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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2003年, 第23卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2003-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    水空间管理与水资源的可持续性
    邓伟, 翟金良, 闫敏华
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 385-390.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.385
    摘要   PDF (628KB)
    水资源的赋存需要特定的空间结构,水空间对于维系水资源系统的完整性、保障水循环和水资源的可再生能力、实现水资源的可持续开发利用具有重要作用。 由于人类活动极大地干扰了地球表层系统,水空间结构遭到严重破坏,破坏了水资源支撑社会经济发展的可持续能力。水空间的丧失极大地改变了流域尺度上的水循环过程,加剧了水资源的负均衡性。科学规划水空间,建立水资源安全的水空间格局和预警系统,以实现水资源的可持续性利用,保障资源、环境与社会经济协调发展。
    Special space is required for storing water resources. Space for water plays an important role in keeping integrity of systems of water resources, ensuring water cycle and regeneration and realizing sustainable development of water resources. The space for water is composed of spaces of many media related to water, such as forest, wetland, flood plain, soil and underground media contained water. Because human activities violently disturb the systems of the global surface, structure of space for water is damaged severely, which harm sustainability of water resources. Loss of space for water changes the processes of water cycle and aggravates negative equilibrium largely. Through scientific plan of space for water, the pattern and forecast system of space for water are set up in order to realize sustainable utilization of water resources and ensure harmonious development of resources, environment and social economy.
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    全球变化视角下人地系统研究面临的几个问题探讨
    王黎明, 关庆锋, 冯仁国, 郑景云
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 391-397.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.391
    摘要   PDF (2691KB)
    围绕全球变化问题,国际科技界从20世纪80年代以来已组织了4个大型国际研究计划,即WCRP、IGBP、IHDP、DIVERSITAS,在此基础上又形成了众多核心研究计划或支撑研究计划。随着这些研究计划的酝酿、实施和推进,其明显发展趋势是越来越强调人类社会对全球环境变化的影响、响应与适应问题研究。全球变化研究不仅为以"人地关系地域系统"为核心的地理学提出了新的科学命题,同时也为地理学与其它科学领域的融合、交叉提供了广泛途径。在分析全球变化国际研究计划进展基础上,指出人地关系地域系统研究面临5个关键问题。
    WCRP, IGBP, IHDP and DIVERITAS have been established as international scientific research programmes to focus on global change since the 1980's by joint of ICSU, ISSC, WMO, UNDP, UN-ESCO. Sponsored by the programmes above, dozens of supporting programme have been also set up, such as LUCC, IGBP-DIS, START. After more the 10 years promotion of the programme, it has be emphasized heavily by most scientists that human dimension on global change should be paid more attention to in scientific works. Geography, taking Man-land Relationship System as its core, is playing an important role in global change research. Based on the review of global change research, this paper points out four key topics between geography and global change science: (1) Human dimension on global issues. As a scientific thinking skill, human dimension on global issue is helpful to combine Man-land System theory and clobal change research. (2) Geological time scale and human time scale. Global change issues should be considered at both geological time scale and human time scale, however, man-land relationship system research pay more attention to issues on human time scale. (3) Global scale and regional scale. Global scale issues is the background of regional issues and frame of value reference. (4) Integration of human data and natural data. Human data are usually based on human spatial unit and natural data on natural unit. However it is very difficult to share between them, due to difference of spatial unit. It is important to establish a common information unit system to convert data to a common spatial scale. (5) Man-land System and paradigm of modern geographical science.Finally, this paper gives some comments about the important of the combination of geography and global changes science.
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    中国互联网发展的区域差异分析
    刘文新, 张平宇
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 398-407.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.398
    摘要   PDF (1177KB)
    互联网发展的区域差异及其与区域发展的相互影响研究已成为地理学研究中一个新的问题。从网络普及率、网络信息资源丰度及互联网商业应用三个角度初步探讨了中国互联网发展存在的区域差异,并设计了互联网发展指数(IDI)、从人均的角度反映互联网发展的综合水平。表明:东部地区的发展水平明显高于中部和西部地区,但与传统意义上的经济发展梯度不同的是,西部地区的互联网发展水平稍高于中部地区;中国大陆31个省、直辖市、自治区的互联网发展综合水平的差异同样显著,按照IDI值大小被划分为6个等级。互联网发展区域差异的影响因素是多方面的,应用多元回归分析方法研究发现,区域人口素质水平、区域信息和知识生产能力对我国互联网发展区域差异的解释能力最强,区域对外开放程度和区域城市化水平的影响也较显著。
    Internet as a new kind of geographical factor represents an exclusive regional differential features, it attracts more and more concerns of geographers and other discipline researchers as well. Internet in China shows an overwhelming increasing trend recently, though this momentum was commenced late in 1994. According to the report of the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC), by December 31, 2002, in Mainland China, there are 59.1 million Internet users, 20.83 million computers connected to the Internet, 179.544 thousand domains registered under ‘CN’, and 371.6 thousand websites under ‘www’. As in many western countries, Internet in China has unevenly diffused from the eastern to the western region and among 31 mainland provincial units. Based on the regularly released data by CNNIC, this study explores regional differential of Internet diffusion in China by quantitative methods. The authors design an Internet Diffusion Index (IDI) to stratify Internet diffusion level of the 31 provincial units. IDI is the geometric mean of 3 indicators; they are Internet users per thousand people, the domain names per 10 thousand people and the websites per 10 thousand people. Given the national average IDI is 1.000, the final results show that the IDI of the eastern coastal region is 1.754, it is much higher than 0.389 of the central region and 0.422 of the western region. However it is easy to find that IDI of the west is slightly higher than that of the central region. The IDI topology is different from that of social and economic development, which has new implication for China's regional development. As to the 31 provincial unites, 6 groups are further sorted out, Beijing and Shanghai rank the highest group, only Guizhou is in the lowest group, 6 coastal provinces are in the second and third groups, the left majorities are distributed in the fourth or fifth groups. By method of Multiple Linear Regression Analysis, the authors further analyses 6 impact factors with 14 variables (V1-V14). The result shows that human quality and information & knowledge productivity have stronger impact on Internet diffusion than the other 4 factors such as economic development level, opening up level, existing telecommunication infrastructure level and urbanization level. Stepwise Regression Analysis on the 14 variables produces that the standard partial regression coefficients of V7, V3,V8,V9,V14 and V12 are 0.709,0.595,-0.507, 0.490,-0.405 and 0.096 respectively,which indicates that number of patent per 10 thousand people, number of the high educated per 10 thousand people, share of the import and export value in GDP, hosted foreign tourists per 10 thousand people, urbanization level and regional density of laser cable have strong impact on Internet diffusion.
