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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2006年, 第26卷, 第1期 刊出日期:2006-01-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    欠发达地区经济空间结构及其经济溢出效应的实证研究——以河南省为例
    李小建, 樊新生
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.1
    摘要   PDF (1154KB)
    以县域为基本空间单元,以人均GDP为衡量指标,分析了河南省经济空间结构演变过程,结果表明,20世纪90年代以来,河南省经济正处于空间集聚过程,经济空间结构呈现出明显的中心——外围模式。通过建立模型对河南省经济空间集聚格局的经济增长效应的分析表明,总体上河南省县域间经济增长的空间相关性不显著。只有在高水平县域集聚区,县域经济增长与相邻县域呈显著的正相关关系,表现出区域之间的经济溢出效应。
    This paper examines the evolution of spatial economic pattern in a typical less developed but fast growing province by using county as a spatial unit and per capita GDP as measuring index for the level of regional economic development. The result shows that the economy in Henan province appears in a process of spatial centralization, and the spatial economic structure supports notion of core-periphery suggested by regional economists. By using a spatial auto-correlation technique to compare the growth of per capita GDP in every county with its neighborhood counties, the one hundred and twenty seven counties in Henan Province were classified as four types (HH, HL, LL, LH). The spatial patterns of these kinds of counties were analyzed by diagrammatic representation. A linear regression model was then used to explain the effects of these patterns on economic growth. The result shows that, in Henan as s whole there is no prominent spatial correlation of economic growth between one county and its neighborhood counties. In other word, evidence does not support the spillover effects of economic growth between one county and its neighborhood counties. But within the agglomeration region of the province the spillover effects of economic growth between counties are evident.
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    关于老工业基地淄博市工业区位变化的地理学思考
    祁苑玲, 王缉慈, 任宝
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 7-12.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.7
    摘要   PDF (650KB)
    在经济全球化和技术飞速进步的影响下,改革开放以来,在我国老工业基地内部出现了新的工业区位并形成了新的产业集聚区。引起变化的因素是多方面的。以淄博实地调研为基础,分析了这种变化产生的动因。淄博市新工业区域的形成从一个侧面说明老工业基地的发展潜力。在改革开放以后,国有企业自主权扩大以及大量非公有制的企业繁衍成为淄博工业发展的内动力,引起工业地理格局的变化。自然资源对工业区位的吸引力下降,专业市场区位的重要性上升,在淄博市的工业空间动态中反映也很显著。此外,政府因素和交通区位仍然起重要作用。企业在新工业区位的繁衍和集聚是老工业基地的活力所在,需要特别予以关注。
    Since china's reform and opening to the outside world, spatial industrial changes have occurred and new industrial clustering have emerged in Chinese old industrial cities(so called old industrial base)with the impact of globalization and technology change. Based on the survey of Zibo, one of the old industrial cities in China, this paper analyzes the multiple reasons of this dynamics of industrial location. This paper indicates that within the old industrial city the rising of new industrial areas near the old one illuminates the city's development potential. In the context of the reform and opening, the increase of independent operation right in the state-owed enterprises and the growth of non-state-owed enterprises have become the endogenous force in Zibo. The attraction of the location of natural resources has declined while importance of the location of specialized markets is increasing. Besides, the government's decision-making and transportation facilities still are important location factors for industries. For the old industrial cities, the start-ups, spin-offs and agglomeration of enterprises are the crucial vigor, so we need pay much attention to it.
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    R&D投入的区位模式与区域经济发展
    姜怀宇, 李铁立
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 13-19.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.13
    摘要   PDF (785KB)
    基于对中国R&D投入的区位模式的实证检验,从投入—产出绩效的角度认为集中投入的区位模式具有较强的适宜性。利用聚类分析技术,按照R&D的投入强度和及其对经济的带动效应、科技化效应、产业化效应将中国各省区划分为6类地区,具有代表性的是科技化模式和产业化模式。其中前者适合于技术存量较高的少数地区,而后者具有较强的借鉴意义。
    There are two locational patterns of R&D's investment.One is concentrating and the other is dispersing spatially. The Schumpeterian strand of the endogenous growth approach has highlighted the advantages of spatially concentrating the R&D effort in a few areas, in order to maximize external economies and technological spillovers. Innovation is then expected to spill over from these technologically advanced areas to neighboring regions. The neoclassical view, in contrast, considers that decreasing returns means investment in core areas is less effective than that in peripheries. Based on the empirical test of the locational patterns of R&D's investment in China, from the point of investment and effect of output, we find that it has more advantages of spatially concentrating R&D's investment in technologically advanced areas. From the views of the intensity of R&D's investment, and the promoting effect on economic development, scientific research, industrialization, there have six types of areas which are distinct from each others. In the six types of areas, there are the scientific pattern which are often belong to few technologically advanced areas, and the industrial pattern which can use for reference to technologically lagging areas. At last, the comparison and analysis of the gaps of technologically lagging areas have been conducted.
