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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2004年, 第24卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2004-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    80年代以来我国区域旅客生成特征分析
    张文尝
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 385-391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.385
    摘要   PDF (320KB)
    我国改革开放以来旅客运输迅速发展,空间分布格局发生了重要变化,与我国区域社会经济发展有着十分密切的关联。利用空间运输联系理论和实证分析方法,对于旅客生成特征、区域差异及其原因进行的分析表明:20世纪80年代以来全国以及各地区的旅客生成密度大幅度增长。同时,省级区域旅客生成密度分布格局发生了明显的变化;省级区域旅客生成密度的相对差距20世纪80年代上升、90年代有所下降;高客运密度区从相对均衡分布变为向南方区域倾斜。这种变化的主要影响因素有三:经济增长、人口流动和交通网发展。
    The pattern of passenger flows is one of the indicators reflecting spatial transport linkages. This paper examines the features, regional disparity and dynamics of passenger flow patterns in China since the 1980s. The post-reform period has witnessed clear changes in regional patterns of the average travel frequency per capita (TFPC, hereafter) in China. The major changes are: (1) the TFPC has been continuously rising in the fast-growing southeastern coastal provinces, including Zhejiang, Guangdong, Fujian and Hainan, and the ranking of these provinces in terms of TFPC has also gone up gradually; (2) the ranking of northeastern provinces (i.e. Liaoning, Jilin and Heilongjiang) in terms of TFPC has fell down; (3) the TFPC of southern provinces with a big population has increased significantly, and among them Sichuan, Chongqing, Guizhou and Hunan registered a faster increase rate than national average; and (4) the TFPC of provinces in North China and the Northwest has remained at a comparatively low level. The relative disparity in provincial TFPC increased significantly in the 1980s while it narrowed down in the 1990s. One spatial features among other is that more and more southern provinces registered a high TFPC. The major factors leading to rapid growth of passenger flows are: (1) economic growth, which is the primer factor generating demands of people for various kinds of travel. The higher the income of people in a region is, the higher their travel frequency is, and the longer their travel distance is; (2) labor flow, which makes the low-income provinces have a high TFPC because of the huge out-flows of rural surplus labor into the fast-growing coastal regions; and (3) improvement of transport infrastructures, which enables people to travel more and longer.
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    中国县域综合实力评价与区域分异特征
    仇方道, 朱传耿, 单勇兵, 马家常
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 392-398.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.392
    摘要   PDF (873KB)
    以县域为研究单元,采用SPSS软件包与GIS技术,对中国各县域的社会经济发展水平进行综合评价,并揭示了其空间分异特征。认为,形成中国区域发展差距的主要因素是社会经济结构、经济水平和人口素质,而不单单是经济因素;以综合指数方法测度的区域差距明显低于经济差距;北方沿边地区较高的经济水平与低下的社会经济结构水平呈现明显的错位;社会综合发展水平自沿海向内陆表现出高-低-次高-低的4元结构;从全国尺度看,社会经济发展空间结构呈轴线开发模式,而在区域尺度上则表现为由核心区向周边地区逐步下降的"凸"字型空间格局;全国县域综合发展可分为高度协调发展型、中等协调发展型、社会经济结构滞后型、初级协调发展型、整体发展滞后型。
    Based on SPSS software package and GIS technology, this paper makes a comprehensive assessment on the socio-economic development at county level, and reveals the characteristics and the laws of regional disparity about socio-economic development in China. Firstly, factors that mainly influence the social regional differentiations are socio-economic structure, economic level and population quality, their weights are respectively 29.168%, 27.844% and 16.942%. At the same time, the relativity among indexes, measuring regional socio-economic development, indicates that change of each factor can give rise to the change of other factors in the system, therefore, preserving the integrated coordination of each regional factor is the key to raise the synthetical level of regional development. Secondly, in the view of county scale, for the gap between the development degree of social structure and population quality is far smaller than economical gap makes the regional gap estimated by the method of synthetical index is clearly lower than that of economic development. It not only indicates that some fixed limitations would be existed if we weigh the gap of regional development merely with the economic index, but also shows the correctness and feasibility of the policy to reduce the gap of regional development by reducing the gap of regional social development and that of public service. Thirdly, the space disparity in the level of social synthetical development, existing in counties of China, displays the different characteristics compared to the provincial region. Seeing from the east-west aspect, 4 corridors clearly appears by turns, that is, from the Coastal Higher Corridor, the Beijing-Jiulong Lower Corridor, then to the Beijing-Guangzhou Higher Corridor,at last to the Middle-West China Lower Corridor. It is clearly different from the view of provincial scale which is divided 3 districts as the east, the middle and the west. While in the north-south aspect, there are 3 higher corridors (the north along boundary, the Changjiang River, the Nanning-Kunming Corridor) and the lower level districts between them. All these indicates that the north-south disparity is forming in China, particularly along the Long-Hai railway is a lower level corridor traversing the east-west in China. Coordinating development of the northern and southern regions should be caused highly recognition by the executive department. In addition, in the region or smaller scale, economic development decreases from the center area to the marginal area step by step. Fourthly, space distribution of socio-economic structure, economic level and population quality level takes on obvious disparities in representation and intensity in counties. Hence, adopting discriminate analysis method, this paper classifies counties into 5 categories by using the targets of socio-economic structure, economic level and population quality.