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    论城乡互动:解决“三农”问题的机制与对策
    李培祥, 李诚固
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 408-413.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.408
    摘要   PDF (560KB)
    "三农"问题是关系到新世纪、新阶段改革开放和现代化建设全局的大问题,也是关系到社会稳定的大问题。但解决"三农"问题必须跳出过去基于农村本身就"三农"论"三农"的研究思路,因为农村区域自身没有条件和能力来解决"三农"问题,从城乡互动视角来研究"三农"问题尤为重要,城乡互动是解决"三农"问题的有效途径,重点分析了城乡良性互动的机制和模式,最后提出了促进城乡良性互动的措施。
    "Three Agriculture" problems(Countryside, agriculture and farmer problems) are the mojor ones involving the reform and open policy and modernized construction in the new century and new phase, and having essential effect on social stability. However, we must get rid of the conventional thinking in order to resolving the "Three Agriculture" problems. Since the qualification and abilities are limited in rural areas themselves, it is especially significant to study the three problems from a new angle of the interaction between urban and rural areas. The article first states the effective ways to solve the "Three Agriculture" problems. And then, emphasis on analyzing the machanism and patterns of the interaction between urban and rural areas. Lastly, the paper puts forward the measures to promote the interaction between urban and rural areas.
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    福建省基于闽台互动的产业与空间结构调整研究
    陈修颖, 顾朝林
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 414-421.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.414
    摘要   PDF (3028KB)
    在经济转型条件下,福建省产业和空间结构调整的依据需建立在三个层面上:一是从全球产业大转型中寻求机遇,确立自身发展的整体战略;二是从台海关系这一地缘政治、经济格局的新变局中寻求新的经济增长点并以此为依据重构空间结构;三是从地方空间层面寻求自身的优势,在协调好区域间分工关系的前提下,寻求省域产业和空间结构与上述两个层次的有机耦合。在这三个层面上,台海关系是控制产业与空间结构调整的核心。台海关系加速朝良性发展的新形势以及福建省的独特区位优势决定了福建的产业和空间结构调整必须建立在闽台互动基础之上。高效农业、电子、汽车和石化等重点产业的选择和流动空间—承转空间—地方空间—辐射空间等有机秩序空间系统的建立可以促进闽台产业、空间互动,并最终实现闽台一体化、构建台海经济区的国家战略目标。
    Under the background of economic transition, the adjustment of industrial and spatial structure of Fujian Province should be carried out on three aspects. Firstly, to find chance from the industrial transition all over the world and establish development strategy of itself. Secondly, to find new growth spots from the new change on the politics and economic structure of relations between Taiwan Province and Chinese mainland and to restructure the spatial structure according to it. Thirdly, Fujian Province must find its advantage from local space and form harmonious integration with above two aspects, on the premise of coordinating interregional labor division. Among the three aspects, the relations of Taiwan Province and Chinese mainland is the core to control industrial and spatial structure adjustment. Relations between Taiwan and Chinese mainland are getting better and better, besides, Fujian has the special location predominance, which determines that the adjustment of industrial and spatial structure of Fujian Province must be established on the basis of interaction of Fujian and Taiwan provinces. As for industrial structure adjustment, core aims are to select key industrial departments and to optimize regional economic growth model. Rest on logic course of co-operative industries selection between Fujian and Taiwan provinces, there are three important contents of industrial departments selection: 1) Cluster of agriculture. It includes productive cooperation and the system cooperation on agriculture support and promotion, and the key is to develop highly efficient agriculture and spread advanced modern agriculture administration system. 2) The adjustment of manufacture department cluster includes IT, automobile and petrochemical industries. Scale structure and spatial structure should be adjusted at the same time. 3) The core departments of tertiary production cluster are finance, logistics and harbor serves. To achieve economic integration between two seashores of Taiwan Strait, spatial structure reorganization on the basis of interactive action between Taiwan and Fujian province will pass through five stages: 1) Stage of five urban economic regions; 2) Integrated incipience of urban economic regions; 3) Stage of Fuzhou and Xiamen economic circle; 4) Stage of coastal urban economic zone; 5) Stage of integrated economic area between Fujian and Taiwan provinces. On the basis of five urban economic regions at present, the prospective spatial structure after adjustment should become integrated open space after through the five stages of urban economic regional integration and establish space system which contains four parts: the space of flows, the transition space, local space and radiation space.
