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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2006年, 第26卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2006-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国区域工业全要素生产率的空间计量经济分析
    吴玉鸣, 李建霞
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 385-391.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.385
    摘要   PDF (853KB)
    全要素生产率(TFP)是一个国家或地区经济增长质量和技术进步、管理效率提高的重要标志,正确、科学测算TFP对区域经济增长和技术进步及政策研究非常重要。运用空间统计和空间计量经济学的空间自相关Moran指数、空间滞后模型和空间误差模型方法,基于2003年中国大陆31个省、直辖市和自治区的工业企业统计数据,对中国大陆省级区域工业全要素生产率进行了空间计量经济测算分析。结果发现,空间统计与空间计量经济学模型在测算我国省域工业全要素生产率中具有较好效果,利用这种方法测算的2003年中国大陆31个区域全要素生产率的实证结果比较符合工业生产率发展实际;在影响我国省域工业生产率的因素中,工业资本投入是造成工业经济增长率在东中西部地区之间和各个省域之间存在巨大差异的主要原因;劳动生产率水平偏低是制约我国省域工业生产率提高的主要瓶颈因素;2003年我国省域工业生产率增长是由资本和技术共同推动的。
    Total Factor Productivity(TFP) is an important symbol of national economic growth,regional economic growth and technological progress. It is very much important to calculate TFP properly and scientifically for regional economic and technological progress and policy-making. Spatial Moran index of autocorrelation, Spatial Lag Model(SLM)and Spatial Error Model(SEM)are used to analyze the industrial TFP of China's 31 provincial regions based on the industrial enterprises statistical data of year 2003. The econometric estimation results show: (1) The estimation results of spatial econometric models are better than that of OLS model,and the spatial statistic and spatial econometric models have good effects on testing and calculating 31 provincial regions' industrial TFP in China. (2) The investment of industrial capital is one of the main factors which causing the great gap among coastal, central, western areas and provinces in the influencing factors of China's provincial industrial factor productivity. (3) Lower labor productivity is the bottleneck and conditional factor promoting China's 31 provincial regions' industrial TFP. (4) The capital together with technology is the pushing factors in China's provincial industrial TFP growth in 2003.
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    中国海上集装箱运输的组织网络研究
    王成金, 金凤君
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 392-401.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.392
    摘要   PDF (1512KB)
    在阐述国内外集装箱运输研究现状的基础上,分析了集装箱的空间组织模式-轴辐侍服网络。对中国港口的集装箱组织,从航线、航班、空间联系、地域系统等四个角度进行详细论述,认为香港、上海两港具有很强的组织能力,深圳、宁波、青岛、厦门、天津、大连等港具有较强的组织能力;不同港口形成了不同的主导组织区域;并且中国近海已形成以大连、天津、青岛、上海、厦门和深圳-香港等港口为枢纽港的6个轴辐侍服系统;同时中国港口又从属于釜山、阪神和新加坡3个国际集装箱侍服系统。
    Marine container transportation is an important transportation organization model and impacted the evolution of world ports system. Now it is developing quickly in China and became a key factor to develop national economy. Research on the organization networks of marine container transportation became the importan field of transportation geography. Based on history research of container transportation in foreign countries and China, the author discussed the theory in detailed about liner ship transportation and spatial organization model of container transportation—Hub and Spoke System. Then the author chose 70 container shipping liner companies,360 ports(including 45 Chinese ports and 315 international ports)and the container shipping data at 1-7 on October in 2004 as the studying objects, and designed the spatial analysis model. Then the author took container transportation line, schedule, spatial relation and region system as studying aspect, and analyzed China container transportation organization networks, and summarized these conclusions: (1)Hong Kong port and Shanghai port have the most strong ability to organize marine container transportation; Shenzhen port, Ningbo port, Qingdao port, Xiamen port, Tianjin port and Dalian port have stronger organization ability;the ability of other ports to organize container transportation is very weak. (2)Different port has different main organization region. The northern ports and eastern ports in China have strong transportation relation with Japan and Korea, southern ports have stronger transportation relation with North America, Europe and Southeast Asia, which show China have stronger international economic relation with those regions. (3)There have six region organization systems of Hub and Spoke in China, including Dalian system, Tianjin system, Qingdao system, the eastern China system, the southern China system, Southeast of Fujian system, whose hub ports are Dalian port, Tianjin port, Qingdao port, Shanghai port, Shenzhen-Xianggang port which promote Chinese economy. These six organization systems formatted the basic networks of marine container transportation in China which is alike with its regional economic framework. (4)Chinese ports were belong to three international organization systems of container transportation, including Busan, Osaka-Kobe and Singapore system which constructed East Asia and Southeast Asia international organization systems of marine container,and whose hub ports including Busan port,Osaka port, Kobe port and Singapore port which control the international container flow in China.
