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  • 地理科学
      2003年, 第23卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2003-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国陆地表层系统分区——对黄秉维先生陆地表层系统理论的学习与实践
    葛全胜, 赵名茶, 郑景云, 狄小春
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.1
    摘要   PDF (972KB)
    陆地表层系统科学是黄秉维先生在钱学森院士倡导建立"地球表层学"的基础上创建的。黄秉维先生精辟地论述了陆地表层系统的研究意义、范围、内容、方法与途径,并亲自撰写了研究计划,同时十分关心科研队伍的组建。黄先生明确指出要开展陆地表层系统分区研究。在黄先生的学术思想指导下,作者对中国陆地表层进行了分区实践。采用地理学的综合与专家评判相结合的方法将中国陆地表层系统划分为9个一级区,然后利用压力-状态-响应(PSR)评价模型和模糊聚类方法,对全国344个地区的46个指标进行模糊聚类,建立了二级分区,并对各区的综合状况作了定量评价。结果表明:地貌与气候区域分异是控制我国陆地表层系统综合状况的主导因素,而由人类活动所主导的社会经济因素是控制我国陆地表层系统综合状况的第二位因素。对9个一级区的陆地表层系统状况定量评价表明:华北区、东南区与华南区的陆地表层系统状况最好,东北区居中,内蒙区、陇陕晋区与西南区较差,西北区与青藏区最差。
    In this paper, a brief review are introduced on the development of Terrestrial System Science and the significance for the study on division of the terrestrial system in China, and the objective, principle and methodology for the study on division of the terrestrial system are discussed. Based on the idea of Top-down and Bottom-up advocated by Huang Bingwei, 5 integrated divisions in China, including the Physico-geographical division, the ecological division, the potential agro-productivity division, the economic division, and the response to global warming of China, are integrated to divide the terrestrial system of China into 9 regions at the first level. Then by evaluating the Pressure, State and Response on 46 components for 344 prefectures in China with the PSR Models, the criteria in seven grades for terrestrial system status in every prefecture are established, and terrestrial system status for 9 regions are assessed. The result shows: (1) The regional differences in landforms and climate are the dominant priority to the regional terrestrial system status. (2) The socio-economical development dominated by human dimension is the secondary priority to the regional terrestrial system status. (3) For terrestrial system status in 9 regions, North China, Southeast China and South China are in better level; the Northeast China is in middle level; the Southwest China and Shanxi-Inner Mongolia- Gansu-Shanxi are in poor level; the Northwest China and Qinghai-Xizang are in the worst level.
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    东北地区产业结构调整与升级的趋势及对策研究
    李诚固, 李培祥, 谭雪兰, 刘文秀
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 7-12.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.7
    摘要   PDF (805KB)
    产业结构调整与升级是东北地区振兴及可持续发展的关键,东北地区产业结构转换的目标应是实现产业结构的外向化、高度化、生态化及整合化。在分析东北地区产业发展现状的基础上,重新审视东北地区产业与经济发展的区域比较优势,提出了建立现代化的传统产业与高新技术产业相结合的产业结构体系是东北地区结构转变战略,形成全国的装备工业基地、现代绿色农业基地、资源精深加工基地、科教产业基地应是未来东北地区域形象的主体特征。从资源利用结构调整、产业与经济地域整合、所有制与企业结构优化、推进城市化进程、区域创新体系建设、区域基础设施与生态环境整治相结合的集成视角,进行了未来东北地区的产业功能定位,确定了产业结构调整与升级的战略重点与对策。
    The author considers that industrial structure adjustment and escalation is pivotal to develop Northeast China vigorously and to achieve the sustainable development, and the goal of industrial structure adjustment is to make it opened, higher, clean and integrated. On the basis of analyzing industrial actuality and having newly surveyed area comparative predominance of Northeast China, the paper presents the structure adjustment strategy that industry structural system of integrating the traditionary industry with high-technology industry should be built. At the same time it is put forward that to form the Chinese equipment industrial base, modern green agricultural base, resource refined base and industry base of science and technology should be the main future character of Northeast China. The paper settles the industrial functional position of Northeast China and confirms the strategic emphasis and countermeasure of adjustment and escalation of industry structure, which is achieved by viewing from an integrated visual angle. Structure adjustment of utilizing resources, integration of industry and economic area, optimization of ownership and enterprise structure, promotion of urbanized progress, system construction of area innovation, integration of infrastructure construction and environment protection, all are concerned.
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    青藏高原西部的地面热源强度及地面热量平衡
    李国平, 段廷扬, 吴贵芬
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 13-18.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.13
    摘要   PDF (1367KB)
    以1997年11月至1998年10月青藏高原西部改则和狮泉河地区自动气象站(AWS)连续观测的近地层梯度资料,采用廓线-通量法计算出观测期逐日的总体输送系数,进而用总体公式得出两站逐日的地面感热和潜热通量。结果表明:在此观测期内青藏高原西部不论冬夏地面皆为热源,地面热源强度具有明显的季节变化,两站地面热源强度的年平均值分别为82.5W/m2和68.2W/m2。结合辐射和土壤热通量观测资料揭示了两站的地面热量平衡状况,用地面热量平衡方程对以上结果进行了闭合误差检验。
    On the gradient observational data of the atmospheric surface layer from November 1997 to October 1998 collected by two sets of Automatic Weather Station (AWS) installed in Grz and Shiquanhe on the western Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, the bulk transfer coefficients each day are computed by the profile-flux method, and surface fluxes of sensible heat and latent heat each day are further estimated by the bulk formulas. The results show that the surface on the western Qinghai-Xizang Plateau is a heat source during this period whether in summer or in winter, the intensity of this heat source exhibits an obvious seasonal variation, yearly means of intensity of this heat source at the two stations are 82.5W/m2 and 8.2W/m2, respectively. The surface heat balance is discussed by involving the observational data of radiation and soil heat transfer, and the closed test of the surface heat balance equation is made.