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    哈大产业带产业空间构建与产业布局
    马延吉, 佟连军
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 422-426.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.422
    摘要   PDF (479KB)
    产业带的空间构建具有层次性,不能只限于沿线地带,应着眼于更大的区域空间。把哈大产业带地区在地域上和经济上有密切联系,其整体是东北经济区的核心地带,其面积、人口、GDP分别占东北三省的45%、73%和86%。产业发展与产业布局问题较多,如产业重复布局、产业布局的资源环境压力较大、区域经济联系有待加强、老工业基地难题依然存在等。哈大产业带重点发展农业及农产品加工、汽车、机械装备工业、石化、高新技术产业以及第三产业。提出"三圈一带一轴穿,小集聚、大联合,点轴面、城乡连"的空间布局框架。哈大产业带内部各地市应积极参与联合与协作,共同建设基础设施,加强企业间的联合,共同改善生态环境,加强与环渤海区域的合作。
    It is sensible to take into account spatial organization and industrial distribution in industrial belt along Harbin-Dalian Railway. The study divides the industrial belt into three layers, the first and second layers are our main discussing areas, which is economic center of the Northeast China, the cities in this area have close connections. About 45% of the area, 73% of the population and 86% of GDP of three provinces (Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang are concentrated in the belt. In the belt, many cities have the same industries, the problems of resources and environment are serious, regional economic cooperation among cities is to be strengthened, and problems and difficulties in the old industrial area have not been dissolved thoroughly. The key industries in the belt are agriculture, farm products processing industry, automobile industry, machinery industry, petrochemical industry, high-tech industry and tertiary industry. We put forwards an industrial distribution space model of "One axis and one belt with three sub-regions". Along the Harbin-Dalian Railway, there are four industrial areas, the key industries in each area are different, and cities in each area are closely connected. In the whole area of the belt, cities and towns connect with each other by communication lines or fibers, and urban area and rural area develop together. Harbin, Changchun, Shenyang, Dalian are the center of four industrial areas, main communication lines or fibers stretch from Harbin to Dalian. The cities in this industrial belt should cooperate on constructing regional infrastructure, enhancing cooperation among enterprises, and carrying out sustainable development strategy. Cites in Harbin-Dalian industrial belt should cooperate with the cities around the Bohai Sea, it is significant to stimulate the cooperation between coastal areas and inland areas in Northeast China.
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    库兹涅茨比率的分解及其在我国地区差异分析中的应用
    吴殿廷, 宋金平, 梁进社, 张同升
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 427-433.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.427
    摘要   PDF (618KB)
    区域差异及其变化是区域经济学和地理学重要的研究课题之一,通过探讨区域差异研究中不同模型之间的关系,结合中国的具体情况指出了基尼系数等指标在描述区域差异方面的局限性。考察了库兹涅茨比率的独特作用,通过对库兹涅茨比率的分解和计算,发现了导致中国区域差异变化的直接原因。改革开放20多年来我国区域差异的变化可以分为四个阶段,不同阶段差异的表现和内在原因不同,取决于低收入地区人口比例和高收入地区经济总量所占比例这两个因素的对比。西部大开发战略已经显现出一定的效果,未来国内区域差异有可能得到一定程度上的缓解。
    The study of regional difference and its change is one of the most important research topics in regional economics and geography. In this paper, we first discussed the relationship among different models used in the study of regional difference, and pointed out the limitations of Gini coefficient and other indicators in the use of describing regional inequity, combining with China's specific conditions; then we examined the peculiar function of Kuznetz ratio. By decomposing and calculating Kuznetz ratio, we find out the direct causes that bring about the changes of China's regional difference. The results show that the changing process of China's regional difference since the reform and opening up can be divided into four stages, that is, the first stage is from the year 1978 to 1983, the second stage from 1984 to 1990, the third stage from 1991 to 1995, and the fourth stage from 1996 to now. Each of these four stages shows different extrinsic characteristics and intrinsic factors of regional difference, which is mainly due to the contrast value of two factors, that is, the population proportion of low-income areas and the GDP proportion of high-income areas. The details are as follows:1) In the first stage, the population proportion of low-income provinces gradually declines and the income proportion of low-income provinces increases, and these two facts cause the general inequity decline a little.2) In the second stage, the general inequity increases a little, which is mainly due to the vibration of two factors, factor A is the variation of inequity coefficient caused by the relative change of low-income population, factor B is the variation of inequity coefficient caused by the relative change of high-income population;3) In the third stage, the general inequity increases rapidly, which is due to the increase of population proportion and income proportion of low-income provinces.4) In the fourth stage, the general inequity declines a little, comparing with the index of the third stage, which is the result of the obvious increase of population proportion and the obvious decrease of income proportion of low-income provinces.The results also show that China's regional inequity in the future may be lessened to some extent.Practice has proved that the indicator of Kuznetz ratio has a unique function in describing the regional difference, but simply using this method might not have a good result and we should pay attention to its application combining with other methods.