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    吉林省域城镇体系规划综合调控作用研究
    郐艳丽, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 399-405.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.399
    摘要   PDF (834KB)
    基于省域城镇体系规划的本质认识及吉林省城镇体系发展背景、现状及趋势的研究基础上,借鉴发达省区的经验教训,实施适应吉林省发展的"保护两厢,聚集中央"新型城市化发展战略,采取战略取舍、结构分异、整合发展、空间管制等战略举措充分发挥省域城镇体系的综合调控作用,促进吉林省经济、社会、生态环境的可持续发展。
    On the base of the understanding and the study of development background, actuality,trend of urdan system planning of Jilin Pronince,consulting the experiences of developd provinces,this paper puts forward the PROTECTING TWO BORDER, CONCENTRATING CENTER stratagem which is adapted the development of Jilin Province, putting forward the tactical accepting or rejecting,structure variance, settling and consolidation development,space control stratagem,developing the synthesize regulation and control effect of urdan system planning, accelerating the sustable development of economic,social and environment.
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    修正后的城市系统异速生长方程实证研究——以大连市为例
    常静, 李雪铭
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 406-412.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.406
    摘要   PDF (1277KB)
    在城市化研究中,表征城市垂直空间增长的标度因子一直未给予足够的重视。通过引入城市垂直空间生长的标度因子新变量,修正了城市地理学中应用极广的城市人口—城区面积异速生长方程和城市要素—产出关系的Cobb-Douglas函数。并以大连市为例,进行大连城市系统人地结构发展的异速生长分析,建立了城市化投入产出模型,拟合城市化进程中人口—土地—产值结构的发展。
    With the speeding up of urbanization, more and more high buildings emerge, which makes the vertical spatial growth of city become the most obvious landscape in the past decades. The research on urban vertical growth becomes a necessity. But the previous researches have just considered the urban area extends while neglected the vertical spatial growth, so they can not explain the actual urban structure comprehensively. This paper aims to analyze this variable and dynamic phenomenon during the process of urbanization by the application of modification to urban allometric growth model and C-D function, which is used widely in the research of urban geography. The method urban allmetric growth analysis can be further modified to ensure that they can explain the urban growth comprehensively both in horizontal and vertical dimension. In this paper, we introduce a new variable representing for urban vertical growth and take Dalian City as an empirical evidence implication. Set up the nonlinear allometric growth functions:A(t)=aP(t)b,H(t)=aP(t)b, Y=PαAβ hγ,combine the urban area sprawling with urban vertical spatial growth together, analyzing the nonlinear allometric growth interactions among these urban spatial factors and urban population size. We think this work will contribute to understand the concept of fractal urban space and the structure of urban dynamic system more clearly. Taking Dalian city as a case study, we find some conclusions: (1) by the means of urban allometric growth analysis, the urban land-use of Dalian City witnesses the transformation from the pattern of "urban area sprawling (1904-1985)" to "urban vertical spatial growth as well as the area sprawling (1985-1992)" to "urban vertical spatial growth (1992-2000)". (2) By the means of urban input-output structure analysis and the Cobb-Douglas function, we can see after 1992, the value of "Y-P" input-output coefficients ξ is on the decline, while the value of "Y-A", "Y-h" input-output coefficients ξ both grow increasingly, this tendency reflects the overall growth of urban land-use including both horizontal and vertical spatial growth. (3) With regards to urban land-use, the pattern of optimizing irrational production, distribution structure and the environmental improvement would have much more input-output economic benefit than just extending the urban area. So in the process of urbanization, we should pay more attention to optimizing irrational land-use distribution and structure instead of enlarging urban area blindly.
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    宁西铁路沿线经济带构建研究
    郭荣朝, 顾朝林
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 413-418.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.413
    摘要   PDF (913KB)
    宁西铁路东起江苏南京,西至陕西西安,沿途经过江苏、安徽、河南、湖北、陕西五省,铁路总长1149km,是我国又一条东西向交通大动脉。宁西铁路建成通车将极大地改善沿线地区交通条件,并推动该地区经济快速发展。本文首先分析了宁西铁路沿线经济带构建的作用以及沿线区域概况,指出沿线地区经济发展过程中存在的问题。在此基础上,论文分析了宁西铁路沿线经济带形成演化机制,并提出构建对策:统一规划,完善区域交通运输体系;统一管理,加强生态环境建设;细分市场,大力发展旅游业;统一协调,积极推进城镇化进程;比较优势,构建经济增长极,进行空间结构重组;市场导向,实施产业结构重构;控制人口,实现可持续发展。
    Starting from Nanjing and ending in Xi'an, Via Jiangsu, Anhui, Hubei, Henan and Shaanxi provinces, totaling 1149 kilometers, Ning-Xi (Nanjiang-Xi'an) railway is another main east to west artery of traffic of our country. The building of the Railway will greatly improve the traffic conditions and the economic development along the railway district. This paper analyzes the role of building of economic belt along Ning-Xi railway and basic circumstance along railway district, and points out existing problems (Nanjiang-Xi'an) economic developmental process along the railway. On the basis of the analyses, the author puts forward the mechanism and measures of building economic belt along the Ning-Xi railway. Those are: 1) to perfect regional transportation and communication system; 2) to strengthen ecosystem and environment construction by unifying the management; 3) to strengthen tourist industry by subdividing the tourist market; 4) to improve urbanization progress; 5) to set up economic increasing pole; 6) to reorganize industrial structure; 7) to realize sustainable development by controling population.