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    干旱区山地森林的发展模式研究——以昆仑山奥依塔克地区为例
    张百平, 陈晓东, 陆洲, 排孜拉·司拉木, 姜逢清
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 19-24.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.19
    摘要   PDF (277KB)
    我国干旱区的绿洲与山地是一个完整的体系。山地森林具有多功能性,在山地生态系统中起决定性作用,对下游地区则具有生态保护作用。奥依塔克是昆仑山少数几个森林较为集中的地区,在协调林业、牧业、旅游业、人民生活需求的过程中,形成了山地森林可持续管理的"奥依塔克模式",即各有关单位共同负责、利益共享。我国干旱区山地森林的可持续发展在于:(1)加强山地和山地森林的意识;(2)建立区域性山地森林建设的补偿机制;(3)解决林牧争地矛盾;(4)解决山地林业生存与发展的矛盾;(5)林带以下森林的恢复。
    Mountain forests are characterized by multifunctionalities and play crucial roles in the sustainable development of mountain regions. In addition, they also serve as the ecological defense for the areas downstream. Mountain forests are usually very limited in arid lands, and they are of special value to the local people. They should be well protected and managed. As a result, many mountain forest development models have been worked out or identified around the world, including legislation/law, multifunctional land use strategies, support/extension, community organizations, economic instructions, coordinated knowledge sharing, and even religious practices. In northwest arid China, high mountains are the basis for the existence and development of oases, simply because the high mountains provide nearly the only water source for oases. And mountain forests are the key body of mountain systems. Their multifunctionality includes production, ecological protection and welfare. The Oytag Valley is one of the few forest areas in western Kunlun Mountains and very close to the population center of Southern Xinjiang. Since the 1950s, forests in the valley have experienced marked changes. Large-scale deforestation began in 1954 and culminated in 1958-1960. Investigation shows that almost all usable trees were cut in the process. It is 1979 that deforestation was stopped and in 1992 forest regeneration was started. But contradictions stand out among forestry, animal husbandry and tourist development. Animal husbandry is now the backbone of the economy of the Oytag valley and needs considerable area of pastureland to support its development. Forest regeneration needs to fence some of the forestland, which has served as pastureland for a long time. Thus contention for land arises. Besides, domesticated animals often go into the fenced forestland and tread the seedlings of spruce, impacting forest regeneration. Moreover, the increasing number of tourists exerts pressure to the environment of mountain forests. Forest sustainable management asks for proper coordination of the relationship among forestry, animal husbandry and tourism. It is in this valley that a model has been developed for the sustainable management of mountain forests during the process of coordination of forestry, animal husbandry, tourism and local people's daily life. The related stakeholders jointly manage the forests and tourism and share the benefit from the tourism. The sustainable development of mountain forests in northwest arid China consists in (1) increasing the awareness of mountain issues and mountain forests; (2) setting in motion compensation mechanism for mountain forest management at regional level; (3) resolving the problem of land contention between forestry and animal husbandry; (4) dealing with the problems of subsistence and development of mountain forestry;and (5) restoring forests below the present forest belt.
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    藏东南泥石流沟纵剖面演化的最小功模式
    蒋忠信
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 25-31.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.25
    摘要   PDF (311KB)
    西藏东南地区的泥石流可分为雨水、冰雪融水和冰湖溃决等3种成因类型,其沟谷纵剖面演化均遵循最小功原理,即通过调整坡降使流速增大,表现为单位流体的全程流速平均值ū与纵剖面形态指数N正相关:ū∝f(N),对雨水型泥石流沟,流速函数f(N)={1/3-2/[(N+1)(N+2)(N+3)]}1/2;对融水型泥石流沟,f(N)={2/3-2/[(N+1)(N+3)]}1/2;对溃决型泥石流沟,f(N)=[NP(N+1)]2/3。在泥石流沟谷演化进程中,与ū值由小变大相应,N值由小变大,沟谷纵剖面从上凸抛物线形变为下凹抛物线形,泥石流沟谷地貌演化阶段按泥石流孕育阶段、发展阶段、旺盛阶段、衰减阶段的顺序演替。以藏东南典型泥石流沟作为实例,检验了上述沟谷地貌演化的模式与规律。
    The debris flow in southeast Tibet area can divided into three genetic types: a rainwater type, a ice-snow melt-water type and a glacial-lake burst type. Theory of minimum energy dissipation is observed in longitudinal profile evolution of the debris flows. The theory is increase of velocity with adjustment of longitudinal gradient in valley. It is expression of the theory that average value (ū) of velocity along the valley relates to a forming index (N) of the valley longitudinal profile: ū∞f(N). The f(N) is a velocity function. For debris flow valleys of rainwater, melt-water and burst types, the f(N) are respectively {1/3-2/[(N+1)(N+2)(N+3)]}1/2,{2/3-2/[(N+1)(N+3)]}1/2 and [N/(N+1)]2/3. In process of evolution of the valley, increase of the value N with increase of the value ū,and shape of the valley longitudinal profile develop to a concave parabola pattern from a convex one, and morphological stages of the debris flow are a brow stage, a developing stage, a exuberant stage and declined stage, and stable stage of the basin in order. As examples with model debris flow valleys in southeast Tibet area, above model and regular of morphological evolution in the valley are examined.