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    中国主要流域盆地风化剥蚀率的控制因素
    李晶莹, 张经
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 434-440.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.434
    摘要   PDF (656KB)
    利用中国40余条主要河流及其支流的沉积物和溶解质载荷分别去表征流域盆地的物理剥蚀率和化学风化率。研究发现,中国流域盆地的总剥蚀率明显高于世界平均值,且具有南北低中间高的地理分布特点,黄河中游的皇甫川机械和总剥蚀率是世界上已知的最高值。根据流域盆地的机械剥蚀率、化学风化率和总剥蚀率及其影响因子之间的相关分析,得出中国流域盆地中的机械剥蚀率在总剥蚀率中占主导地位,机械剥蚀率和总剥蚀率主要由流域的干旱指数和相对高差来控制,不同流域之间总剥蚀率72%的差异是由于这两个参数所造成的。而化学风化率在总剥蚀率中总是处于次要地位,它主要受到流域年均降水量和气温的影响(39%),且不受机械剥蚀率的控制。流域盆地自身属性、径流量、最高海拔和森林覆盖率对流域岩石的风化剥蚀率影响不大。构造活动提高了流域的机械剥蚀率和化学风化率,且对机械剥蚀率的影响更强烈。与世界流域盆地相比,中国流域盆地受到流域干旱指数的影响更为显著。
    The chemical weathering and mechanical denudation play an important role in studying the sea-land matter balance and global climatic change. The rock weathering and erosion products, including the dissolved and solid yields which amount to 15Gt and 5Gt annually, are mainly transported through the rivers into the ocean. The dissolved and particulate loads of the river are used to estimate the physical erosion and chemical weathering rates over the world drainage basins, respectively. The total weathering rate is obviously higher than that of major world watersheds. It is found that the lower erosion rates are distributed in the northern and southern China, while the higher values are observed in the middle of China. The average physical denudationrate rate in Huangfuchuan (the Yellow River's tributary) is the highest value known in the world. The chemical weathering rate is always far less than the mechanical denudation rate in the same watershed, furthermore, the proportion of total denudation contributed by chemical weathering decreases as total denudation rate increases. Data demonstrates chemical weathering rate constitutes only a small proportion of the total denudation rate, while mechanical denudation rate is the most important denudation rate in most drainage basins in China. Moreover the chemical weathering rate is to a less extent controlled by the mechanical denudation rate in the same drainage basin.The environmental and basin property data are quantified and indicated by the annual mean precipitation and temperature, runoff, aridity index, relief ratio, highest altitude, vegetative ratio, river length and basin area in the past decades. Variables expressing basin relief characteristics and aridity indexes are found to be most strongly associated with mechanical and total denudation rates, with approximately 72% of the variance in the total denudation rates being accounted for by the basin relief ratios and aridity indexes. The annual mean precipitation and temperature are responsible for the 39% of the variance of the chemical weathering rates in the Chinese drainage basins. However, basin property, runoff, highest altitude and vegetative ratio are only weakly associated with the physical denudation and chemical weathering rates. The effect of vegetative ratio on increasing the chemical weathering rates and decreasing the physical denudation rates possibly shows clear on the small scale and usually faint on the large scale. The key factors identified as controlling denudation rates here are also applicable to the interaction between tectonic and denudation processes in the Chinese watersheds, although chemical weathering rates are more weakly associated with these topographic variables than mechanical denudation rates. In particular, compared to the world other watersheds, the aridity indexes play a major role in controlling the denudation rates of Chinese drainage basins.
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    中国近50年来日最低气温变化特征研究
    王翠花, 李雄, 缪启龙
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 441-447.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.441
    摘要   PDF (612KB)
    利用1951~2000年全国241个测站1、4、7、10月(分别代表冬、春、夏、秋四季)及年平均的日最低气温资料,将中国划分为8个区域,并对不同区域在不同季节的日最低气温的变化特征进行了研究。结果发现:在全球气候变暖的背景下,日最低气温的增温是极为显著的,尤其是20?世纪80?年代中期之后,北方地区的增温比南方地区和青藏高原更加明显。20世纪70年代中期前后,日最低气温发生了近50年来的第一次变暖突变,此次变暖的趋势并不明显,而是以波动的形式表现出来,80年代中期后,出现了趋势极为明显的第二次变暖突变。研究不同季节的资料还发现,在南方及青藏高原地区夏季日最低气温有下降的趋势。
    Based on the data of daily mean minimum air temperature of a year and January, April, July, October (standing for winter, spring, summer and autumn respectively) from 241 stations in 1951-2000, we divided the whole China into eight regions, and studied the characteristics of daily minimum air temperature in different regions and seasons .By the research we found that under the background of the global climate warming, the increase of daily minimum air temperature was remarkable. Especially in the late of the mid 1980s, the increase in the northern China was more conspicuous than that in the southern China and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau. During the 50 years, the first warming catastrophe of daily minimum air temperature took place around the mid 1970s.The warming trend in this time was not significant, mainly in the form of fluctuation. There was the second warming catastrophe after the mid 1980s, the warming trend in this time was significant. By studying the data of different seasons, we still found that the daily minimum air temperature has a trend of decline in the southern China and the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau.