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    环境污染对东莞市地域经济发展的影响
    匡耀求, 黄宁生, 胡振宇
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 419-425.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.419
    摘要   PDF (729KB)
    对东莞市32个镇区1995~2000年经济发展与环境污染状况的考察表明,环境污染已经严重影响了东莞市北部水乡,尤其是水乡下游各镇区的经济增长,妨碍了其优势的发挥和产业的升级。一个地域环境污染对区域经济增长的影响并不完全局限在该地域内,承受最大影响的往往是其下游地域和下风向地域。水乡上游保护区的发展实践表明,保护环境并不一定会制约地方经济的发展。
    Dongguan City is situated in the eastern part of the Pearl River Delta, southern China. The East River, one of the main tributary of the Pearl River, flows from east to west and formed river-net plain in the northern part of Dongguan City. The 32 towns or township districts in Dongguan City of Guangdong Province can be grouped into 4 geographical zones as the river-net zone in the northern part (including 11 towns or township districts); the mountainous zone in the southern part (including 9 towns); the transition zone in the central part (including 8 towns or township districts) and the water-source protection zone in the upper reach of the river-net zone in the eastern part. The GDP (Gross Domestic Production) in the river-net zone in the northern part occupied 31.03% of the total GDP in Dongguan City in 1990 but lowered to 23.32% in 2000; while GDP in the mountainous zone in the southern part occupied 19.29% of the total GDP in Dongguan City in 1990 but raised to 26.98% in 2000. The GDP proportion in the other two zones hardly changed during the same period. Investigation on the pollution discharge in 2000 in the 4 zones indicates that the pollution load in the river-net zone in the northern part occupied 73.42% of total pollution load in Dongguan City, while that in the mountainous zone in the southern part occupied only 10.48% of total pollution load in Dongguan City. Comparing the economic growth and environmental pollution in the 4 zones during the period of 1990-2000 reveals that the environmental pollution has already seriously affected the economic growth and the full play of the advantages of the towns or townships in the river-net zone in the northern part of Dongguan City (especially the towns near the river mouth), and hampered their industry from upgrading. The influence of the environmental pollution on economic growth is not restricted to where pollution is produced, where suffered most is often the towns along the lower valley or in the down-wind regions. The practice of the economic development in the water-source protection zone in the upper reach of the river-net in the eastern part indicated that,environmental protection,strictly controlling the discharge of pollutants, did not affect the development of the local economy. The environmental protection is not incompromisably in contradiction with economic development.
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    藏北高原夏季降水的水汽来源分析
    杨梅学, 姚檀栋, 田立德, 鲁安新
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 426-431.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.426
    摘要   PDF (846KB)
    根据GAME-Tibet加强观测期间取得的降水量和δ18O资料,基于来自海洋性气团的水汽形成的降水中δ18O较低、来自局地蒸发形成的降水中δ18O较高这一认识,尝试性地给出了划分不同来源水汽的标准。基于此标准,对研究区域中局地来源水汽和海洋性气团水汽在总降水中所占的比率定量估计。就安多附近平均而言,1998年6~9月海洋气团的直接输送而形成的降水量至多占总降水量的32.06%,而局地蒸发的水汽所形成的降水量至少占总降水量的46.86%。其它至少有21.8%可能来源于季风环流对沿途蒸发水汽的输送。青藏高原中部(如安多等)的降水,可能是海洋性气团携带的水汽经过若干次凝结-降水(降落到地面)-蒸发-再凝结等过程,不断循环并依次将水分通过季风环流向高原中西部推进。
    According to the precipitation and δ18O obtained during GAME-Tibet IOP, based on the knowledge that the δ18O in precipitation is lower which is from the ocean air mass and higher from that of the local evaporation, the water vapor sources could be identified from the δ18O value in precipitation. We attempt to give the identification criterion of δ18O value. If we use δ18O < -20‰ as the criterion that the precipitation is formed directly from the ocean air mass, the contribution of ocean air mass may be not underestimated. And if we use δ18O>-13‰ as the criterion that the precipitation is formed directly from the local evaporation, the contribution of local evaporation may be not overestimated. According to such criterion, the proportion of the local-evaporation-formed-precipitation and the ocean-air-mass-formed-precipitation in total precipitation was estimated. The precipitation samples at site NODA, Anduo and AQB basically recorded the precipitation processes in June to early September. On the average of these three sites, the precipitation is 249.76mm. The precipitation formed directly from ocean air mass vapor is not beyond 80.08mm and the precipitation formed directly from local evaporation vapor at least is 117.05mm. That is to say, the proportion of the ocean-air-mass-vapor-formed-precipitation in total precipitation is not beyond 32.06% and the local-evaporation-vapor-formed-precipitation at least is 46.86%. The other 21.8% may come from the transportation of the monsoon circulation to the evaporation vapor on the way. The precipitation in Tibetan Plateau is mainly local rain formed by wet convection from the surface evaporation vapor. The rate of the precipitation formed directly from ocean air mass vapor to the total precipitation in Anduo area is small in summer monsoon.