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    “泛珠三角”产业、人口分布空间变动的趋势分析
    李铁立, 徐建华
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 402-408.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.402
    摘要   PDF (1335KB)
    随着地区经济一体化的发展,"泛珠三角"区域的经济格地理局将会出现不同程度的变化。当前"泛珠三角"区域一体化处于中期发展阶段,主要表现为产业和人口向"珠三角"集中。今后随着一体化的进一步发展,产业和人口将具有集中与扩散同时发生的特征,各地区形成特定产业和人口集中的专门化生产的地理格局。
    Regional integration and cost-saving developments in transports and communication sectors are reducing the cost of flux of trade and production factors. With the development of regional integration, the economic geography in "Pan-Pearl River Delta" will have a trend to readjustment. The result is that production of particular products should move to regions with "comparative advantages" in terms of the local supply of appropriate raw materials and labour. Companies located in these areas can provide goods and services to other regions. Increased labour and capital mobility should accelerate this process. From the year of 1997, the regional trade increase in Pan-Pearl River Delta has been associated with a shift in manufacuring production towards to regional concentration. Gini coefficient has revealed significant increase in regional concentration in 13 out of 15 manufacturing industries in Pan-Pearl River Delta, while there are significant reduction in concentration in only 2 industries. On the basis of being appraised on the industry and population, the developing degree of economic integration in the region is on the metaphase, and industry and population have trend to concentration. Economic geography’ model identifies competing forces that determine whether industries will concentrate and specialize or disperse and diversity. The most important two of these factors are "centrifugal force" and "centripetal forces". Location decisions are driven by considerations of access to markets on the one hand and by production cost considerations on the other. MPI estimates for Pan-Pearl River Delta has showed that the MPI tends to be high around Pearl River Delta, and the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan, Xiamen-Zhangzhou-Quanzhou urban agglomerations are at the second position. Production cost is centrifugal force, particularly in relation to inputs such as labour and property. The author compares these forces, and the property price is the most important factor to disperse the manufacturing production in Pan-Pearl River Delta. In the future, when the region's integration further develop, the industry and population' distribution will represent the characteristics of concentrating and dispersing.
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    循环经济发展规划及实例研究
    李昕, 董德明, 沈万斌, 邱慧哲, 高明辉
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 409-413.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.409
    摘要   PDF (791KB)
    循环经济就是以资源的高效利用和循环利用为核心,以减量化、再利用、资源化为原则,以低投入、低消耗、低排放、高效率为基本特征,符合可持续发展理论的经济发展新模式;是对大量生产、大量消费、大量废弃的传统增长模式的根本变革,属于资源节约型和环境友好型的经济形态;是追求更大经济效益、更少资源消耗、更低环境污染和更多劳动就业的先进经济模式。从循环经济发展规划结构和指标体系入手,引入研究实例,对吉林省未来五年发展循环经济进行了全面规划。
    Connotation of circular economy was discussed. It is considered that circular economy is a new mode of economic development according with sustainable development principle, which is a kernel to utilize and recycle resources efficiently, a principle to reduce, reuse, and recycle them, and with the characteristics of lower investing, lower consuming, lower wastes, and higher efficiency. Also it is a ultimate reform of traditional increasing mode which is characteristic of large production, large consumption and large waste, being an economic configuration of thrift resources and friendly environment. As an advanced economic model circular economy pursues high economic benefit, less resources consumption, minimizing environmental pollution, and increasing employment. Furthermore, the plan for circular economic development and indicator system was presented. Then, through a case study, an overall planning for circular economic development was made in next five years in Jilin Province.