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    行政区划调整的旅游效应研究——兼论江西井冈山市与安徽黄山市的比较
    余凤龙, 陆林, 操文斌, 朱桃杏
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 20-25.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.20
    摘要   PDF (1078KB)
    在实地调查的基础上,分析了江西井冈山市行政区划调整的旅游资源效应、经济效应、环境效应,对比了井冈山市与安徽黄山市行政区划调整的旅游效应,结果表明:(1)井冈山市行政区划调整从地脉和文脉上整合旅游资源,丰富旅游产品内涵;消除原宁冈县旅游发展的多种屏蔽,统筹考虑生产力布局和基础设施建设,促进地区旅游经济的整体发展;消除环境整治的政区壁垒,整体规划、集中资金加强核心景区的保护和宏观生态环境的管理。(2)井冈山市旅游管理体制调整的滞后性延缓了行政区划调整正效应的发挥,管理体制、部门利益有待进一步协调;黄山市的行政区划调整适应了一定时期黄山市旅游发展的客观要求,促进了黄山市旅游经济的发展,然而,保存完好的徽州文化旅游资源以及基于此开发的旅游产品和旅游品牌在一定程度上受到抑制。
    Adjustment of administrative demarcation takes either positive or negative impact on tourism industry. On the basis of much on-the-spot investigation, the author, with Jinggangshan City taken as a major example, has analyzed the effect of tourism resources, tourism economics and tourism environment of adjustment in Jinggangshan City, and through the comparison of the tourism effect of adjustment made in administrative demarcation between Huangshan City and Jinggangshan City, the results are as follows:(1) Adjustment of administrative demarcation makes it possible for the tourism resources of Jinggangshan City to be perfectly integrated from terra and historical context, and at the same time enriches the intention of tourism products. Adjustment dispels the shielding effect of tourism on previous Ninggang County made by previous Jinggangshan City, avoids the repeated construction of the infrastructure, considers completely production layouts, forms scale economy, thus promotes the development of regional tourism economy. Adjustment eliminates the barrier of administrative division of environmental renovation, with an overall plan having been made, the concentration of the fund on strengthening the protection of the key scenic spot and management of the ecological environment has been proved quite successful. (2) The management is still in the position to be further improved, and the system of management and the profit of different departments are supposed to be further coordinated in Jinggangshan City. With adapting itself to the practiced requirement of tourism industry development of Huangshan City in certain period, the adjustment of administrative demarcation helps to establish the Huangshan tourism as a well-known brand and to promote the development of tourism economics in Huangshan City, on the other hand, with the further development of tourism, the strategy of reserving the Huizhou cultural tourism resources, and based on which the development of tourism product and tourism brand are to some extend restrained.
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    图们江地区空间结构的演进及其调控对策研究
    李秀敏, 吴晓青
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 26-32.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.26
    摘要   PDF (864KB)
    :图们江地区作为跨国经济合作区,具有不同于一般区域的空间结构演进规律。运用经济地理学、区域经济学、国际经贸地理学等学科的相关理论和方法,对图们江地区空间结构的影响因素、总体特征、演进机制进行了深入的分析,并在此基础上提出了调控与优化的对策,旨在促进图们江地区经济一体化和空间结构一体化。
    The evolution of regional spatial structure has always been main research field of economic geography for a long time. As a cross border economic zone, Tumen River Region has some special laws in the spatial structure evolving differing from the general region. Utilizing the theories and methods of many relevant disciplines, such as economic geography, regional economics, international economy and trade geography, etc., the authors analyzes the influencing factors, general characteristics and dynamic mechanisms of the spatial structure evolution in Tumen River Region respectively. Basing on above-mentioned analysis, the authors put forward many countermeasures for optimizing and adjusting the spatial structure in order to promoting the integrated process of economic development and spatial structure in Tumen River Region.