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    关中地区新石器文化发展与环境演变耦合关系研究
    庞奖励, 黄春长
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 448-453.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.448
    摘要   PDF (2739KB)
    通过对周原全新世古土壤和关中新石器文化的研究,认为新石器文化对环境变化有积极的响应,但这种响应在时间上有一定的滞后,其中5800~5000a B. P.间的以干旱为特征的环境恶化是造成关中仰韶文化衰落最主要的原因;探讨了环境因素在新石器文化发展过程中的地位和作用,认为人类文化是地球表层系统的组成要素之一,其发展受到自然环境的约束。
    A typical Holocence loess profile is observed at Zhouyuan in the Guanzhong basin. According to detailed studies of field features and laboratory, it indicates that the palaeosol S0, normally associated with the Holoence Megathermal period, is separated into both the lower brown forest earth (S02) and the upper Luvic cinnamon soil by a thin loess layer(Lx) between 5800 and 5000 aB.P., normally associated with dry environmental conditions. The soil S0 was a soil complex with two whole pedogenical processes. According to detailed data from a archaeology in China, Yangshao culture in Guanzhong area was at the height of power and splendour between 6000 and 5500 aB.P., but cleared decline from 5500 to 5000 aB.P. Comparisons between the Holocene environment change and the Neolithic culture development at that time in Guanzhong basin, as well as other area in China, we find that the Neolithic culture development clearly responded to the environmental changes. Forefathers had to migrate to other places to find new nutrition resources when environmental changes so very strong or abrupt that vegetations were destroyed entirely. But, it could boosted the development of Neolithic culture in some extents as environmental changes was small or slow to compel human invent and improve techniques to raise per unit yield to fit their needs in food. This paper discussesehe role and status of environmental conditions in the Neolithic culture development, and thinks that it could be primary fact that caused the remarkable degradation of the Neolithic culture or progress. The Neolithic culture development clearly responded to the environmental changes, but it always lagged behind environment change in time. Human and human activity, as an important factor of surface layer system of the earth, should be inhibited by the environment conditions.
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    基于遥感图像的泥石流地面活动程度评价
    刘家宏, 王光谦
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 454-459.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.454
    摘要   PDF (703KB)
    泥石流是中国山区较为常见的一类自然灾害,它的形成有自然地质的原因,也有人为破坏山区植被的原因。在中国实行西部大开发战略的过程中,调查分析泥石流潜在危险区域及其地面活动程度对于制定合理的资源开发战略,有重点地保护一些具有高潜在危险性泥石流沟的植被尤为重要。综合应用遥感(RS,Remote Sensing)技术和流域软件,完全基于RS遥感图像数据,探讨了一种调查泥石流潜在危险区域及其地面活动程度的新方法。
    Debris flow is a kind of natural disaster which appears rather frequently in the mountain areas in China. The reason of such a fact consists of two parts: the original tectonic and the contrived damage. In the process of the Western development, the investigation and analysis of the debris-flow's potential dangerous areas and its activity degree are of great importance for the establishment of practical resource exploitation stratagem, and the protection of those plants which are in the areas of high potential danger. With the technique of remote sensing(RS) and the software of watershed (such as ArcGIS and WMS), and completely based on the image and data from RS, the paper investigates a new assessment method of debris activity degree.
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    非点源营养负荷泥沙关系的建立及其应用
    李怀恩, 蔡明
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 460-463.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.460
    摘要   PDF (2536KB)
    为满足水污染控制规划和流域水资源保护工作的需要,以几个流域的非点源污染监测资料为基础,建立了TP、TN等营养物的非点源污染负荷—泥沙定量关系,相关系数高达0.9以上。以渭河的支流黑河和陕南的汉江流域为例,具体说明了污染负荷—泥沙关系法的应用步骤和预测结果,并与水质水量相关法的结果进行了对照。结果表明,该方法可用于次暴雨及不同频率代表年的非点源营养负荷量预测。
    Nonpoint source load is one of the main sources of surface water pollution. The representative annual load is the base of water pollution control. So it is very important to develop the load estimation methods of nonpoint source pollution under the limited data conditions since there are no long series of measurements on nonpoint source pollution in China. In order to meet the needs of water pollution control planning and water resources protection, on the basis of theory analysis and measured event data of nonpoint source pollution from four watersheds in the middle and the southern Shaanxi Province, with areas from 15 to 3092 km2, the linear relationships between the unit load of TP, TN and unit sediment are established. Their correlation coefficients are larger than 0.9. Two examples of load prediction of nonpoint source nutrients are carried out to show the specific application procedure. One of them is the prediction of TP and TN for single extreme flood, wet year and long-term average year for the Heihe River valley with an area of 1481 km2; and another the prediction of TP and TN for different representative years for the Baihe River section (56310 km2) of the Hanjiang River, the largest branch of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River. The prediction results are compared with those of correlation method of water quality and quantity, and there are no great differences. It is concluded that this method can be applied to estimate nonpoint source nutrient loads for single event and representative years with different frequencies. Since nonpoint source pollution depends on the process of rainfall-runoff-erosion, land-use types and many other factors, the obtained relationships between nutrients and sediment will be more typical if measured data consists of high, middle and small floods. In addition, the established relationship can only be applied to the same watershed or similar watersheds to reduce prediction error of nutrient loads.