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    8.0 ka B.P.以来三江平原北部沼泽发育和古环境演变研究
    杨永兴, 王世岩
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 32-38.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.32
    摘要   PDF (837KB)
    8.0 ka B.P.以来,三江平原北部气候变化序列划分为5个阶段,温暖湿润(8000~5590 a B.P.)→较温暖湿润(5590~1851 a B.P.)→温冷稍湿(1851~1110 a B.P.)→寒冷偏湿(1110~649 a B.P.)→冷凉略湿(649 a B.P.~至今)。气候的变化模式依次为:高温期→温暖适宜期→缓慢降温期→急剧降温期→低温渐暖期。在5590 a B.P.和1317 a B.P.,发生强烈降温事件。沼泽发育也依次划分为5个时期,沼泽化过程发展期→沼泽大发展期→沼泽发育缓慢期→沼泽发育波动期→沼泽发育萎缩期。植被演替相应为:温性阔叶林→针、阔叶混交林和草原→以落叶阔叶树稍多的针、阔叶混交林和草原→以桦为主的阔叶林→针阔混交林、以松占优势的针、阔叶混交林和草原。在1851~1317 a B.P.、649~309 a B.P.和309~0 a B.P.期间,受频繁的农业生产、砍伐森林、开垦沼泽为农田等人类活动的影响,沼泽发育呈现退化的趋势。
    The paper makes relative high-resolution approach on the relationship among mire development, paleoenvironment change and human activity since 8.0 ka B.P. in the northern part of the Sanjiang plain. The model of the climate change can be reconstructed as high temperature period at 8000-5590 a B.P., warm period at 5590-1851 a B.P., slowly dropping period in temperature at 1851-1110 a B.P.,rapidly dropping period in temperature at 1110-649 a B.P., dropping in temperature and then warming period at 649-0 a B.P. The vegetation succession can be divided into five stages in proper corresponding period above-mentioned, i.e. temperate deciduous broad-leaved foreste, needle-broad-leaved mixed forest and grassland, needle-broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by deciduous broad-leaved trees and grassland, broad-leaved forest dominated by Betula, needle-broad-leaved mixed forest and needle-broad-leaved mixed forest dominated by Pinus and grassland. The close relationship was found between mire development and paleoenvironment change in the five periods in proper corresponding period above-mentioned in the given order, i.e.the breeding and germinating development of paludification process period, the vigorous development period, slow development and shriveling period, fluctuation period, shriveling period. On the whole, the mire has been in the stage of eutrophic mire stage. Although the environment changed frequently since 8.0 k a B.P., it was still favorable to the formation and development of eutrophic mire. The mire development and paleoenvironment change were mainly driven by nature environment factor, but the human activities gave a strong influence on them too. In 1851-1317a B.P., 649-309 a B.P. and 309 a B.P.-0, the mire was degraded by the human activities, i.e. agricultural production, deforestation and mire exploitation. The mire-profile of 30th team, Qindeli farm can be considered as the standard profile since 8.0 ka B.P. in this region.
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    海平面上升对广东沿海工程设计参数的影响
    黄镇国, 张伟强, 陈奇礼, 陈特固
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 39-41.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.39
    摘要   PDF (384KB)
    参照广东沿海6个岸段2030年相对海平面上升的预测值,建议提高沿海工程的设计基准面。根据高潮位升幅的数值模拟,建议提高工程的设计高潮位。在计算不同频率风暴潮潮位重现期变化的基础上,提出各岸段重现期的设防标准。在计算波高增幅的基础上,提出各岸段设计波高的增大值。
    It is forecasted that the relative sea level may rise by an amplitude of 10-30 cm during 1990-2030 in the six coastal regions of Guangdong Provice.This amplitude can be regarded as a parameter to raise the design base level of coastal engineering.From the forecasted amplitude of sea level rise,using by hydraulic model the rising amplitude of floodtide water level can be calculated.Based on the calculated result, the highest design tide level should be raised correspondingly.If the sea level rises 10-30 cm,the increase amplitude of the highest floodtide water level is calculated for 20 stations.Comparing the calculated result with the highest floodtide water level at present,the change of reappearing period can be forecasted.Rising of sea level leads to heighten the wave.At present the design wave height is on the low side.According to the calculation for 20 stations, the design wave height should be raised by 15-19cm and 23-27cm when the sea level rises 20cm and 30cm respectively.