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    西藏日喀则地区生态安全评价与生态环境建设
    赵延治, 张春来, 邹学勇, 程宏, 陈学华, 杨忠
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 33-39.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.33
    摘要   PDF (872KB)
    用生态安全的PSR(压力-状态-响应)概念模型和层次分析法建立西藏日喀则地区生态安全评价体系,综合评价全区生态安全现状。结果表明,日喀则地区生态环境系统安全状况目前已退化到中警状态,生态环境问题已成为制约当地经济发展和社会进步的主要因素。同时,分别计算出全区18县市各自的生态安全指数值,结果显示,除吉隆县属预警状态,其余17县市都为中警状态,且区域相对差异极为明显,东部生态安全问题更为突出。文章根据日喀则地区不同生态环境要素的区域差异以及生态安全建设的需要,提出五大生态环境建设区以满足日喀则地区改善生态安全现状的需要。同时详述了各生态环境建设区的生态环境特征、存在问题和治理方向。
    The ecological security assessment system of Xigaz? Prefecture in Tibetan Autonomous Region is established with PSR (Pressure-State-Response) model and AHP (analytic hierarchy process). Ecological security status in Xigaz? Prefecture is also comprehensively evaluated in this paper. Study results show the ecological environment in Xigaz? Prefecture has deteriorated to the middle-alarm status at present. Deterioration of ecological environment has become the major barrier to local economic development and social advancement. In the meantime, the ecological security indices of 18 counties have been calculated one by one, the indices of all of the counties are in the middle-alarm status, except Gyirong County, and there exists remarkable regional differentiation, the problem of ecological security in east is more predominant. Furthermore, proposals for improving the ecological environment are put forward according to the regional differentiation of ecological factors and the requirement of ecological security construction. It is suggested to build five regions for ecological environment construction. At the same time, the ecological characteristics, problems and the countermeasures of each region are expatiated.
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    黑河上游地区气候变化对径流量的影响研究
    李林, 王振宇, 汪青春
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 40-46.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.40
    摘要   PDF (834KB)
    近42年来,黑河上游年流量呈增多趋势,其中以冬季最为明显,但总体上相对稳定,丰枯转换颇为平衡;降水量是影响黑河上游流量的最主要因子,夏季降水量的增加与夏季流量的增加关系密切,而夏季流量的增加最终影响到了年流量的增加;气温的升高特别是秋季气温的升高导致了高山冰雪消融量的增大,进而使非汛期流量增加,同时加大流域蒸发量特别是夏季蒸发量,增加了地表水资源的消耗,并对降水增加造成的年径流量增加起到削弱作用。
    The annual flow over the upper reaches of the Heihe River shows increasing in the recent 42 years, which is extremely significant in winter, but all in all, it is relatively stable, the conversion of abundant and rare year is fairly balanced. Precipitation is the primary factor to impact the flow of the upper reaches of the Heihe River, the increasing of precipitation is closely related to the increasing of flow in summer, and the increasing of flow in summer impacts the increasing of annual flow. The ascending of air temperature, especially in autumn, causes the enlargement of snow melting of high mountain, and therefore makes flow increase during the non-flood period, which accelerates the river basin evaporation, especially in summer, and also makes the depletion of ground water resource increasing, and has a elimination function for the annual flow increasing caused by the precipitation.
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    南京汤山地区的地貌与岩溶发育演化
    周春林, 袁林旺, 刘泽纯, 张惠
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 47-51.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.47
    摘要   PDF (999KB)
    岩性和构造控制了南京汤山地区的地貌格局和碳酸盐岩山地岩溶地貌发育。研究表明,汤山地区岩溶演化具有长期性、多代性和继承性的特点,石炭纪中晚期及此前发育了第一期岩溶洞穴,三迭纪末至早侏罗纪是古岩溶最为发育的时期,晚第三纪以来进入了现代岩溶发育阶段。著名的南京直立人洞穴形成于晚第三纪之后。
    Lithological character and geologic structure determine the landform pattern and its evolution in Tangshan area, Nanjing. Through studying the evolution course of the karst physiognomy in Tangshan area, this paper shows that the karst evolution in this area is marked by protracted nature, multi-era and inheritance. In the Paleozoic the paralic transition was the main characteristic. The karst cave in the first stage was developed in the middle-late Carboniferous and heretofore. In the Mesozoic the folding block-fault mountain and basin were developed. Among them, the palaeokarst was fully enriched from the ending of Trias to Lias. The differential uplifting mountains came into being in the Cenozoic. Since the Neogene period, the modern karst development stage began to occur. As the karst evolution in Tangshan area has the characteristics of complexity and inheritance, and in the karst cave of vertical distribution, there exists the intercrossed and superimposed caves, which were formed in the different stages. Moreover, the karst caves had gone through many changes in the different stages so that their original height sequence were possiblly changed, thus the height of the caves was not regarded as the only criterion to judge their ages. The well-known homo erectus cave in Nanjing is possible related with the fully enriched palaeokarst from the end of Trias to Lias, the principal part of which could be seen at present was mainly formed in the Neogene period. The cave came into the physical infilling stage in the Middle Pleistocene. The entrance of the cave began to block in till the initial stage of the Late Pleistocene and took the chemical deposit as the dominant factor. Therefore, it can be seen that the well-known homo erectus cave in Nanjing came into being after the Neogene period.