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    近40年气候变化及其空间分异的多尺度研究——以内蒙古自治区为例
    路云阁, 李双成, 蔡运龙
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 432-438.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.432
    摘要   PDF (1011KB)
    利用小波变换对内蒙古27个气象台站40年(1956~1995)的年平均气温和降水数据进行多尺度分析,结果表明,1956~1958是40年中最冷的年份,20世纪60年代初和90年代初是两个主要的气温升高和降水增加时期。在大时间尺度上,气温和降水基本处于相对高值,气温有逐渐增加趋势,部分气象台站的降水有减少趋势;中小尺度上气温和降水变化具有更多的表现形式,体现在气温冷暖变化和降水多少变化的频率和强度上。内蒙古气温变化的空间分布格局具有明显的沿纬度分布的特征,降水变化基本上体现了一种沿经度分布的空间格局。对内蒙古3~5月气候干湿状况研究表明,20世纪50年代末和80年代初是两个相对湿润时期,1994年后气候最为干燥,大时间尺度存在非常明显的气候由湿润到干燥的变化趋势;中小尺度上干湿状况变化较频繁。
    After analyzing average annual temperature and precipitation of the 27 meteorological stations in Inner Mongolia from 1956 to 1995 using wavelets transformation, the authors draw following conclusions. (1) The coldest period was from 1956-1958 and there were two main accretion periods of both air temperature and precipitation at the beginning of the 1960s and 1990s. Observed from large scale of time, i.e. between 36 years and 40 years, both air temperature and precipitation were in the state of relatively high values. Meanwhile, temperature had an increasing trend while some meteorological stations' precipitation was gradually decreasing. On the moderate scale and small scale of time, i.e., between 16 years and 20 years and between 4 years and 8 years, air temperature and precipitation both had more varying forms embodied in their changing frequency and fluctuation intensity. (2) Based on multiscale characters of air temperature and precipitation respectively, the authors use some numeric numbers to describe those characters and sort the meteorological stations as four types. This paper shows the spatial patterns of air temperature and precipitation change using the ordinary Kriging interpolating method. The spatial pattern of air temperature change of Inner Mongolia has the trend of varying with latitude while the spatial pattern of precipitation change has the rough trend of varying with longitude. (3) In the end, the dry-humid features from March to May of Inner Mongolia are studied in this article that include two humid periods happened at the end of the 1950s and in 1980-1982 and a driest period happened after 1994. On the large scale, a clear trend of turning from humidity to dryness can be detected. On the moderate scale and small scale, the change between humidity and dryness are relatively frequent.
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    模拟流域地貌发育过程的空间数据获取与分析
    肖学年, 崔灵周, 王春, 李占斌
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 439-443.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.439
    摘要   PDF (583KB)
    运用数字摄影测量与GIS技术对人工模拟降雨条件下小流域模型地貌发育过程进行了动态监测研究,获得了小流域模型不同发育阶段地貌形态高精度、高分辨率的DEM数据、等高线、纵横剖面等数据,计算出了流域模型各种地貌形态参数,并利用GIS技术进行流域发育过程的空间形态进行了可视化和空间分析。研究表明,数字摄影测量与GIS技术可准确快速获取流域地貌形态的相关参数及小流域土壤侵蚀的空间定量分布,对于黄土高原小流域降雨侵蚀产沙过程与地貌形态特征定量作用关系研究及小流域土壤侵蚀预报模型建立具有重要科学意义。
    The topographic feature is one of the main factors that influence the process of soil erosion and sediment yield of small watershed. It is very necessary to quantitate the topographic feature of small watershed and get the correlative parameters rapidly. According to the process resemble principle and statistic analysis of the topographic feature of small watershed on the Loess Plateau, the small watershed model is designed as 9.1 m long (max), 5.8 m wide (max), 3.15 m high (max) and the soil density is controlled as 1.39 g/cm3. Based on 25 artificial simulated rainfalls, the dynamic development process of the topographic feature of small watershed model is studied by means of photogrammetry and GIS technology. We obtained the data of high precise DEM model, contour line map and the vertical and horizontal section of the small watershed model during different developing periods, including early developing period, active developing period and stable developing period. By GIS technology, the parameters of the topographic feature of the small watershed model are worked out, such as area, length, width, depth, volume and perimeter of the small watershed model. The visualization and spatial analysis of the development process feature of the small watershed model are conducted. The development process of the small watershed model takes on the gully width expansion, the gully bottom cutting down and the gully length increase. The spatial conformation of the main gully and branch gully of the small watershed model are irregular during the early developing and active developing period, and contrary during the stable developing period. The chief reason for the spatial conformation development of the small watershed model is the redistribution of the earth surface substance that is caused by soil erosion, especially the gravity erosion. The research shows that the photogrammetry and GIS technology may be applied to getting the related parameters of the topographic feature and quantitiving spatial distribution of the soil erosion of small watershed quickly and exactly. The technology is very significant to study the quantitive relationship between the soil erosion and sediment yield process and the topographic feature of small watershed on the condition of rainfall on the Loess Plateau. It also provides new method for establishing the soil erosion prediction model of the small watershed in this area.