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    福建省域工业空间结构研究——以福建省销售额前300家工业企业为例
    陈月英, 徐效坡, 范士陈, 刘云刚
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 414-419.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.414
    摘要   PDF (724KB)
    依据地域经济系统理论,一个地域经济单元状态,可以从时序特征和空间结构特征进行表达,其存在状态受制于时空关联性。一定地域在特定时序发展阶段,必有与之相对应的空间结构特征;反之,一定的空间结构特征必然反映其特定的时序阶段。据此,诊断了福建省域工业系统的时空关联性特征,并提出了该省工业阶段性跃迁的对策与建议。
    According to the theory of areal economy system, the state of an areal economy unit can be expressed with the features of time series of the economic development and spatial structure. The existing state of an areal economy unit is enslaved to the space-time relationship. The determinative area in a given stage of economic development is bound to have its periodical feature of economic development which is relative to the feature of its spatial structure. Conversely, the feature of spatial structure of the area is bound to reflect the feature of stage of the areal economy development. On the basis of the above, this paper makes a preliminary diagnosis of the features of time series of industrial system in Fujian and spatial structure from the space-time relationship. In the period of economic development, Fujian is in a period of transition from the exploitation of resources to processing industries. In the spatial respect, the economic development of Fujian takes on the feature of pole-axis spatial system that is growing. The coupling of space and time indicates that the economic development of Fujian has been in the mid-term of industrialization. At last, the paper puts forward countermeasures and proposals to push the course of industrialization forward and realize the stage leap forword of industrial economic system of Fujian.
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    基于生态足迹模型的资源型城市可持续发展定量评估——以黑龙江省石油城市大庆市为例
    臧淑英, 智瑞芝, 孙学孟
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 420-425.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.420
    摘要   PDF (551KB)
    大庆市作为全国重要的石油和石油化工工业基地,但同时作为资源型城市也不可避免地具有产业结构单一、结构失衡、基础设施不足、经济辐射力弱、生态环境破坏严重等先天性弱点。目前大庆市的石油开采已进入中后期阶段,如何借振兴东北老工业基地的东风,培养替代产业,实现经济的持续稳定发展是大庆市的当务之急。1983~2001年其生态足迹供需严重失衡,生态赤字持续扩大。可见,无论在经济意义上,还是在生态意义上,大庆市的可持续发展都成为一个无法回避的重大现实问题。然而,大庆市的可持续发展十分复杂,涉及到区域经济学和生态经济学等多方面的重大理论问题。基于生态足迹模型,对大庆市的可持续发展做一理论探讨。
    As an important industrial base of petroleum chemical industry in China, for several decades, Daqing City has made a tremendous contribution to China's economy development. But in the meantime as a resources-rich city, inevitably it also has some innate weakness such as industrial structure being single, structure unbalance, infrastructure facilities insufficient, radiation of economy weak and serious destroy of ecological environment, etc. In view of economy development, at present the petroleum mining in Daqing City has come into the middle and later stage. It is the urgent affaires for Daqing City to make the most of the favorable situation brought about by Vigorously Developing the Old Northeast Industrial Base to cultivate substitute industry and realize sustainable and stable development of economy. From the point of view of ecological environment, its supply and demand of ecological track from 1983 to 2001 has been severely unbalanced and the ecology deficit enlarging continuously. It is quite evident that the sustainable development of Daqing City has become an unavoidable serious real problem no matter from economy sense or ecological one. However the sustainable development of Daqing City is extremely complicated, involving very important theoretical issues in respect of regional economics and ecological economics, etc. From the point of view of ecological economics only and on the basis of ecological track model, this paper researches theoretically into the sustainable development of Daqing City.