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    基于知识表示的DDES辅助决策系统的结构设计
    付炜
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 52-57.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.52
    摘要   PDF (272KB)
    介绍了土地合理利用规划决策专家系统(DDES)辅助决策系统的构建原理与实现方法,讨论了DDES中专家知识的表示方法与推理控制策略。系统将领域专家知识划分成不同的层次和类型,采用框架网络数据结构和产生式规则表示地理学领域专家的专门性知识与经验性知识,使知识的表示简洁易于理解。在知识的推理策略中引入不精确推理机制,保证了推理机制的实现。以乌鲁木齐河流域为试验区,阐述了流域土地合理利用规划决策专家知识的表示方法,以及专家知识表示的基本规则和系统专家知识的组织方式。此外,还讨论了系统推理机推理规则的设计原理与组织方法及推理算法。
    This paper presents building principle and accomplishing approach of Assistant Decision System for Design and Decision Expert System of Rational Land Use(DDES),and discusses the means of expert knowledge expression and inference control strategies in the DDES. The field expert knowledge is divided into several grading levels and classifications in the system. And the frame-net data structures and productive rules are used to express special knowledge and experimental knowledge of geographic field expert so that the expression of knowledge is more concise and easy to understand. Meanwhile the indistinct inference mechanism is introduced in the inference tactics of knowledge so that the reasoning mechanism is assuredly realized. Furthermore, taking Urumqi river basin as a test region, the author expounds expression approach of expert knowledge for land rational use design and decision in the watershed,and probes the basic rules of expert knowledge expression as well as the organization model of expert knowledge in the system. Moreover, the author also discusses the design principle and organization approach of inference rules for inference engine of the system as well as inference algorithms of inference engine.
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    基于栅格的分布式降雨径流模拟系统及应用
    都金康, 谢顺平, 罗维佳, 许有鹏
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 58-63.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.58
    摘要   PDF (793KB)
    研制了一套基于栅格的分布式降雨径流模拟系统,利用流域地形、土壤、土地利用等空间数据和水文气象数据,可以进行流域特征提取、空间数据内插、降雨径流模拟及计算结果的三维动态显示和统计。通过在黄土岭流域的应用,说明该系统具有较好的模拟降雨径流过程的能力,而且使用方便。
    A grid-based distributed rainfall-runoff simulation system has been developed in this paper. The system can split the catchment into a number of square or rectangular grid elements using DEM, extract topographic attributes of elements such as slope, upslope flow contributing area, and classify the grid elements into hillslope elements and channel ones. Each hillslope grid element has model components for interception, infiltration, overland flow and lateral soil water flow, and each channel element has model component of channel flow. The infiltration and excess rainfall on each hillslope element are calculated using the Green-Ampt infiltration equation, soil lateral flows are based on Darcy's law and continuity equation, overland and channel flows are described by one dimensional kinematic wave approximation to the St Venant equations. Implicit finite differential scheme is used to solve these equations. The hydrological parameters are determined from digital soil and land use data. The system also has the ability of spatial data interpolation, visualization and statistics of the results. The interpolation approaches include Thiessen, Kriging, inverse distance weighted averaging, and trend surface methods. The visual components of system include the 1-D and 3-D visualization of rainfall, infiltration, surface runoff, and subsurface flows for one or all elements, and synchronized 3-D visualization for any two processes of the catchment.The system was applied to the simulation of two flood events happened in Hangtuling watershed, Zhejiang Province, China. The data input for the simulation were: rainfall and runoff time series of two events, the DEM, land use map, and soil map of the watershed. By sensitivity analysis of parameters, Manning's roughness of surface and soil saturated hydraulic conductivity were determined to be calibrated. The first event was used to calibrate the model, and the second for testing. The results show that the system is capable of simulating rainfall-runoff processes with least data requirements and easy operation.
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    基于GIS的吴江东部地区生态敏感性分析
    尹海伟, 徐建刚, 陈昌勇, 孔繁花
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 64-69.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.64
    摘要   PDF (1599KB)
    区域可持续发展的基础是生态环境的可持续,而生态敏感性区划是制定生态环境规划的前提和基础。文章借助GIS技术,选择有区域代表性的生态因子,采用因子叠加法,对吴江东部地区的生态敏感性进行了深入分析,按生态敏感度的高低将研究区划分为5 级:极高敏感区、高敏感区、中敏感区、低敏感区和非敏感区,并提出了分区保护与建设的建议,为研究区生态环境保护和产业经济布局提供有价值的参考。研究结果表明,极高和高生态敏感区面积占研究区的48.63%,说明研究区生态敏感性总体上很高。
    The sustainable development of ecology and environment is the base of regional sustainable development, while the classification of ecological sensitivity is the base and premise of the planning on ecology and environment. In this article, with the advanced GIS technology, using the factor-overlay method, ecological sensitivity in the east of Wujiang, Jiangsu Province is thoroughly analyzed by selecting regionally representative factors. Five classes of ecological sensitivity ranging from low to extreme were generated: non-sensitivity zone, low sensitivity zone, moderate sensitivity zone, high sensitivity zone and extreme sensitivity zone, and advices and countermeasures for different zones are put forward, in order to provide valuable references for the environment protection and industry distribution. The results showed that: about 48.63% of the study area was upper moderate ecological sensitivity zone, which shows that the sensitivity is super high.