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    河西走廊张掖绿洲LUCC的驱动力分析
    蒙吉军, 李正国
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 464-470.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.464
    摘要   PDF (3063KB)
    利用1995和2000年Landsat 5、4、3、2(RGB)波段合成影像解译结果,采用中国科学院资源环境数据库中的中国1:10万土地资源利用分类系统,对河西走廊中段的张掖绿洲的土地利用/覆被变化(LUCC)进行了研究。并运用典型相关分析方法对张掖绿洲LUCC及其影响因子进行了统计分析,诊断出各影响因子对该区LUCC的贡献作用大小,同时运用典型相关系数和冗余度分析,检验了分析结果。
    Based on the interpretation of composite image of band 4, 3, 2 of Landsat 5 of 1995 and 2000 according to land resources classification system of 1:10 0000 in Resources and Environmental Database of CAS, this paper carried out the study on LUCC of Zhangye oasis in the middle of Hexi Corridor. Canonical correlation analysis was also applied to analyze the LUCC and driving factors and drew the contributions of each factor to the forming of LUCC. At the same time, the authors used the coefficient of canonical correlation analysis and redundancy degree to verify the analysis results. The results show that the main driving factors of the increase of urban area and built-up area and cropland are the increase of population, GDP and average income per capita etc. But for the decrease of grassland, woodland and water, the causes are relative complex. The decrease of precipitation, the increase of temperature and the enlargement of investment in agriculture may all contribute to it. At the same time, some cropland and unused land have converted to grassland and woodland, which were mainly caused by ecological security and policies etc. Analysis combined with the type of driving factors shows that the change in cropland structure is mainly the result of optimum economy welfare and the security of food. While, the cultivation of grassland and woodland usually results from the survival economy welfare. Also, optimum economy welfare contributes to it. In area with fragile eco-environment and intense external impact, the security of environment brings the recovery and reconstruction of woodland and the best utilization of unused land.
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    珠江水体悬浮物颗粒有机碳稳定同位素组成及分布特征
    魏秀国, 沈承德, 孙彦敏, 易惟熙
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 471-476.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.471
    摘要   PDF (567KB)
    研究了珠江三干流西江、北江和东江水体中悬浮物颗粒有机碳稳定碳同位素的组成、分布以及季节变化特征。研究结果显示:可以根据C3、C4植物及悬浮物的δ13C值区分不同流域的植被覆盖状况;东江流域水土流失区以草地、农田为主,C4植物影响较大;北江水体中颗粒有机碳主要来源于森林覆盖区,同位素组成受C3植物影响较大;西江水体中颗粒有机碳同位素组成介于其间,同时受C3、C4植物影响,颗粒有机碳部分来源于森林覆盖土壤,部分来源于草地和农田。
    The paper studies the characteristic of the contribution and seasonal change of organic carbon isotope composition(δ13C) in the Pearl River. According to the δ13C value of C3, C4 plant and river suspended matter, we can discern the state of plant covered in different water and soil loss area. The water and soil loss area in the Dongjiang River basin was mainly grassland and cropland. The water and soil loss area in Beijiang River basin was lots of subtropical forests. The results indicated that we can discern the condition of plant covered in different basins. POC of Beijiang mainly originated from forest area and its carbon-isotope composition was affected by C3 plant. The carbon-isotope composition of Xijiang is between that of Beijiang and Dongjiang's. It indicated that the suspended matter was affected by C3 and C4 plant at the same time. And part of POC in Xijiang River originated from the soil covered by forest, some came from grassland and cultivated land.
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    长白山北坡苔原/岳桦景观边界的定量检测
    常禹, 布仁仓, 胡远满, 徐崇刚, 王庆礼
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 477-483.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.477
    摘要   PDF (556KB)
    景观边界是不同景观类型之间的过渡带,是生态系统与环境(包括地形和地貌等)相互作用的产物,运用地理信息系统和多变量分析方法(主成分分析PCA和移动窗口分析法MSWA)分别对样线数据和TM遥感影像数据进行分析,定量判定长白山北坡苔原和岳桦景观边界的宽度和位置。结果表明:长白山北坡苔原和岳桦景观边界的宽度为60m左右,这与野外样线调查的结果——该边界的宽度为50m相一致;研究结果表明:与地理信息系统和其它统计方法相结合,TM遥感影像数据可以用于森林景观边界的定量检测;在景观边界的检测方面,移动窗口法比主成分分析法更可靠;只要样线布设合理,主成分分析法也可以用于景观边界的定量检测。
    Landscape boundaries, or transitional zones among different landscapes, are also called ecotones. They are resulted from complex interactions among ecosystems, topography, and geomorphology. Landscape boundaries are inherent features of landscapes and play important roles in ecosystems dynamics. They control the flux of material between ecosystems and influence biodiversity. Characteristics of ecotones may be especially sensitive to environmental change. Studies have showed that high environmental heterogeneity and biodiversity are often found within these zones, and changes of their locations can be used as indicators of environmental change. However, landscape boundaries have often been ignored or reduced to lines on a map when ecologists studied homogeneous regions to characterize and understand ecosystem processes. Hence, to better study and understand the functional roles and dynamics of ecotones, quantitative methods to identify their location are needed. There are many methods to characterize and identify ecotones. Such as spatial clustering which considers the spatial relationships among sites, lattice-wombling, triangulation-wombling and categorical-wombling etc. In this study, we use GIS, RS and multivariate statistics techniques (PCA and Moving Split-windows Analysis (abbreviated as MSWA)) to analyze data from field transect inventory and Landsat TM satellite imageries, quantitatively determining the width and position of landscape boundary between tundra and mountain birch in northern slope of the Changbai Mountains. MSWA is a classical analysis method for one dimension value. First putting two windows on the even-interval samples (the number of samples among one of the windows equals to the other), and comparing the dissimilarity of the samples in the two half windows; then, moving the window backward by a sample until all the samples on the transect are used. There are a lot of methods to calculate the dissimilarity. Because the results got by SED (Square Euclidean Distance) was compatible with field observation, it is the most commonly used method. The formula is as follows: where n represents the midpoint of the two half-windows or the stop point of the window, a and b represent the two half-windows respectively, w denotes the width of the window, while m stands for the variable numbers of each sample plot. According to the graph plotted by SED as ordinate and the position of Sample Points along transect as abscissa in Cartesian coordinates, we can determine the condition of landscape boundary by the change of rate. Higher and narrower peaks denote abrupt landscape boundary, while lower and wider peaks denotes gradual landscape boundary. Our results show that the widths of the landscape boundary between mountain birch and tundra is 60 m or so. Such detected widths are consistent with field transect data that suggests a 50 m transitional zone width. Our results further suggest that TM data can be used in combination with GIS and statistical techniques in determining forest landscape boundaries; MSWA is more reliable than PCA, while PCA can also be used to determine the landscape boundary when transects are properly located.
