, content and translation and transformation of chemical elements, etc. The formation and development of mire located in the ecotone and ecological transition zone are highly sensitive to the environment change. The environment changes have occurred frequently since the early period of middle Holocene which results in cycle change of formation, development, degeneration and death of mire in its development process. The close relationship was found between mire development and palaeogeographical environment change. It can be divided into six periods, i.e. the breeding and germinating development period in the early period of the middle Holocene (6400-5100a B. P.), the vigorous development period in the middle period of middle Holocene (5100-4300 a B. P.), the interruption development in the middle and late period of middle Holocene (4300-3200 a B. P.), the degeneration development period of the late period of middle Holocene (3200-2100 a B. P.), the resuscitation development period of the early period of late period of late Holocene (1100-0a B. P.). The oldest mire was formed in about 5800a B. P. in the east part of the Xiliaohe plain in the Holocene. The mire development follows the model of long period development of eutrophic mire. The Maili bog-section, Horqin Zuoyi Houqi can be considered as one of the standard section of the Holocene in the east part of the Xiliaohe Plain. The peat deposition is characterized with mult-period in this area in the Holocene.
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    黄河三角洲湿地生态特征变化及可持续性管理对策
    崔保山, 刘兴土
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 250-256.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.250
    摘要   PDF (1176KB)
    近年来,由于农业市场化和产业化的发展,工业与城市化的崛起,黄河三角洲湿地生态特征发生了巨大变化。表现在湿地类型和面积的改变,湿地水状况及水质的变化,湿地产品的不可持续利用等。通过对湿地生态变化的自然因素和人为原因进行分析,提出了黄河三角洲湿地可持续性管理的方案,并从生态、社会、经济指标出发,探讨了湿地可持续性管理对策。
    The paper presents several kinds of ecological character changes of wetands in the Yellow River Delta, including changes in wetland types and areas, changes in water condition and water quality, unsustainable exploitation and use for wetland products. The reasons of ecological changes are analysed, they is nature and man factors that induce wetland changes. Then the paper suggests a strategy about sustainability management for wetland ecosystem in the Yellow River Delta, and three countermeasures of sustainability management are proposed in the paper, they are, from ecological indices, mitigating, restoring and maitaining the function and process of wetland ecosystem; from social indices, solving the problems between wetland development and conservation; and from economical indices, dealing with the relationship between industry, agriculture and wetlands.
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    早全新世石羊河流域沙尘暴活动记录
    施祺, 陈发虎
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 257-261.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.257
    摘要   PDF (893KB)
    位于西北干旱区河西走廊东段石羊河流域尾闾地区湖泊沉积中记录到了多层快速风成沉积,通过剖面样品粒度、石英砂表面特征和磁化率、有机碳等多指标的分析表明为沙尘暴的堆积,推断在早全新世10 000-6 700 aB.P.石羊河流域气候最湿润阶段仍存在周期性的沙尘暴活动。
    Northwestern China is the region with high frequent dust storms in the world, and the dust storms have been the serious disaster in the region. It was firstly discovered that deposit records of dust storm during Early Holocene in the investigation into lake sediments in the Hexi Corridor. Yema Lake section located in the terminal area of the Shiyang River Drainage of eastern Hexi Corridor, Northwestern China, recorded rich information of the lake evolution and climatic change since Holocene. Many interlayers of rapid aeolian coarse silt and fine sand were documented in between the lacustrine sediment, and were considered as transport and deposit of rapid dust storms. Furthermore, analysis of grain size, micro-shape of quartz sand, magnetic susceptibility and organic carbon revealed the coarse silt and fine sand layers were same as modern dust storm deposit with rapid short-haul transporting trait, but different from active dune sand deposit.According to interpolation of the 14C ages of different depth, age sequence of Yema Lake section was established, and lake evolution and climatic change in the Shiyang River Drainage were reconstructed. The result showed that dust storm events had occurred with 400a quasiperiod during Early Holocene(10 000-6 700 a B.P.), the wettest climate phase. The dust storm events occurred in the Shiyang River Drainage during Early Holocene were natural phenomenon relating with regional environment of Northwestern China.