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    基于GIS的农业气候资源区域化问题研究——以甘肃省为例
    封志明, 郑海霞, 杨艳昭
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 444-451.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.444
    摘要   PDF (1058KB)
    在农业气候资源研究中,站点数据的区域化问题是进行资源优化配置和高效利用的一个重要环节。通过采用逐步回归分析与空间插值相结合的方法,以甘肃省及其相邻省区的112个站点1970~2001年31年的月平均温度和降水数据以及计算得到的月平均太阳辐射和潜在蒸散量为数据源,对甘肃省气候资源进行了区域化。对每种气象要素都采用了两种空间插值方法,并对插值结果运用了绝对验证和相对验证两种方法进行了验证和对比。结果表明:温度残差的平均绝对误差(MAE)是Spline< IDW, 其值分别为:0.744℃和0.754℃,平均相对误差(RME)分别为:9.56%和9.66%。降水的平均绝对误差是Kriging温度>潜在蒸散量>降水,但都达到了较高的精度。
    In research of agricultural climate resources, the zonal digitization of climate data is very important for optimization, collocation and high efficient utilization of agricultural resources. Using 11-year of monthly mean air temperature, precipitation, solar radiation and evapotranspiration potential at 112 station in Gansu province and adjacent regions, we combined the methods of stepwise regression analysis and spatial interpolation to regionalize climate variables in Gansu province. Based on stepwise regression analysis,we chosen the methods of zonal digitization. The two methods of spatial interpolation were applied for every climate variables, and farther the results were validated and contrasted by absolute errors from cross-validation test and relative errors from proportion of mean absolute errors (MAE) and corresponding monthly mean climate variables. The results of mean absolute errors were ranked as Spline air temperature > evapotranspiration potential > precipitation, but the zonal digitization of the four climate variables all achieved good precision.
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    GIS支持下中小流域洪水风险图系统研究
    许有鹏, 李立国, 蔡国民, 张立峰, 李景才
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 452-457.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.452
    摘要   PDF (600KB)
    中国东南沿海中小流域经济发达,洪水灾害频繁发生,防洪减灾研究十分重要。洪水风险图综合自然、社会经济和洪水灾害等多种信息,在防洪减灾中可发挥重要参考作用。以中国东南沿海甬江流域为例,开展以地理信息系统为支持的洪水风险图信息系统研究,借助历史洪水数据库和社会经济数据库,结合流域空间信息动态分析,探讨流域洪水风险图快速编制的方法和途径。该研究为洪水风险图动态更新创造了条件,提高洪水风险图的准确性,为中小流域防洪减灾快速决策提供有力支持。
    Because of the developed economy and frequently happening flood disasters in coastal medium and small basins in the southeastern China, it is very important to research flood prevention and reduction. And flood risk map contains comprehensive information such as area nature, socio-economy and flood calamity, so it can play an important reference role in flood prevention and reduction. In this paper taking the Yonjiang River basin in the southeastern China as an example, the flood risk map information system supported by GIS is developed, also the method and approach to swift drawing the flood risk map in river basin are explored by using the database of historical flood and socioeconomic database as well as combining the dynamic analysis of spatial information of watershed. This has offered conditions for the dynamic updating of flood risk map, raised the accuracy of flood risk map and provided strong support to the fast decision for flood prevention and reduction in medium and small basins.
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    基于遥感与地理信息系统的分布式斜坡稳定性定量评估模型
    武利, 张万昌, 张东, 周杰
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 458-464.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.458
    摘要   PDF (1159KB)
    文章介绍一种进行斜坡稳定性定量研究的分布式模型——SINMAP模型。该模型以水文学理论为基础,耦合稳定状态水文模型TOPMODEL与大范围斜坡稳定性模型,在充分考虑各种影响因素的基础上,对研究区域进行斜坡稳定性评价。选取汉江江口流域作为试验研究区,以DEM、遥感影象、各种专题图件及地面考察资料作为信息源,利用SINMAP方法获得可视化的研究区地表稳定性指数专题图。经实际资料检验表明,该模型可获取较高的预测精度,尤其在流域尺度上具有极大的应用价值。
    Natural disasters such as landslide and soil erosion are severe in China. Therefore, effective evaluation of slope stability further provides the warning for local/regional soil erosion, which is essential to the precise prediction and effective prevention of these catastrophes. Many approaches have been proposed in assessing slope stability and landslide hazards in the literature, the commonly-used approaches include (1) field inspection using a checklist to identify sites susceptible to landslides; (2) projection of future patterns of instability from analysis of landslide inventories; (3) multivariate analysis of factors characterizing observed sites of slope instability; (4) stability ranking based on criteria such as slope, lithology, landform, or geologic structure; and (5) failure probability analysis based on slope stability models with stochastic hydrologic simulations. Each of these is valuable for certain applications. None, however, takes full advantage of the fact that debris flow source areas are, in general, strongly controlled by surface topography through shallow subsurface flow convergence, increased soil saturation, increased pore pressures and shear strength reduction. In this study, a distributed modeling scheme based on digital elevation model (DEM), takes advantage of geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing information coupling with the Infinite Slope Stability Model to quantify topographic attributes related to slope instability and landsliding so as to mapping the hillslope stability entitled as SINMAP was introduced in detail, and its application to a 2431 km2 watershed in Shanxi Province was conducted and tested with the discussion of the field observations. The experimental application indicated its good applicability and operational value in quantitative evaluation of surface stabilities in basin scale areas.