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    基于卫星遥感的夏季长春市城区热场分析
    赵云升, 杜嘉, 宋开山, 胡新礼
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 70-74.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.70
    摘要   PDF (975KB)
    采用先进的遥感手段,能够大面积同步和动态地监测地面热场的分布和变化情况。利用长春市地区的LANDSAT图象,对于热红外波段遥感图象灰度值和地面温度之间的关系进行了定量的解译,并且采用TM6图象增强和密度分割的方法得到了长春市地面热场等级图,取得了很好的模拟效果。结果显示了长春市热场的分布具有明显的规律性。城市能耗和下垫面性质对于区域温度有直接的影响,此外,还结合图象分析了热场分布的形成因素。
    With the rapid development of urbanization, problems caused by heated-island influence in big cities have become more and more serious and unneglectful than ever before. It is necessary and useful for city planner and managers to investigate rapidly and effectively the distribution, intension and effective factors of heated-island in these cities. By means of advanced remote sensing, the distribution and change of ground heat field can be monitored synchronously and continuously. In this paper, Changchun was investigated as an example. A correlation model was built between ground temperature and image brightness of LANDSAT TM Band 6,and a map of ground heat field was made by image enhance method and the density partitions. Results show that the heat field of Changchun presents regular distribution. It is also found that the distribution of city energy-consuming and landcover affects directly the upper ground temperature. In the end of the paper, several factors influencing the heat field of Changchun City are also analysed.
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    Albedo-NDVI特征空间及沙漠化遥感监测指数研究
    曾永年, 向南平, 冯兆东, 徐豁
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 75-81.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.75
    摘要   PDF (1107KB)
    利用遥感数据和野外调查数据分析了沙漠化与地表定量参数之间的关系,提出了Albedo-NDVI特征空间的概念以及基于Albedo-NDVI特征空间的沙漠化遥感监测模型,即沙漠化遥感监测差值指数模型(DDI)。这个模型充分利用了多维遥感信息,指标反映了沙漠化土地地表覆盖、水热组合及其变化,具有明确的生物物理意义。而且指标简单、易于获取,有利于沙漠化的定量分析与监测。
    Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and land surface albedo are very important biophysical parameters of land surface. In this paper we analyzed quantitatively the relationship between the severity of desertification and vegetation index (NDVI) and albedo. Through experiment and theoretical reasoning, we proposed a conception of Albedo-NDVI space and discussed its biophysical characteristics. Then, we analyzed the locations of different land cover classes and the trajectory of desertification in the Albedo-NDVI space. This knowledge can be used to improve current strategies for desertification mapping and change monitoring, by defining measurements in this feature space. Therefore, we present a methodology to monitor severity of desertification. Desertification field data, available data in the literature, and ancillary data were linked with land cover characteristics (vegetation index, land surface albedo) derived from Landsat ETM+ multispectral image. The desertification synthetic index, desertification difference index (DDI), was produced, which combined information contained in the Albedo-NDVI space. This synthesis index is easy to use and possess biophysical properties of the land surface. We proposed this synthesis index as powerful one for desertification assessment.
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    人类活动影响下淡水沼泽湿地温室气体排放变化
    宋长春, 王毅勇, 王跃思, 赵志春
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 82-86.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.82
    摘要   PDF (763KB)
    利用静态箱/气相色谱法,研究了三江平原淡水沼泽湿地及垦殖农业利用下CO2、CH4、N2O排放变化。不同类型湿地生长季土壤呼吸速率以季节性积水的小叶章草甸最大,湿地垦殖后土壤呼吸速率明显增大。不同类型沼泽湿地CH4排放在时空两个方面都有明显的变化,与土壤水分条件、植物群落类型和生长状况有密切关系。沼泽湿地及垦殖后农田土壤在植物生长季都为N2O的源,常年积水沼泽湿地在植物生长季N2O排放通量值较小,而土壤水分常年处于非饱和的草甸灌丛土壤N2O排放相对较高,垦殖后农田土壤N2O排放通量最大,沼泽湿地土壤N2O排放通量与土壤温度呈正相关关系,而垦殖后农田土壤不显著。
    The laws of CO2, CH4, N2O emission were studied in freshwater mire in the Sanjiang Plain with the aid of static chamber techniques. During the growing season, in seasonal flooded mire wetlands, Calamagrostis angustifolia shows the strongest soil respiration, however, in perennial flooded mire, Carex lasiocarpa shows the weakest soil respiration; and after the mire wetlands cultivation, soil respiration increase greatly for the influence of soil temperature. The CH4 emission from different mire wetlands varied greatly in temporal and spatial scales, after the mire wetlands cultivation, CH4 emission decreases significantly, which maybe tightly related to the soil hydrological and thermal condition, plant community and growing situation. Farmland soil always is the source for N2O during growing season in the Sanjiang Plain. Weak N2O emission was observed in perennial flooded mire wetland in growing season, but it is strong from seasonal flooded meadow for its water-saturated soil condition lasting a long term, and highest in farmland soil. Generally, the increasing trend of N2O emission occurs along with decreasing of soil moisture. The N2O emission from mire wetlands soil shows significant relation with soil temperature, but insignificant from farmland.