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    中国不同地区城市化对室内外气温影响的比较研究
    张一平, 何云玲, 马友鑫, 张德山, 李佑荣, 刘玉洪
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 42-48.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.42
    摘要   PDF (315KB)
    以温带城市北京、低纬高原城市昆明和热带城市景洪为研究对象,利用由于城市扩大而受影响的气象站室内外气温资料和未受城市化影响的郊外气象站气温资料,得出3个地区受全球气候变暖影响,年平均气温均升高,增温幅度在(15.6~20.7)×10-3℃/a间,以温带城市北京增温最显著;受城市化影响,年平均气温变率为(40.5~45.9)×10-3℃/a间,以昆明最大;年平均室内气温变率在(20.6~133.1)×10-3℃/a,北京最大。各气温变率在11~4月以温带城市北京最大,5~10月则以低纬高原城市昆明最大,显示了气温较低时气温变率有增大的趋势;由于城市面积扩大导致了受城市化影响气象站的室内外气温均升高,11~4月增温幅度大于5~10月;其中温带的北京朝阳气象站和低纬高原的昆明气象站的室内气温升高幅度大于室外气温,呈现显著的城市效应,而热带的景洪气象站室内平均气温增温幅度小于室外平均气温。
    Based on different cities such as Beijing (located in temperate zone), Kunming (a city of high plateau and low latitude) and Jinghong (lies in tropical zone), the data root in the urban weather station, which have been affected by urban expansion in and in suburb weather station, which have not been influenced by urbanization. The results indicate that the global climatic warming bring about the average air temperature increased (15.6-20.7)×10-3℃/a or so in three cities, Beijing is the most marked. Because of urbanization, the average air temperature rise (40.5-45.9)×10-3℃/a (Kunming exceed other two cities), and indoor air temperature go up (20.6-133.1)×10-3℃/a (Beijing goes beyond other two cities). The variation of air temperature is the greatest in Beijing during November-April and in Kunming during May-October, which indicates that the variation has a tendency to increase when air temperature is lower. With city area expanding, the outdoor and indoor air temperature rise, furthermore, the range-ability of temperature rising in November-April go beyond that in May-October, and indoor exceed outdoor in Beijing's Chaoyang Weather Station and Kunming Weather Station. These results may provide a reference for studying fundamentals about urbanization effect on urban climate, city planning and architecture design.
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    天津宁河县亻表口牡蛎礁剖面与海面变化关系的讨论
    薛春汀
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 49-51.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.49
    摘要   PDF (376KB)
    亻表口牡蛎礁剖面原位胶结的牡蛎礁层之间有6层粉沙夹层,这一层序被认为是6500~3000 a B.P.多次海面波动的反映,该剖面的研究被认为是近年来全新世海面研究的重大成果。然而,组成蛎礁的属种长牡蛎和近江牡蛎产于低潮线附近至十余米水深,生活的盐度很广,可以在盐度10‰~30‰的海区栖息。它们在指示沉积物形成的深度上虽有一定意义,但并不是海水深度良好的指示标志。其兴衰不是由于海面变化造成的。泥砂沉积速率的变化是导致牡蛎礁与砂层交替出现的原因。亻表口牡蛎礁剖面既不能反映6500~5000 a B.P.存在高海面,也不能说明5000~3000 a B.P.海面波动频繁。
    The main part of the Holocene stratigraphic section at Biaokou Village, Ninghe County, Tianjin Municipality is composed of oyster reef and 6 silt interbeds. This sedimentary sequence was thought to be products of sea level fluctuation in the period of 6500-3000 a B.P. by some scientists. The present mollusks Ostrea gigas and O. virularis, which compose the oyster reef, live in the environment from low tidal level to 10 m sea water depth and more with salinity of 10‰-30‰. Ostrea gigas and O. virularis are not ideal water depth indicators, although can give some information. Growing up and disappearance of the oysters in the section was controlled by the changes of depositional rate but not sea level fluctuation. The Holocene stratigraphic section at Biaokou Village can not indicate existences of high sea level during 6500-5000 a B.P. and sea level fluctuation during 5000-3000 a B.P.
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    旅游规划理论与方法的初步探讨
    顾朝林, 张洪, 徐逸伦, 黄春晓, 于涛方, 甄峰, 王洪, 朱传耿, 吴泓
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 52-59.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.52
    摘要   PDF (1314KB)
    旅游业的发展和旅游规划在我国日益受到关注和重视。在旅游规划实践的基础上,借鉴国内外旅游及其相关规划的研究成果,结合我国旅游业发展和旅游规划实际情况,系统的阐述了旅游规划的理论和方法。共分为三部分:(1)国内外旅游规划的发展;(2)旅游规划基本理论,包括旅游规划目标、理论演变、规划层次以及规划设计技术路线等;(3)旅游规划主要内容,包括规划前期组织、编制程序、旅游资源评价和开发分区、旅游市场分析、景区概念规划和旅游设施规划等。
    In China, it is paid more and more attention on tourism. Based on amounts of tourism planning practice, such as for Jilin, Jiangsu, Fujian Province and other areas, with references to the outcomes about tourism researches, this paper discusses systematically about the theories and methods of the tourism. This paper is mainly composed of three parts. The first part gave a review of tourism planning. The second part is about the basic theories of tourism planning, including the objectives of the tourism planning, the evolvement of the planning theory, the hierarchies of the tourism planning, the sustainability of the tourism and the procedure of the tourism planning and design. And the last part of this paper is aimed to discuss the basic methods of tourism planning. In this part, the tourism planning procedures, the evaluation of the tourism resources and structural division, the tourism market analysis, the concept planning for the tourism areas and the planning of the relative facilities are discussed in detail step by step.