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    晋陕蒙接壤区林草覆盖变化的遥感分析
    颜长珍, 吴炳方
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 465-471.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.465
    摘要   PDF (828KB)
    以晋陕蒙接壤区1986年和2000年的TM影象为信息源,运用遥感技术与地理信息系统技术,结合建立了两期全区土地资源数据库,从中提取林草覆盖空间数据。分析得出2000年全区有林草地面积332.19×104 hm2,占总面积的56.87%,其中林地占13.72%,草地占86.28%。14年间林草植被净增加了2.29×104 hm2,占林草面积的0.69%,总的变化趋势是林草覆盖对生态环境的保护和调节功能趋向衰减。林地被毁、草地开垦和沙漠化是林草覆盖减少的主要原因,而其新增部分主要是实施植树造林、退耕还林还草等生态环境建设措施的结果。
    With the assistance of remote sensing and geographic information systems, the land resource databases in 1986 and 2000 have been established through interpreting the Landsat TM images of the two times, and the extent of the databases includes the contiguous region of Shanxi, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia in the northern China. According to the informat ion of forest and grass cover derived from the databases, the following points can be concluded: in the whole region, there was 3321860 ha of forestland and grassland in 2000, occupying 56.87% of the total area, the forestland occupied 13.72% of them, and grassland occupied 86.28%. Although the forest and grass cover had increased by 22829 ha from 1986 to 2000, accouting for 0.69% of its total area, the func tion of protect ion and regulation of forest and grass cover had decreased and the size, acreage and shape complexity of their patches also declined. At the same time, only the low cover grassland had increased among all types of forestland and grassland. The decreasing factors of vegetation cover change were mainly deforestat ion, reclamation of grassland, and desertification of grassland, and the increasing factors were the completion of eco environment construction projects, such as afforestation, returning farmland back into forestland or grassland and so on.
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    太湖流域上游降水特征分析
    罗潋葱, 秦伯强, 朱广伟
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 472-476.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.472
    摘要   PDF (738KB)
    利用太湖入流区域的湖州和宜兴两地46年(1957~2002)的降水观测资料,分析了降水在不同季节内的分配情况及多年变化规律和周期性特征。研究发现,46年来在整个全年降水中,汛期降水量约占60%左右,且有逐年递减的趋势;夏季和冬季降水量分别占全年降水量的35%和15%左右,并逐年递增。就递增趋势而言,冬季较夏季平缓。从旱涝等级的分析结果判断,1974年以前基本以轻旱为主,1974~2002年间具有旱涝交替特征。在所有灾害年中,84.8%的年份为厄尔尼诺或拉尼娜年。从谱分析结果判断,年降水量具有20年的主振荡周期和3.3年、2.2年的次周期,并出现与太阳黑子变化反位相的特征。研究表明,20世纪50年代末至70年代中期为少雨期,70年代末至本世纪初为多雨期。根据降水的周期性特点,本世纪初的20年中,太湖流域将呈现少雨特征, 但并不排除气候异常造成在部分年份出现较大洪涝灾害的可能性。
    Flood damage leads to great economical loss. Based on precipitation data at Huzhou and Yixing which are located in the upper area of Taihu Lake, precipitation distribution in different seasons and its tendency have been analyzed. The result shows that the precipitation in flood season is about 60% of the annual total amount in most of years during 1997-2002, and 35% in summer and 15% in winter respectively. The tendency analysis suggests that precipitation has been indecreasing in flood season. Slight drought prevailed in this area before 1974 and then flood and drought ocurred alternatively. The conclusion also shows that El-Nino or La-Nina occurred in most of the disaster years. Spectrum analysis is also conducted with the result that the significant period is about 20 years and the sub-period are 2.2 and 3.3 years. The anti-correlation between rainfall and sunspot is also revealed. From the conclusion, the prediction is given that the prevailing damage will be drought in the coming 20 years with possibility that heavy flood disaster will occur due to abnormal climate.
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    多尺度空间分层聚类算法在土地利用与土地覆被研究中的应用
    沙占江, 马海州, 李玲琴, 周笃君, 曹广超, 欧立业, 黄华兵, 杨海镇
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 477-483.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.477
    摘要   PDF (997KB)
    利用遥感数据,综合最大似然法监督分类、多尺度空间分层聚类的部分监督分类方法和主成分方法,分析黄河上游龙羊峡水库库区1987~1999年间土地利用土地覆盖变化。提取专题信息,不同要素采用不同方法;具体分类中,土地利用类型的一级类型耕地、水体及未利用土地类型采用主成分分析和最大似然法监督分类方法;对一级类型草地采用多尺度分层聚类算法的部分监督分类方法。结果表明,草地信息利用SSHC方法提取结果较好,与Bayes分类方法相比,精度提高4.2%,SSHC所获结果数据Kappa系数为0.84,Bayes所获结果数据Kappa系数为0.78。对某专题要素分类,此方法结果较优。
    The Longyangxia Reservoir is the largest hydraulic power and water conservancy project in the up stream of the Yellow River, with integrated functions of generating electricity, irrigating farmland and controling flood. People pay great attention to the land use/land cover(LUCC) of region around the reservoir, the sand quantity entering the reservoir, land desertification, grass land degradation and so on. The multi-temporal and multi-spectral remote sensed data were used in this study. According to the eco-environment characteristics of the study area as well as finished study work, integrated with SSHC, MLS and PCA, the land-use and land-cover change of Longyangxia Reservoir area was analyzed from 1987 to 1999. The different methods were adopted to extract different thematic information of environmental factors. The MLS and PCA methods were applied in obtaining information of cropland, water area and other non-use lands. The supervise classification based on SSHC was used to gain grassland information. The result showed that the effect for extracting grassland information using SSHC is well, the accuracy of classification may increase 4.2% compared with Bayes' classification, the Kappa coefficient of SSHC is 0.84, while the Kappa coefficient of Bayes is 0.78. Thus it can be seen that SSHC is well than other methods in some aspects in imagery classification.