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    海平面上升的灾害效应研究——以江苏沿海低地为例
    李加林, 王艳红, 张忍顺, 葛云健, 齐德利, 张殿发
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 87-93.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.87
    摘要   PDF (677KB)
    海平面上升是全球变暖和沿海地区人类活动加剧的必然结果,其灾害效应直接影响沿海地区社会经济的持续发展。文章运用地面沉降与绝对海面变化叠加法和潮位记录法,预测未来30年,50年和100年江苏沿海海平面将分别上升0.30 m,0.53 m和1.37 m。在此基础上,对不同海平面上升量引起的风暴潮灾害、海岸侵蚀、潮滩盐沼损失、涵闸破坏、洪涝灾害加剧和海堤工程受损等方面的灾害效应进行了定量分析,并对江苏沿海低地进行分区灾害预警,认为海平面上升后的灾害效应在江苏中部海积平原表现得最为严重,废黄河三角洲平原和长江三角洲平原中等,而海州湾海积平原最轻。
    With the global warming and increasing anthropic impacts on coastal zone, sea level rise seems inevitable. As a result, sustainable development of society and economy of coastland will be directly influenced by the disaster effects of sea level rise. In the past century, global sea level rise rate has been marked as 1 to 2mm per year in average. More and more attentions begin to be paid to global sea level rise and effects to coastal regions. Disaster effects of sea level rise are series of events (such as storm tide, coastal erosion, salt marsh lose, ruin of coastal protection engineering and so on) that could cause disasters to coastal regions. Jiangsu coast is known as its long coastline, wide coastal plain and inter-tidal mudflat. A deep and loose sediment layer deposited recently along the coast make the land subsidence be obvious. Added up with the Eustatic Sea Level Rise (ESLR), the relative sea level rise rate of the region is far higher than that of the globe in average. What's more, most of the coastal plain of Jiangsu is only slightly higher than the regional mean high water. Fced to remarkable relative sea level rise, the region will inevitably suffer from more serious disaster effects. Methods of regional land subsidence adding up with global sea level rise in average (Eustatic sea level) and tide data analysis are employed, relative sea level rise along Jiangsu coast in the coming 30, 50 and 100 years are assessed in the paper. On the base of these, disaster of storm tide, erosion of coast, loss of coastal wetland, damnification of tide locks, boosting of flood disaster and ruin of coastal protection engineering along Jiangsu coast are quantificationally analyzed. And pre-warnings are made for different lowlands along Jiangsu coast, and concluded that the most severe victim is the coastal plain of mid-Jiangsu, followed by the abandoned Huanghe River Delta Plain and the Changjiang River Delta Plain, the Haizhouwan Coast in the north of Jiangsu Province will be slightly impacted correspondingly. Some countermeasures against these disaster effects are also analyzed in the paper.
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    坡面对全球可照时间影响的解析研究
    孙汉群
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 94-100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.94
    摘要   PDF (348KB)
    根据坡面日出日没时角配置关系及其变化规律可得到在全球坡面可照时间的具体计算公式,它们是太阳赤纬、坡度、坡向和纬度的函数。根据各种情况下坡面可照时间对坡度或坡向的偏微分可以证明,全球的坡面可照时间总是随坡度的增加而减少或保持不变,而全球坡面的可照时间随坡向的增加则是或增加、或减少、或不变,并在一定条件下存在使坡面可照时间有极大值和极小值的坡向,这些坡向是纬度、太阳赤纬和坡度的函数。
    The insolation-duration on global slope surface can be calculated by the sunrise and sunset hour angle on the slope. According to laws of the match relations of sunrise and sunset hour angle on slope surface, there are four formulae with different forms for calculating the insolation-duration on global slope surface. These formulae are as follows:
    Ts=20
    Ts=2Eωx
    Ts=E(ω0+ωx-|ωm|)
    Ts=E(2ω0+2ωx-2π)
    Where Ts is insolation-duration on slope, E is a constant 3.82 (hour/radian), which is the conversion factor from radian to hour. ω0 is the sunrise and sunset hour angle on horizontal surface. ωx is the sunrise and sunset hour angle on non-horizontal surface.ωm is a parameter of the slope. These formulae can be treated as function of the latitude, slope angle, azimuth and the declination. The influence of slope and azimuth on insolation-duration on slope surface is considerable complicated. In different latitude and declination,the influence of slope and azimuth on insolation-duration is different too. According to the partial derivative of insolation-duration to the slope, through fair and foul, it is true that the insolation-duration on slope increases or the insolation-duration holds the line with slope increasing. So, the insolation-duration on slope is always longer than or equal to that value on horizontal surface.This law can be extended to any period of time such as one month or one season. According to the partial derivative of insolation-duration to azimuth, it is quite complicated that the insolation-duration on slope varies with azimuth. Beyond the two critical azimuths, the insolation-duration on slope varying with azimuth is flat or does not vary with azimuth. When the azimuth is between the two critical azimuths, there are three different cases for the insolation-duration on slope varying with azimuth. For given declination