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    经济发达地区旅游发展动力系统初步研究:概念、结构、要素
    钟韵, 彭华, 郑莘
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 60-65.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.60
    摘要   PDF (722KB)
    在认识旅游发展动力系统研究重要性的基础上,依据已有的对旅游系统的研究,以及对地区经济背景与旅游发展之间的联系的认识,主要从旅游供给角度考虑,针对经济发达地区构建区域旅游动力系统,并阐述此系统的概念以及系统内各要素的概念和作用。此系统包括吸引系统、支持系统和中介系统三个子系统,各子系统内又包括各种影响旅游发展的动力要素。由于此系统针对经济发达地区而构建,因此对区域经济要素的推动作用尤为关注。
    In view of that the regional tourism is driven by not only the scenic spots but also a complex system which comprises anumber of components, and on the basis of the studies of the tourism system, the authors develop the Dynamic System of Tourism Development (DSTD). And according to the research of the relationship between economic development and tourism development in the developed region, it is found that the level of regional economic development impacts the regional tourism development prominently. Therefore the model focuses on the economic factors especially, and regards the economic factor as a quite distinct feature for tourism development in the developed region from other types of regions. The model is defined as the DSTD of the developed region. For the uncertainty of the demand, it is more difficult to account the effects of the demand than the supply to the tourism development. So the model is developed mainly from the view of supply side. The DSTD is consisted of three subsystems, which are the attraction system, the supporting system and the medium system. And each subsystem involves several elements. The attraction system that comprises each type of tourist attractions includes the physical attraction subsystem and the non-physical attraction subsystem. The supporting subsystem contains the hardware subsystem and the software subsystem. It refers to the environment that supports the survival and development of tourist attractions or tourism organizations that contact the tourists directly. The tourists would not contact the supporting system directly, but their travel must be affected by it inevitably. And the medium subsystem involves the tourism information subsystem, the tourism transportation subsystem and the management subsystem, which associates the demand side with the tourist attractions and assists to accomplish the travel. Scenic spots, regional panorama, establishment for accommodating and public service and regional trade and tourism event are the components belonging to the physical attraction subsystem. The non-physical attraction subsystem involves cultural distinction, quality of tourism service, regional image and public praise for regional tourism. As to the supporting system, the hardware subsystem includes location, regional infrastructure and regional eco-environment, and the software subsystem contains the components named level of regional economic development, vigor of regional economic development, cultural environment of the region, policy and statute of tourism and manpower resource of the region.Though there will be some differences in applying the DSTD in other regions that belong to another tourism development type, the structure and the thinking approach of the DSTD of the developed region can still be referenced.
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    多元统计分析在分区研究中的应用
    王秀红
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 66-71.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.66
    摘要   PDF (657KB)
    探讨了基于因子分析的聚类分析方法在遵循主要地理区划原则,特别是综合分析与主导因素相结合的原则和相对一致性原则过程中的特色。以中国土地利用程度和效益分区为例,首先利用因子分析对评价指标进行了降维处理,并研究了各个评价指标之间的关系;然后利用聚类分析,结合主要区划原则,将全国划分为5个类型区,12个亚区。
    Various types of indices commonly used to illuminate the properties of evaluated unit just reflected its situation from a few of the sides; therefore, simple using of these indices to proceed mathematical analyses and to do regionalization research would usually deviate from the right direction. Taking the basic principles for regionalization as a directing framework, the use of mathematical method would be more reasonable, apart from getting more typical and exacter data. The use of classical principles for regionalization in mathematical analyses is helpful to the selection of evaluated unit, as well as explanation of the result of mathematical analyses. Cluster analysis based on factor analysis could carry out some principles for regionalization, such as the linking of integrated analysis with dominant factor, comparative consistency, and conjugate. The rational use of mentioned method would improve the regionalization study. By using the mentioned principles and multivariate statistical analysis, selecting 30 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities as evaluated units, China could be divided into 5 regions and 12 sub-regions concerning its land use degree and benefit.
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    水土化学场理论在松嫩平原盐渍土研究中的应用
    宋新山, 何岩, 汪永辉
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 72-76.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.72
    摘要   PDF (657KB)
    根据水土环境中盐渍成分时空分异的区域化特征,提出盐渍水土化学场理论,建立变异函数模型定量化模拟其空间分异,求得变异函数后,通过克立格插值定量化预测某种盐渍水土环境特征的空间分布。利用在松嫩平原盐渍化试验小区的实测数据进行验证,可为盐渍水土环境的定量化研究提供理论依据。
    According to regional distribution characteristics of salt in water-soil environment, the theories of Salt Distribution Field in Water-Soil Environment are put forward. Variation function offered is used to model quantitatively space differentiation of salt in water-soil environment, and its space distribution can be modeled quantitatively by Kriging interposing method offered. At last, this method is applied by integrating experimental data in saline soil of Songnen Plain, and get EC sample variance map in paddy field and saline badlands, at the same time, get different direction EC sample variance and soil EC Kriging interposing isoline in paddy and saline badland. This theories can be used quantificationally study on saline and alkaline water-soil environment.