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    研究报道
    广东土地整理的实践与探索
    汤惠君, 胡振琪, 苏少青
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 484-487.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.484
    摘要   PDF (522KB)
    从土地整理的研究现状出发,在简述土地整理模式及理论依据的基础上,针对广东省土地整理的实践,探讨了土地整理的运作模式和特点以及土地整理的经验对其它地区的启示与借鉴,并指出:"广东省要实现土地资源的可持续利用,改善土地生态环境和提高土地生产力是关键。所以,土地整理应以土地利用总体规划为指导,不断完善土地整理的内容,将土地整理与生态环境的保护和改善及土地生产力的提高相结合,促进全省土地的集约利用。"
    Guangdong is one of the most developed regions with serious human-land contradiction. In order to reach the goal of dynamic balance of amount of cultivated land, work on land consolidation and rehabilitation has been implemented and good achievements have been achieved in the recent years. But, there are still some problems that ought to be optimized and to be discussed fourthly. In this paper, on the basis of study actual state and connotation and goal of the land arrangement, the theoretical basis and the model of land arrangement are brief described, and in light with land arrangement practice of Guangdong province, its the practical process and characteristic of land arrangement is discussed along with Inspired and used for reference of experience of land arrangement to other area. In addition, the author points out: land ecosystem environment and land quality are important and key factors influencing the sustainable land use in the Guangdong province. So, the land arrangement in the Guangdong province should be guided by land use total planning, meanwhile, land arrangement content should be optimized, and land arrangement should combine with protection and improvement for ecosystem environment as well as enhancement for land productivity, to make its land resources intensively utilized in the whole province.
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    成都市大气颗粒物污染特征及其来源分析
    王淑兰, 柴发合, 张远航, 周来东, 王琴玲
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 488-492.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.488
    摘要   PDF (625KB)
    通过在夏、冬两季分别进行的三种粒径颗粒物同步连续采样监测试验,确定了成都市大气颗粒物细颗粒物污染严重且有明显二次污染的污染特征。用多重回归分析、富集因子分析及化学成分的因子分析等方法对颗粒物的化学组成及其来源进行了定性分析,结果表明成都市可吸入颗粒物主要来源于化石类燃料及油品燃烧、生物质或餐饮烹饪行业排放、建筑及冶金行业的排放等。
    The serious air fine particles pollution and obvious secondary pollutant characteristics in Chengdu were determined, through synchronously continuous sampling and monitoring activities for three types of particles defined by size in summer and winter respectively. Through qualitative analysis such as multiple regression analysis, enrichment factor analysis, and chemical constituent factor analysis for chemical composition and source of pollutants, it was demonstrated that the inhalational particles mainly originated from the combustion of fossil material and oil, biogenic material, cooking industry emission, building industry emission or metallurgic emission, etc.
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    中文旅游网站的空间类型及发展战略研究
    张捷, 刘泽华, 解杼, 都金康, 张进
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 493-499.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.493
    摘要   PDF (774KB)
    文章通过对网上调查统计和旅游网站特征指数(TWCI)的设计及其分析,描述了中国旅游网站的空间分布类型并分析了其影响因子。结果表明国内旅游网站的空间分布存在差异,而区域旅游网站发展规模数量与区域社会经济基础、网络技术基础背景以及区域旅游发展的区域分异具有较大的一致性。文章利用TWCI进行了分区并提出了中国旅游网站的若干发展策略。
    This is a case study of information geography or cybergeography with case of Chinese Tourism Websites (CTW).In this paper, with online statistics and analysis using the Tourism Websites Characteristic Indices (TWCI), the spatial distribution of CTW was described, and its zoning were analyzed. The regional TWCI is defined as the ratio of the total number of the regional tourism websites linked to the main engine website divided by total number of the regional domains as a whole with a multiplied coefficient of 100. With TWCI it is easy to revealing the characteristic informationized regions like Yunnan with well development tourism websites in China, which was difficult to revealed with normal indices like total number of domains or tourism websites. It is proposed that the distribution of CTW in China is spatially differentiated, and the total number of regional CTW is related to the levels of regional social economic background, internet techniques foundation and the status of regional tourism development. With investigation of some populated CTW, it is shown that the website covered all aspects of tourism operation sectors, and two types of CTW, i.e., hotel website and travel service website, become the main composition of CTW. Concerning with total number of CTW and the TWCI, all provinces can be classified into 5 groups, i.e., the synthesized type of region like Beijing, the imformationized type of region like Yunan and Hainan, the distributing type of region like Guangdong Province and Shanghai, the relatively developed type of region like Jiangsu, Zhejiang and the less developed but with superior attraction type of region like Tibet, Guizhou and Jiangxi. With regression analysis, the total number of CTW is related to the total number of regional domains with correlation coefficient R larger than 0.867 and an identified efficient model. And the number of CTW is also related to the total number of regional hotels and the number of regional travel services with R of 0.898 and a tested efficient linear regression model. Moreover, we also analyzed the relationship of CTW to integrated background of internet technique and the developing level of regional tourism, with result that the total number of CTW is related to numbers of domain and the total number of tourism units (Hotels and Travel Services), with R of 0.935 and a test-passed linear regression model.