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    黄土丘陵沟壑区小流域降雨入渗产流点面转化
    袁建平, 蒋定生
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 262-266.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.262
    摘要   PDF (1715KB)
    在充分考虑小流域土壤入渗速率点面转化及地表结皮等影响因素在内的基础上,提出了小流域土壤入渗速率点面转化公式:fm=fn×Sn/S×an×bn。以纸坊沟小流域为例,将实测的流域土壤入渗速率值(点渗值)利用上式进行转化(面渗值),并与流域径流出口观测站由降雨径流观测值根据水量平衡原理推算出的面渗值进行对比,平均相对误差仅为2.42%。初步得出流域土壤面渗率与不同治理度、年内5~9月降雨总量间的单因子和复合因子高精度回归方程,为流域综合治理后的水资源量变化趋势提供一条量化途径。
    Based on effect factors of transforming from point to area of infiltration rate and crust etc., put forward the formula of changing soil point's infiltration rate to area's rate on small watershed, which is fm=fn譙n/S譨n譩n. Here, fm is the average soil area's infiltration rate(mm/min) on behalf of different land using models and topography and landforms, fn is the average soil point's infiltration rate(mm/min) under different land using models and topography and landforms through many field tests, Sn represents areas of different land using models(hm2), S is Watershed's area(hm2), an means correct coefficient thinking the effect of crust and system mistake etc., bn is the parameter thinking the effect of soil's water content. Comparing the area's infiltration rate between transforming value and observing value, the result showed that relative error was only 2.42 percent., Preliminary gain the equations, which have high precision including single and fixed factors equations between soil area's infiltration rate and different soil control degree, rain quantity. The method is advantageous for seeking rain, runoff, infiltration's changing trend after comprehensive control on small watershed.
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    长江三峡大宁河流域3000年来的环境演变与人类活动
    张芸, 朱诚, 于世永
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 267-271.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.267
    摘要   PDF (1366KB)
    长江三峡大宁河流域张家湾东周—汉代古遗址的孢粉学和沉积学等分析结果表明3 000年来该区环境演变与人类活动的互动影响。连续的孢粉和粒度记录证实,该区古人类活动初期处于暖湿的气候,东周—汉代时期转变为温凉略干的温带气候。东周—汉代后,该区经历了一次规模较大的大宁河洪水泛滥期,导致汉代文化层中断。此后不久,由于人类活动剧烈,自然植被严重破坏,水土流失比较严重,山洪灾害频繁,导致汉代之后该区没有连续的文化层堆积,而由于短暂洪水暴发引起大面积坡面片流,导致坡积物的大量堆积。汉代之后该区频繁的洪涝灾害和山洪灾害体现了人地关系的复杂性。
    Palynology and sedimentology research on Zhangjiawan site in Daning valley, the Three Gorges of Changjiang River during East Zhou to Han Dynasties show the relation between environment evolution and human activity in this region over 3000 years. There was warm-humid climate when man dwelled on this place at first. During East Zhou to Han Dynasties there were warm-cold and a little arid climate. After this stage,a transient large-scale deluge took place in this area. After that,human activity became more active, natural plants were destroyed severely, water and soil lost largely, and mountain torrent became frequent which resulted in that there weren't continuous cultural fault after Han dynasty. But a lot of debris talus materials were accumulated resulting from mountain torrent.
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    昆明城市发展对室内外平均气温影响的研究
    张一平, 李佑荣, 彭贵芬, 刘玉洪, 马友鑫, 王进欣
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 272-277.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.272
    摘要   PDF (1563KB)
    利用受城市扩大影响的昆明气象站室内外气温资料和未受城市影响的太华山气象站气温资料,以及城市建成区面积和城市人口资料,分析了昆明城市发展对室内外平均气温影响程度。由于城市面积扩大导致昆明的室内外气温均升高,城市增温效应在1~4月较大,5~12月较小;城市增温效应的主要影响因子在上半年是城市人口增加,而在下半年则主要是城市建成区面积的扩大。另外,城市增温效应与城市建成区面积、城市人口均有较好地相关关系。城市建成区面积增加对平均气温的影响较大;而城市人口增加对平均室内气温的影响较大。
    The data roots in the observation of air temperature that those have been effected by city expansion in Kunming City weather station and have been un-effected by urbanization in Taihua Mountain station. The results indicate that with Kunming City area expanding, the indoor and outdoors air temperature rises, the effect is bigger in Jan. to Apr. and that is lesser in May to Dec. The correlativity between effection of city temperature increasing and urban area and urban population is considerable. Urban area increasing has considerable effect on the average air temperature; while urban population increasing obviously affects average air temperature of indoor. This result will reference on studying fundamentals about urbanization effect on urban climate and city planning.