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    太湖流域典型地区土壤磷素含量的空间变异特征
    刘付程, 史学正, 潘贤章, 于东升
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 77-81.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.77
    摘要   PDF (700KB)
    在地统计学和地理信息系统的支持下,以半方差函数为基本工具,分析了太湖流域典型地区土壤耕层全磷含量的空间变异特征,并运用块段克立格法进行线性无偏最优插值,制作了土壤耕层全磷含量的空间分布图。结果表明:研究区域土壤全磷含量具有中等的空间相关性和良好的结构性,其自相关距离在11km左右;土壤磷素含量的空间分布具有明显的斑块状特点,沿江平田区、地势低洼的圩田及低平田区磷素的含量相对较高,应作为农业面源磷污染的重点监控对象。
    Nonpoint sources of P in agriculture soils have been identified as one of the main causes of freshwater eutrophication. Studies have showed that decades of P fertilization at rates exceeding the amount removed by crops have resulted in widespread accumulation of P in agriculture soils in Taihu Lake watershed, and the accumulation of P will increase the potential of sol P loss to surface waters. Therefore, studying the spatial variability of soil P at large scale will be helpful to develop management practices for controlling agriculture nonpoint P pollution. In this paper, a geostatistics method, with Geographic Information System (GIS), was applied to study the spatial variability of total soil P in the typical area of Taihu Lake watershed. The results showed that the spatial distribution features of the total soil P could be quantitatively described by semivariogram which could be fitted by exponential model. The ratios of nugget to sill at different lag intervals varied from 0.396 to 0.445, indicting that the total P in soil of the studied area had a relatively good spatial autocorrelation, and the range of autocorrelation extended to about 11km. The maps of the total soil P made by block kriging based on the fitted model depicted that the river shore land of northern part of Jiangyin county and low limnetic plan of the studied area generally had more P than the other places,and much more attention should be paid to such places for the sake of protection of surface water quality.
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    苏州市晚第四纪古地理与工程地质条件研究
    姜洪涛, 王富葆, 杨达源
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 82-86.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.82
    摘要   PDF (739KB)
    根据10余项工程中代表性钻孔岩芯分析,参照2000多个工程钻孔资料,对比了苏州市50m以浅晚第四纪各沉积层的成因类型、形成时代、岩性及其物理力学性质,并依地基工程要求,对沉积层进行了合理划分。阐述了本区4万年来古地理的环境变迁,绘制多时段的古地理图,摸清了本区各土层的空间分布规律及结构变化特征,在此基础上编制出"天然地基工程地质条件分区图"和"桩基工程地质条件分区图",论述了天然地基和不同桩基区的工程地质条件及施工注意事项。
    Based on the analysis of the bore cores of more than 10 projects and the drilling materials of more than 2000 bores, the shallow soil layers within 50 m deep are analyzed, including the origin, time, composition and the physical mechanics properties. The terminology table of the soil layers is made, according to the demand of the foundation engineering. The distribution maps of engineering geologic condition for natural foundation and for pile foundation are compiled in light of spatial distribution and structural characteristics of soil layers. The study is of great signification for engineering construction of Suzhou urban district and the southern part of the Changjiang River delta.
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    大连城市居住环境评价构造与空间分析
    王茂军, 张学霞, 栾维新
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 87-94.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.87
    摘要   PDF (1094KB)
    首先,根据大连市城市居民居住环境评价的问卷调查资料,利用因子分析方法构筑了由周边环境、利便环境和社区文化环境组成的居住环境评价构造。多元回归分析表明,利便环境、周边环境和社区文化环境在居住环境评价的重要程度依次降低。其次,利用ARC/INFO平台下划分的162个1km×1km的网格对居住环境评价的空间结构进行分析。周边环境高评价地区主要位于市区边缘和市中心的部分地区,后者与城市广场和绿地有关;利便环境评价由市中心到市区边缘渐次降低,与各地到市中心的时间距离显著负相关,高评价地区高度集中在市街区。利便环境评价则不存在明显的分异规律。最后,在ArcView平台下,充分发挥GIS的图形叠置和逻辑查询功能对居住环境进行评价,并建立了呈不规则四圈层的双核心居住环境评价空间结构模式图。
    Firstly the paper builds residential environment structure consisting of circumambient environment, convenient environment and human environment by means of factor analysis, on the basis of questionnaires about evaluation of urban residential environment in Dalian. And from the result of multivariable regression analysis, we can see that importance of circumambient environment, convenient environment and human environment falls in turn. Secondly the studied area is divided into 162 grids of 1km?1km on the platform of ARC/INFO, which is used to analyze spatial structure of evaluation of residential environment. High evaluation of circumambient environment lies in the skirt of Dalian City and parts of downtown. The latter bear on squares and greenbelts of the city. The result of evaluation of convenient environment falls from the downtown to the skirt gradually, which has negative correlation with the distances between each area and the downtown. High evaluation of convenient environment lies in the block of the city. There is not obvious discrepancy law in evaluation of convenient environment. In the last, the paper brings into play the function of overlay and query to evaluate residential environment and builds double-kernel spatial structure model map of evaluation of residential environment on the platform of ArcView.