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    综述
    城市景观生态研究的现状与发展趋势
    曾辉, 夏洁, 张磊
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 484-492.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.484
    摘要   PDF (884KB)
    从城市景观格局、景观动态变化及其驱动机制、土地利用与土地覆盖变化、生态恢复与生态合理性建设和城市景观生物多样性等5个方面总结了城市景观生态研究的发展现状。从分析结果看,城市景观动态变化的驱动机制、结构与功能的生态合理性评估、格局的优化设计模式和城市发展过程中的决策支持与管理等研究领域还存在着明显的不足,难以满足城市景观生态理论和应用发展的需求,应当成为今后研究工作的重点。此外,城市景观生态研究是一个多学科的综合性研究范畴,景观生态学研究人员必须与相关学科的专家密切协作,才能够推动上述理论和应用问题的解决。
    Urban landscape is the most important type of human-cultural landscape. Along with the global urbanization process, the number and area of the urban landscape keep increasing. The originality and development of the urban landscape has been always in association with intensive human activities for landscape alternation. Therefore, most landscape ecological issues emerging from human activities can be reflected during the process of the urban landscape development. Reasonable and effective resolution of these issues will be determined if the healthy development of the urban landscape as well as the socio-economic sustainable development can be achieved. The urban landscape ecology is the most active branch of landscape studies. On the basis of the recently published documents, this paper summarizes the development status quo of urban landscape ecology in 5 aspects. (1) Study on urban landscape pattern: it focuses on the whole urban landscape pattern, the gradient change characteristics, and the comparison study of urban and suburban landscape pattern characteristics. (2) Study on land use/land cover change: on the basis of discussion about relevant methodologies, this aspect pays attention to the conversion characteristics among various land use types in internal and suburban areas of a city, and makes prediction analysis on their dynamic changes. (3) Study on ecological recovery and ecological reasonability construction: it gives relevant theory and methodology solutions for problems in urban green space, city support function, and aesthetic construction. (4) Study on landscape dynamic changes: it sets up models for urban landscape dynamics, and analyzes the process rules and driving mechanisms of urban landscape change from spatial and non-spatial aspects. (5) Study on biodiversity of urban landscape: it studies the protection problems of different biological species in urban landscape, and meanwhile, discusses the ecological significance of some important species and their ecological maintenance solutions. Through analyzing the development status quo of urban landscape ecology study, we find that there exist considerable gaps in the areas as follows, driving mechanism of dynamic change of urban landscape, evaluation on ecological reasonability of structure and functions, optimized design models of landscape patterns, and decision support and management in urban development. These gaps, which limit the further theoretical development of urban landscape ecology and the application, should be the priorities areas for the future study. In addition, urban landscape ecology is a multi-disciplinary and comprehensive study category, so the research staff should work in close collaboration with scientists in other related fields, further progress in narrowing the above-mentioned gaps can be achieved.
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    研究报道
    榆林地区土地利用/覆被变化区域特征及其驱动机制分析
    史纪安, 陈利顶, 史俊通, 傅伯杰, 张淑荣
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 493-498.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.493
    摘要   PDF (797KB)
    利用榆林地区1986、1995年土地利用现状图,在地理信息系统支持下建立土地利用变化转移矩阵,结合多年社会统计资料分析榆林地区10多年来的土地利用动态变化特征。研究结果表明:土地利用类型变化幅度大、流转方向较为集中,具体表现为农田总面积下降、耕地质量局部改善,林草覆盖面积增长、其它用地类型面积减少;从区域角度分析,南部黄土丘陵沟壑区耕地面积减少、成熟林地面积增加幅度大与西北部风沙区耕地面积轻微增加、天然草地优势地位增强形成鲜明对比,这种区域特征符合"因地制宜"规律,与"退耕还林还草"政策导向吻合。全区总人口及其区域分布、农民年均收入和农业人口比重为该区土地利用/覆被变化的主要驱动力,同时人们的环境保护意识和相应的土地政策也对该区土地利用/覆被变化产生较大影响。
    Based on the land-use map of Yulin prepared in 1986 and 1995, the conversion matrix of land-use change from the 1980s to the 1990s is acquired by using Geographic Information System (GIS). Then, the characteristics of land use/cover change in the corresponding period in Yulin Prefecture are further discussed with the help of statistic data. The results indicate that the range of land use/cover change was great and most land-use type went to the same direction. In detail, compared with the rapidly increasing area of woodland/grassland, the gross area of farmland and the others were decreasing, but the farmland quality in some areas was improved. On regional scale, the notable decrease of farmland and increase of woodland in the southern loess hilly region showed a striking contrast with the slightly rise of farmland and rapidly increase of grassland in the northwest sandy area, which was in accordance with the regional environmental characteristics and the land policy "returning farmland to woodland/grassland". And the main driving forces of land-use change are population growth, population ratio between peasant and citizen, and annual income of local farmers. Additionally, the land-use policy and the public awareness on environmental protection also play an important role in land use/cover change.