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    旅游地生命周期与旅游产品结构演变关系初步研究——以普陀山为例
    杨效忠, 陆林, 张光生, 卢松, 宣国富
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 500-505.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.500
    摘要   PDF (878KB)
    通过旅游地生命周期的动力因子探讨,认为旅游地生命周期实质是在诸多外部因素影响下的旅游产品结构持续调整的过程,旅游产品结构调整贯穿于旅游地生命周期的各阶段。通过旅游产品结构双周期模型的建立和分析,论述影响生命周期的内在、外在因素及作用机制,阐释了Butler的S型旅游地生命周期演化模型,深化了旅游地演进规律的研究。实证研究表明,普陀山已走过探索阶段、参与阶段,正处于发展阶段,成熟阶段是今后理想演进阶段,普陀山旅游产品结构演化与调整验证、支持这一观点。最后,提出了普陀山旅游产品结构调整的若干对策。
    This thesis discusses tourism dynamic factors of resort life cycle, and by the analysis it can be seen that resort life cycle reflects continuous adjustment process of tourism product structure under influence of many external factors, and tourism product structure adjustment pierces through every stage of resort life cycle. Among dynamic factors of resort life cycle, needs of tourist and stakeholders are primitive dynamics and adjustment of tourism product structure is main dynamics. Rooted in tourism product, the authors establish two-cycle model of tourism product structure, and by the comparison of long cycle and short cycle, differentiat internal factors, external factors and function mechanism, further interprets Butler,S type evolving model of resort life cycle, at the same time, deepen tourism research on evolving law of resorts. Case study indicates that Putuoshan Mountain has already walked through exploration stage, involvement stage, is at present being placed in development stage, and mature stage will be ideal evolving stage. Evolution of tourism product structure tests and supports the characteristics of stage. On the analysis of present blocking factors of tourism product structure optimization, the authors further put forward basic countermeasures of tourism product structure adjustment in Putuoshan Mountain, preliminary research conclusion of relationship between resort life cycle and evolution of tourism product structure is tested and supported.
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    旅游者类型及其体验质量研究——以周庄为例
    苏勤
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 506-511.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.506
    摘要   PDF (935KB)
    旅游地的客源市场是由不同人口和社会特征的旅游者组成的,他们的旅游动机和需要各不相同,旅游体验质量也存在差异。利用第一手调查资料,在对周庄旅游者动机和体验质量进行调查的基础上,通过因子分析、交互分析和分层聚类的方法,分析了周庄旅游者的旅游动机,根据主导动机的不同将周庄旅游者分为4 种类型,分析了不同类型旅游者的人口社会属性及旅游行为。最后根据不同类型旅游者的需求提出了周庄旅游产品调整的对策。结果表明:身心放松因子是周庄旅游者的基本动机;不同类型旅游者的体验质量存在明显差异,主要受心理内在推力驱使的旅游者的旅游体验质量较高,而主要受旅游地属性外在拉力吸引的旅游者的旅游体验质量较低;不同类型旅游者对周庄自然景观和文化景观的期望值一致很高,而对于周庄的旅游设施、服务、主客关系、产品价格的要求不一。
    The tourists market of the resort is composed of different tourists with different demographic and social features, different tourism motivations and needs, as well as different tourism experience. this paper uses the first-hand data to analyze the motivations and the quality of experience of zhouzhuang tourists., and with the methods of the factor analysis, alternate analysis and hierachically clustering, this article analyzes the motivations of tourists in Zhouzhuang. Then based on the difference of the major motivations, the tourists are classified into four types, and the demographic and social features, behaviors of tourists are also discussed. The conclusion indicates that the basic motivations of the tourists in Zhouzhuang is relaxing, and different types of tourists have different experience quality. The tourists drived by mentality internal push have high tourism experience quality, while those attracted by the external pull of the attributes in resorts have low satisfaction. Different tourists have concurrently high expectation on the natural and cultural scenery in Zhouzhuang, however their demands on its tourism infrastructure, services, the relationship between guests and hosts, and the product prices are different. In the end, according to the demands of different types of tourists, some measures on the tourism products adjusting are suggested.
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    书评
    资源环境科学和生态学的建模研究进展——评《资源环境数学模型手册》
    钱多森
    地理科学. 2004, 24 (4): 512-512.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2004.04.512
    摘要   PDF (340KB)
    马克思说过:"一种科学只有在成功地运用数学时,才算达到了真正完善的地步"。在地学和生物学研究日益走向精确化的今天,很有必要系统地归纳和整理国内外建模成果,以促进中国资源环境生态领域建模研究的进一步发展。
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