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    GIS支持下的吉林省西部生态环境脆弱态势评价研究
    黄方, 刘湘南, 张养贞
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 95-100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.95
    摘要   PDF (743KB)
    由于自然条件的边缘性和过渡性,吉林省西部生态系统脆弱性和敏感性显著,其土地利用呈现农牧业交错的过渡特征,是全球和我国土地利用/覆被变化(LUCC)研究的典型区和首选区。基于GIS技术的空间分析功能,建立了基本评价因素的数字环境模型。应用主成分综合分析方法,提出了生态脆弱态势指数模型,获取了吉林省西部近15年生态环境脆弱性变化的空间分布规律,以期为区域生态环境的治理与建设提供依据。
    The west Jilin Province is located in the transition zone from semi-humid climate to semi-arid climate with many types of ecological landscapes and is a typical area between agriculture and husbandry. Since the 1980's, the land use/cover in this area have undergone dramatic changes. Under the pressure of population growth and excessive land exploitation, such as over grazing and over reclamation, the ecological environments that have been fragile become more vulnerable and unstable. On the basis of systematical analysis on the natural and artificial factors and their relations influencing environment evolution, the leading factors of eco-environment degradation are extracted qualitatively in this area. Under the GIS technology, digital environmental model is established. Using 100m?100m real area as basic unit, the spatial principal components analysis method is applied to calculate the eco-environment synthesis exponent according to the weight of some indexes. The eco-environment vulnerability index (EVI) is produced to evaluate the eco-environment fragile status during 1986-2000. Results show that the eco-environment quality gradually declines from the central to peripheral. The fragile status of some areas in the south sand land region, the central alluvial plain region and the north floodplain region has been exacerbated remarkably in recent 15 years.
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    综述
    农业土壤固碳对缓解全球变暖的意义
    杨学明, 张晓平, 方华军
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 101-106.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.101
    摘要   PDF (997KB)
    大气CO2浓度急剧升高引起的全球气候变暖是人们关注的环境问题之一。以美国和加拿大为代表的发达国家正在热衷于研究农业土壤作为大气CO2的"汇"。文章评述了这一领域研究的现状,认为中国农业土壤固碳潜力较美加两国要大。加强农业土壤碳"汇"的研究不仅有助于恢复中国退化中的土壤肥力,同时也有助于在未来的温室效应气体控制谈判中保护中国发展中的工业。
    Global climate change resulting from human activities, particularly related to anthropogenic release of CO2 to the atmosphere, is one of the most critical environmental problems facing human beings today. Scientists in West Country, mainly in US and Canada, are seeking to sequester C in agricultural soil (C sink) to offset their commitment to the Kyoto act. This paper reviews the progress in this field and suggests that the potential of Chinese agricultural soil sequestering C is over the sum of the US and Canada's. Studying C sequestration in Chinese agricultural soil not only can help to recover our degraded farmland, but also can benefit Chinese industry in future global negotiation over greenhouse gas release control.
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    夷平面研究综述
    任雪梅, 陈忠, 罗丽霞, 周心琴, 王建力
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 107-111.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.107
    摘要   PDF (222KB)
    夷平面100多年的研究已经取得了一定的进展。文章从定义、识别、分类、形成和测年等方面论述了夷平面的研究情况,完善了夷平面的定义,加强了对影响夷平面形成和保存的自然因素的探讨,提出了未来夷平面研究的方向。
    This paper generalized the research situation of planation surface on its definition, discrimination, classification, formation, dating, and so on. We think that planation is a wide-ranging and undulating surface formed by deplanation in a long and relatively stable period. Planation is always be uplifted by the later tectonic activities. Planation has such features as large area,low altitude and small gradient. Discrimination of planation is based on inside plotting and outside investigation. This method mainly depends on subjective knowledge which is lack of accurate,objective and quantitative analysis.New mathematical methods have been used in this field.Although they are not accurate yet,there are still many improvements. There are lots of ways to classify planation in terms of different standards.The same planation may show different type when it is in different system.The same planation even has distinct forms at different places. We strengthen the investigation of natural factors such as pre-construction,erosion base level,climate,lithology,time and tectonic activities, which affect planation's formation and preservation. Pre-construction provides a foundation for planation forming.Erosion base level is the base line for it.Climate and lithology influence the rate of formation and preservation.Time produces different degrees of planation forms.Tectonic activities are unbenefical to preservation. Chronology of planation's forming is one of the most important part of the study.It means the end of the deplanation.Phase-transition analysis,age-boundary line analysis,correlation and crust of weathering analysis are all used in determing the age of planation. We also disscuss the perspective researching trends on the study of planation surface.