and slope, there are two critical latitudes that are function of the slope and declination. Between the two critical azimuths and between the two critical latitudes, there is a minimum of the insolation-duration on slope varying with azimuth. Between the two critical azimuths and beyond the two critical latitudes, the insolation-duration on slope varying with azimuth is flat, the insolation-duration on slope increases or decreases always with azimuth.From all azimuths of slope surface,the two critical azimuths maybe the azimuth in which the insolation-duration on slope is extremum of all insolation-duration. Between the two critical azimuth, if the latitude is equal to declination, the insolation-duration on slope does not vary with azimuth.In north pole or south pole, the insolation-duration on slope does not change with azimuth too. The insolation-duration on slope surface is equal between opposite azimuth with the same slope angle, latitude and the declination. The law of the influence of slope and azimuth on insolation-duration on slope surface in the Northern Hemisphere is fit for the Southern Hemisphere too. But in the Southern Hemisphere, the influence of slope and azimuth on insolation-duration on slope surface is opposite to the Northern Hemisphere in azimuth of slope and the declination.
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    前山河水力排污冲淤联合调度试验及效果分析
    黎坤, 曾彩华, 江涛, 陈军
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 101-106.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.101
    摘要   PDF (805KB)
    以排污冲淤为目的,改变原有水利工程设施的常规调度方式,通过水利工程设施的联合调度,大量引入西江磨刀门水道丰富和干净的水源,加大前山河河道内水流流速和流量,对河道进行排污冲淤,达到改善河道水质的目的。试验结果表明,试验排污效果好,水质得到明显改善;经过大流量冲刷,河床主槽加深,但在下游水闸关闭后,水流携带的泥沙在下游沉积,出口附近河床反而出现淤积;河道底质的变化与与河床的冲淤有很大关联,试验后,河道上游底泥受到冲刷,底质明显改善,下游出口段发生淤积,底质指标恶化。试验具有冲污效果好、见效快、投资省、运行成本低等优点。
    The paper designs a diversion dilution experiment, trying to seek a simple way to diversion dilution and removing silt in a tideway of river. For the purpose of draining pollution water and removing silt, changing normal regulation of hydraulic structures to a collaborative means, the experiment was performed to diversion abundant clean water from Modaomen waterway in the Xijiang river to increase flow velocity and discharge in the Qianshanhe River to drain pollution water and remove silt in the River so as to improve the water quality of the rivers. The experiment results in good effect of draining pollution water and definitely water quality improvement. The main trough of riverbed was deepened by large discharge of the river while silted near the river mouth because the sand brought by current deposited near the mouth after closing the water gate. The variation of the silt quality relates much to silt, after experiment the silt quality was improved upriver where silt was removed and worsened in the deposited river mouth. This experiment proves to be quick effective and low-cost with good results.
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    “绿岛模式”研究——一个循环农业企业案例分析
    肖玲, 林琳
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 107-110.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.107
    摘要   PDF (1239KB)
    指出潮州市绿岛生态农业有限公司通过先后实施"果林开发"战略、"种养结合" 战略和"旅游带动"战略,经历了"绿岛名、优、稀水果产业基地"、"绿岛猪—沼—果生态农业生产基地"和"绿岛循环农业生产基地"三个阶段的发展,形成了“绿岛模式”。认为“绿岛模式”是基于循环经济理念构建的以旅游业为龙头的循环农业生产系统,在形态上表现为以生态农业旅游区为载体的循环农业生产基地,是一种资源节约型农业企业模式,属于先进的现代农业企业模式之一。
    From as early as its establishing in 1996, the Green Island Eco-agricultural Company put into effect in sequence strategies as "Fruit Forest Development", "Composite Development of Planting and Stockbreeding" and "Farm Tourism Propelling Development". Accordingly, the past 9 years witnessed the production sites experiencing the three stages of "Industrial Base of Brand-name, High Quality and Rare Fruits of Green Island Company", "Eco-agricultural Base of Mixed Development of Pig-Marsh Gas-Fruit" and " Recycling Agricultural Base of Green Island Company". This process helped its practice into shape, which is called "Green Island Model". The author think the company in this case is a recycling agricultural enterprise with tourism industry as its locomotive, and the "Green Island Model" complies with the notion of resources saving and the idea of recycling economy. Therefore it can be regarded as one of the advanced agricultural enterprise models. The basic characteristics of this model are: the synthesis of its enterprise operation, low pollution, low consumption but high output and high quality in production, recyclability in resources using and sustainability in development.The significance of "the Green Island Model" lies in its breakthrough in the growth pattern of traditional low efficiency agriculture, in nursing recycling agricultural enterprises and in setting up good example for eliminating poverty through agriculture, which can help build a harmonious society and contribute to the sustainable development of the society we live in.