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    研究报道
    茶园土壤pH值对茶叶从土壤中吸收锰的影响
    谢忠雷, 董德明, 李忠华, 包国章, 杜尧国, 邱立民
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 278-281.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.278
    摘要   PDF (178KB)
    探讨了我国主要产茶区13个茶园不同叶龄茶叶锰含量的分布规律,土壤0.02mol/LCaCl2提取的活性锰与土壤pH的关系及茶叶锰含量与土壤pH、土壤活性锰的关系。结果表明:不同叶龄茶叶锰含量的分布规律为老叶>成叶>嫩叶;茶叶锰含量和土壤活性锰与土壤pH均呈显著负相关关系;茶叶锰含量与土壤活性锰呈显著正相关关系,茶园土壤0.02mol/L CaCl2提取的活性锰可作为茶叶吸收利用的有效态锰。
    Distribution of manganese content in tea leaves, relationships between Mn content in tea leaves/active Mn in soil extracted by 0.02mol/L CaCl2 and soil pH and between Mn content of tea leaves and active Mn in soil extracted by 0.02mol/L CaCl2 for thirteen tea gardens from East China were discussed in the paper. The results showed that: the law of distribution of Mn in tea leaves was old leaf>mature leaf>young leaf; both Mn in the tea leaves and active Mn in soils extracted with 0.02mol/L CaCl2 were nagtively correlated with soil pH, and furthermore Mn in tea leaves was positively correlated with active Mn in soil; the uptake of Mn by tea leaves was best predicated linely by the amounts of 0.02mol/L CaCl2 extractable Mn in soils, consequently, 0.02 mol/L CaCl2 extractable Mn of soils could be regarded as the "tea leaf available Mn".
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    大亚湾底栖生物体中4种重金属残毒量分析与评价
    何雪琴, 张观希, 郑庆华, 杜完成, 温伟英
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 282-285.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.282
    摘要   PDF (1166KB)
    利用2000年3月大亚湾环境现状调查的资料,对大亚湾底栖生物体中残毒量进行现状与历史资料比较分析,评价底栖生物受重金属污染的程度及其食用质量。结果表明,该水域底栖生物未受重金属污染,但甲壳动物和软体动物体中Cu和Zn具有潜在的严重积累问题;甲壳动物和软体动物体中Cd含量已超过人体消费标准,应引起有关部门的警惕。
    The paper presents the results of analysis and assessment of heavy metal content in the benthons in Daya Bay. The results were obtained as follows. (1) The average content of heavy metal contents in fish is Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, in crustacea and mollusc is Zn>Cu>Cd>Pb. (2) Benthons have not been polluted by heavy metals, but the concentration of Cu and Zn in crustacea and mollusc has potential serious accumulation problems. (3) The content of Cd in crustacea and mollusc has beyond the human consumption. That should be noticed by the concern department.
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    书秤
    评价《中国沼泽图》
    黄锡畴
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 286-287.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.286
    摘要   PDF (101KB)
    中国科学院长春地理研究所编绘并制印(王化群主编)、科学出版社出版发行的《中国沼泽图》于最近问世[1]。这是我国沼泽学基础研究的一项重大成果,为推动沼泽学科发展作出了积极贡献。可喜!可贺!
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    《中国东北西部、内蒙古东部地区沙漠化图》评价
    肖荣寰
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (3): 288-288.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.03.288
    摘要   PDF (49KB)
    沙漠化(或称沙质荒漠化)是当今全世界关注的一个重要的环境问题,近几年由于沙尘暴的肆虐,在我国更引起政府和广大民众的关心。沙尘暴实际上只是土地沙漠化表现出来的一种灾害性天气现象。据测算,近年来,我国每年因土地沙漠化造成的直接经济损失高达540亿元。
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