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    研究报道
    河口河槽季节性冲淤变化及其对河流来水来沙响应的统计分析——以长江口南槽为例
    赵庆英, 杨世伦, 朱骏
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 112-117.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.112
    摘要   PDF (665KB)
    利用长江口南槽1989年12个月的实测地形图和大通站相应的水沙资料,采用GIS技术和数理统计技术分析了南槽的地形变化与河流来水来沙的关系。结果表明:南槽水深与大通站各月平均流量、输沙率和含沙量之间有明显的相关性,说明河口冲淤对流域水沙变化有敏感响应;河槽的响应具有1~1.5月的滞后性。
    Based on the data of the south passage of the Changjiang River Mouth and the data of water and sediment in Datong Gauging Station, and with the technology of GIS and mathematical statistics, this article analyzed the relationship of the change of the topography of south passage in the Changjiang River Mouth and water and sediment discharges from the Cangjiang River. The results are as follows: (1) There is a law of accretion in flood season and erosion in dry season in the south passage of the Changjiang River Mouth. The mean thickness of erosion and accretion is biggest in August and smallest in March. The biggest thickness of accretion is in August and the biggest thickness of erosion is in December. (2) There is good negative correlation between the monthly mean water depth in the south passage and the monthly mean riverine discharge, the monthly mean rate of the sediment discharge and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration. The correlation is best when the monthly mean water depth is lagged about one month or one and half months from the monthly mean riverine discharges, the monthly mean rate of the sediment discharge and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration. The reason may be that there is a distance about 640 km from Datong Gauging Station to the estuary and it must take some time for the river to reach the estuary from Datong Gauging Station. In fact, the negative correlation between the monthly mean depth and the monthly mean riverine discharge is false,for there is evident positive correlation between the riverine discharges, the rate of sediment discharge and the suspended sediment concentration. (3) In their correlation, the correlation between the monthly mean depth and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration is best and the correlation between the monthly mean depth and the monthly mean riverine discharge is worst. This shows that the factor of sediment is more important than that of water for the erosion and accretion in the river passage. (4) According to the examination of F, the relationships between the monthly mean riverine discharges, the monthly mean rate of sediment discharges and the monthly mean suspended sediment concentration and the monthly mean depth of the south passage lagged about one month, one and half months and two months are linear correlation. The correlation is significant under the level of 0.01 or 0.05. (5) The human activities in the valley may affect the change of erosion and accretion of the estuary passage by changing the condition of water and sediment. We can select a best correlation equation to forecast the seasonal changes of the South Passage according to the condition of water and sediment in the future. Then we can make the groundwork in establishing the critical value of erosion and accretion. The critical value of erosion and accretion is significant to the forecasting of the change of erosion and accretion in the estuary passage. When the variable is the erosion-accretion value of the consecutive two months, we can get a critical value by the corresponding equation. It is indicated that the erosion and accretion in the estuary is very sensitive to the changes of the condition of water and sediment discharges from the valley and there is of special significance to recognize the correlation and create the correlation when the sediment discharge from the river to the sea is generally decreasing in the globe range.
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    基于合约化的水权交易市场分析
    张郁, 吕东辉, 秦丽杰
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 118-121.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.118
    摘要   PDF (178KB)
    当前,我国水资源短缺的形势十分严峻,加强水资源的经济管理是社会主义市场经济的客观要求。水权交易可以利用市场与价格信号来优化配置水资源,同时也有助于国家对经济的宏观调控。提出建立一种合约化的水权交易市场模式,并对市场的结构和功能加以分析。
    Nowadays China's water problem is enormous, strengthening economic management on water resources is objective claim of socialist market economy. Water property right transaction may optimize disposition of water resources by market and price signal and accomplish national macroscopic economic regulation. In the paper the author puts forward and analyses a pattern for water property right transaction market based on contact. The contract should be standardized and bound by laws. In the end the author analyses that water property right transaction market based on contract may have great functions in solving water shortage and promoting national economic development.
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    安徽省小城填发展中的土地利用问题及对策
    程久苗, 严登华, 俞华
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (1): 122-128.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.01.122
    摘要   PDF (883KB)
    安徽省小城镇数量多,规模偏小;小城镇发展过程中用地增长过快,且其发展是以牺牲耕地为代价;用地结构不尽合理且浪费严重,土地利用效率低;同时小城镇的生产生活环境较差。究其原因,主要包括以下几方面:(1)社会经济发展水平较低,小城镇发展动力匮乏;(2)小城镇建设缺乏统一、科学、全面规划;(3)基础设施建设投资不足;(4)传统的二元制户籍制度和进镇代价大限制了农村人口向小城镇转移;(5)固有的土地政策无法适应市场经济的需求,小城镇土地市场难以培育;(6)耕地占补注重"量"忽视"质";(7)小城镇建设中违法用地突出;(8)小城镇土地管理薄弱。要实现安徽省小城镇土地持续利用,必需完善小城镇体系规划,进行科学定位、梯度发展小城镇;强化土地利用规划的宏观调控作用,提高小城镇土地利用率;积极开展相关制度改革和政策创新;建立合理的土地收益分配机制,培育小城镇土地市场;加强土地管理,维护土地市场秩序。
    The small towns in Anhui Province are numerous and small in scale. In the process of the development of small towns,the exploitation of land is increasing too fast,besides,its development is at the expense of sacrificing cultivated land. The structure of the exploitation of land is not reasonable and there is too much waste,the utilization ratio of land is low. At the same time,the environment of production and living in small towns is poor.The reasons are as follows:(1) The level of the economic development of the society is relatively low,and the motive force of the development of small towns is lacking.(2) There is no unified,scientific and comprehensive plan for small towns'construction.(3) The investment in infrastructure construction is insufficient.(4) The traditional dual system of registered permanent residence and the great cost of moving to towns restrict the moving of peasants to towns.(5) The original policy on land isn't geared to the requirements of market economy,and it is difficult to cultivate the land market of small towns.(6) In the occupation and supplying of cultivated land,quantity is paid attention to,while quality is ignored.(7) The illegal exploitation of land in small towns'coustruction is obvious and shocking.(8) The administration of land of small towns is weak.To realize the sustainable exploitation of the land of the small towns in Anhui Province,the plan for small towns'system must be perfected,and the small towns must be orientated scientifically and developed step by step. The function of centralized adjusting and controlling in the land use plan should be strengthened and the utilization ratio of small towns'land should be increased. The reform on the relevant systems and policies should be carried out. The reasonable distribution mechanism of land income must be established,and the land market of small towns should be cultivated. Administration of land must be strengthened to maintain the order of land market.
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