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    大学城建设对广州城市发展的促进分析
    肖玲
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 499-503.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.499
    摘要   PDF (482KB)
    知识经济时代的到来使得大学城成为最具时代特色的城市空间形态之一,大学城因此成为社会各界的关注焦点。在系统梳理中外有关大学城的概念,尝试从新角度重新认识大学城及其与大学园区、大学卫星城、大学城市、新科技城市的关系基础上,通过对广州大学城的实证研究,分析大学城对建设学习型城市、强化城市教育、文化、科技功能,改善城市空间结构,催生城市经济新增长点等方面的作用。
    As knowledge economic society coming, university towns become one of the most important kinds of City because of their special functions. As a result, a lot of university towns are setting up in China, which ask for us to maks sure the following problems. What are university towns in China? What roles do they play? What functions do they make? By comparing the characteristics of different kinds of university towns at home and abroad, the paper consideres that university towns are the region where colleges and universities are densely located in. According to their developing level from low to high, university towns can be divided into four kinds. They are university districts, university satellite towns, university cities and technopoles. Guangzhou is one of the most important cities in China. There are almost 60 colleges and universities in the city. Except that, a university satellite town named Guangzhou University Town is setting up and will start to enroll new students in the autumn of 2004. The town is located on the Xiaoguwei Isle, Xinzao Town, Panyu District of Guangzhou, 17km far from the city center, covers an area of 43.3 square kelometres. The paper consideres that as a result of setting up Guangzhou University Town, Guangzhou City will develop more quickly and become a studying city, a city with strong functions of education, culture, science and technology, and a city with suitable enviroment for living and working. From the case, we can see the roles and functions which the university towns play.
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    中国旅游类博士硕士学位论文分析
    章锦河, 陆林
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 504-510.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.504
    摘要   PDF (700KB)
    旅游类博士、硕士学位论文在很大程度上凸现了旅游、旅游地理学研究的广度与深度。通过查阅万方数据资源系统中科技信息子系统的《中国学位论文(CDDB)》库,获得1988~2001年期间中国旅游类博士、硕士学位论文共408篇。文章从学位论文的数量增长、研究者的专业背景、研究内容、研究方法、研究案例区等角度,运用SPSS软件,对408篇学位论文进行了较为系统的数理分析,在一定程度上揭示了目前中国旅游、旅游地理学研究的现状与特点,并就未来旅游研究工作提出了展望。
    Doctoral and Master's tourist dissertations embody the width and depth of tourism study in some degree. Based on consulting "Chinese Dissertations Database (CDDB)" in technical information sub-system of Wanfang data resources system, the paper gets 408 Doctoral and Master's dissertations on tourism from 1988 to 2001. By using SPSS, the paper gives systematic analysis on dissertation's number increase, specialty's background, study content, study method and case region, indicating five features of Chinese tourism study.(1) Since 1995, the dissertations have gone up rapidly. Tourism higher education offers solid personnel resources foundation for tourism study, and they cater to the need of Chinese tourism development.(2) With wide specialty's background, the dissertations are from the angels of different subjects, which enriches the contents, theories and methods of tourism research.(3) The study contents of dissertations are very rich, covering tourism subject, object, medium and their mutual links, influences and functions. But because of the rational demands of practical features in tourism study and the perceptual calls of realistic needs in society, tourism study concentrates more on the aspects of economy and technology than society, culture, education, environment, history, policy and so on.(4) As for the study methods of the 408 dissertations, most of them are descriptive method, which occupy 58.3%, and 26.4%, 7.1%, 8.2% for notional method, tectonic method, and mathematical statistic method. Study method and means remain to be improved.(5) At present, tourism dissertations mainly analyze some cases in the eastern and middle areas of China, which amounts to 145, and possesses 76.32%. To Jiangsu, Liaoning, Hubei, Shangdong, Guangdong, Zhejiang provinces and their affiliated cities and counties, the study is fairly comprehensive on tourism resources evaluation and development, tourism planning and design, tourism development strategy and tourism management. There are 45 dissertations studying on western areas, which takes 23.68%. Except Shanxi and Yunnan, other 10 provinces' tourism basic studies are rather weak. With rapid development process of the western area, it is imperative to strengthen the study on eco-tourism, minority nationality culture tourism, tourism planning, etc.Based on above-mentioned analysis, the paper also puts forward the prospects for future tourism study.
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    书评
    评介《自然地理学实验与实习》
    孟宪玺
    地理科学. 2003, 23 (4): 511-511.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2003.04.511
    摘要   PDF (459KB)
    《自然地理学》是地理科学类各专业重要的主干课程。地理科学类的地理科学(师范类)、资源环境与城乡规划管理、地图与地理信息系统三个本科专业,都要开设《自然地理学》课程,并要求加强实践性教学环节。
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