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    综述
    城市交通运输地理发展趋势
    曹小曙, 薛德升, 阎小培
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 111-117.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.111
    摘要   PDF (729KB)
    从城市交通运输地理研究的核心概念入手,在对具有代表性的交通运输地理著作及刊物的研究进行综述基础上,对城市交通运输地理的发展进行分析,揭示城市交通运输地理目前研究的主要内容及发展趋势,丰富和发展城市地理学及交通地理学的研究内容。
    Starting from the introduction and comparison of the two most classic English textbooks and two Chinese ones in the field of urban transport, we explored, in the first section, the core definitions accessibility, mobility, equity, residential pattern, and employment pattern, etc. Any approach to measurement of demand for personal travel usually rests upon the closely interrelated concepts of mobility and accessibility. Mobility levels and constraints upon the extent to which particular journeys are made depend upon personal factors such as health and financial resources and upon the range of transport facilities that are available. Any person will experience a life cycle with quite different opportunities and requirements for travel at each stage. We focused our discussion of the second part upon the topic of the linkage between urban transport and urban spatial transition, including that between urban transport and urban morphology & spatial structure, and that between urban transport and land use. Land use and transportation are mutually dependent. The characteristics of the transportation system determine accessibility, or the ease of moving from one place to another. Accessibility in turn affects the location of activities, or the land use pattern. The location of activities in space, together with the transportation resources connecting them, affects daily activity patterns, which in turn result in travel patterns. Land use and transportation are part of the larger urban system: the collection of people, institutions, and infrastructure that together form the urban space economy. We discussed the urban travel research in the third section, including the aggregate and disaggregate travel models, studies of urban logistics and urban freight transport. Facilities for the transport of people and freight within urban area vary widely. The greater share of personal travel is now carried out by private means of transport although public passenger rail and bus undertaking are still of importance for commuter movements. In the next part we reviewed the study of urban transport policy and other involved research. Urban transport is part of the daily rhythm of life. Mobility is a fundamental human activity and need, but is restricted by the friction of distance. As a complex industry in terms of land use, employment and functions, urban transport is a major factor interlinked with the environment and with the spatial distribution and development of all other forms economic and social activity. Geographical theories, methods and perspectives contribute significantly towards an understanding of transport problems and their eventual solution. We compared the urban transport research in domestic and outside China before the conclusion. There are two main reasons explain why urban transport geography important. First, urban transport industries, facilities, infrastructures and networks occupy substantial areas of geographical space, constitute complex spatial systems and provide substantial numbers of widely spread jobs. Second, urban geography is concerned with interrelationships between phenomena in a spatial patterns, and transport is frequently one of the most potent explanatory factors.
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    问题讨论
    番禺是华南海上丝路最早的始发港—对《关于中国古代“海上丝绸之路”最早始发港研究述评》的意见
    赵焕庭
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (1): 118-127.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.01.118
    摘要   PDF (426KB)
    韩湖初等评述中国古代海上丝路最早始发港问题的文章有几点不足:①论题虚大,拟谈中国,却只谈华南;②说人们已得出比较一致的意见,认为北部湾合浦、徐闻和日南3海港是华南古代海上丝路最早的始发港,否定番禺说。这并不符合实际,因为有些番禺说的论文未被列为参考文献予以分析;③否认番禺说与赞同北部湾说的根据是不能令人信服的。笔者根据历史文献、考古成果与历史地理条件,逐一分析韩文的理据,得出番禺是华南古代海上丝路最早始发港的结论。
    The paper by HAN Hu-Chu et al.commented the earliest set sail portof the maritime silk route of ancient China has some insufficiencies: ①this title is exaggerated. It is intended to discuss on China, but only discuss upon South China.② it is said that the people had a rather unanimous view, that is, three harbors of Hepu, Xuwen and Rinan in Beibuwan Bay were the earliest set sail ports of the maritime silk route of ancient South China, which is against Panyu theory. This is inconsistent with the facts, because some papers of the Panyu theory had not been listed as references and analyzed. ③ The arguments for Beibuwan Bay theory or against Panyu theory are not convincing. Based on the historical literature, archaeological achievement and historical geographical condition, this paper is analyzed these arguments one by one, as well as getting a conclusion—Panyu was the earliest set sail port of the maritime silk route of ancient South China.
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