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    绥化市可持续发展系统的趋势分析
    周嘉, 尚金城, 谢远云
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 426-431.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.426
    摘要   PDF (865KB)
    在全面性、简明性和系统性的基础上,建立了绥化市可持续发展趋势评价的指标体系,并对该区域1990~2002年的可持续发展趋势和可持续发展系统能力进行了定量评价。趋势评价指在确定的指标体系下,采用复杂系统综合评价的方法分析区域可持续发展系统各方面的综合发展的状况、趋势和可持续发展的程度或水平,并用相应测度和标准去衡量或者比较。绥化市可持续发展的趋势分析结果表明,该市的经济和社会发展状态稳定,人口发展、环境污染和资源占有趋势一直呈现比较波动的状态,特别是资源占有指数在2000年才呈现恢复上升的趋势.究其原因主要在于2000年之前的"高消耗"的传统经济发展模式。环境-发展综合指数与资源-发展综合指数有着相同的变化趋势,20世纪90年代初,,因为环境污染和资源消耗都比较严重,同时社会经济发展水平都比较低造成二者数值都比较高。1998年后,逐渐进入环境质量提高,资源消耗量下降的时期,环境污染、资源消耗与发展的综合指数越来越低,同时也可以说明绥化市的可持续发展的能力在不断提高。
    The main content of estimation of sustainable development is to ensure human load stay within global carrying capacity.Index system of sustainable development assessment is one of part of judge and decision system. In the paper, we select 42 indexes of sustainable system complying to comprehensive, compendious and systemic principle.Then,we assessed sustainable trend and sustainable ability of the region in 1990-2002. The trend evaluation is to adopt the method of complicated comprehensive evaluation in order to analyse the state,trend, degree and level of comprehensive development of region sustainable development system, and to assay and compare with corresponding standard.According to result of judging,development of economy and society is stead,and environment pollution and resources occupation is fluctuant, especially resources occupation exponential presented a accending trend in 2000. The reason is traditional economic development model has high flow rate. Environment development synthesion index and resources development synthesion index that can reflect relation of environment pollution and resources occupation present the same trend.In the beginning of 1990's in 20 centuries, because the condition of pollution of the environment and resources consume is more serious, and social economic develop levels in the meantime is lower, two indexes are higher.After 1998, the period of environment quality exalted gradually and the resources depletion descendence came, so the index r was more and more low.That show sustainable development ability to be raising continuously. Sustainble development ability evaluation is to analyse condition and obstacle of sustainable development with analysing relation and effect of the system state in order to evaluate sustainable development ability and the potential.With evaluation, it is expressed: 1)Resources depletion and pollution of the environment for 1993~1996, 2000 and 2002 make very small pressure to sustainable development, and the system of sustainble development ability grade was high. 2) Sustainable development of resources environment ability in 1992 and 1993 was common, and the pressure was medium.3)In 1998 and 1999, sustainable development ability of resources environmental was weaker.4)In 2000 ~2002 sustainable development ability can be raised continuously.In 2002,the comprehensive ability attain the best state.
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    人类活动和降水变化对嘉陵江流域侵蚀产沙的影响
    许炯心
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 432-437.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.432
    摘要   PDF (832KB)
    基于大量实测资料,用经验统计方法研究了人类活动和降水变化对嘉陵江流域侵蚀产沙的影响。结果表明,水利水保措施和20世纪80年代以来的降水减少,共同导致了嘉陵江流域产沙量的减少。分基准期(1956~1982)和措施期(1983~2000)分别建立嘉陵江江流域产沙量与年降水的指数方程,运用这些方程对于降水变化与水利水保导致的产沙量变化进行定量区分,得到了措施期中降水量减小所导致的减沙量、水利水保措施导致的减沙量、总减沙量以及降水减少和水利水保措施各自占总减沙量的百分比。水保减沙效益随降水量的增大而减小。当降水量超过某一临界值,还可能出现负效应。研究表明,水利水保减沙量随年降水量而增大,在年降水量为970mm时达到最大值,然后减小;当年降水量为1180mm时,水利水保减沙量变为0。
    Based on hydrometric and meteorological dada, effect of human activities and precipitation on sediment yield of the Jialingjiang River basin has been evaluated by using empirical statistical approach. The results show that soil-water conservation measures and hydraulic engineering works have resulted in significant reduction of sediment yield in the Jialingjiang River basin since the 1980s. A "base-line" (1956-1982) and a "monitoring" (1983-2000) periods have been identified, and regression equations between annual sediment yield in the Jialingjinag River basin and area-averaged annual precipitation is established, separately. Based on the two equations, the sediment reduction induced by the decrease in precipitation and by soil-water conservation measures and hydraulic engineering works was differentiated. As a result, the sediment reduction by the decrease in annual precipitation in the "monitoring" period, the sediment reduction by soil-water conservation measures and hydraulic engineering works, and their percentages of the total sediment reduction have been estimated. This study indicates that the sediment reduction by soil-water conservation measures and hydraulic engineering works (ΔQs) depends on annual precipitation (P), the former decreasing with the latter. When annual precipitation exceeded some threshold, negative ΔQs would occur. The ΔQsincreased with P, and when P=970 mm, ΔQsbecame the maximum,and then ΔQsdecreased to 0 when P=1180 mm.
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    黄土陡坡裸露坡耕地浅沟发育过程研究
    郑粉莉, 武敏, 张玉斌, 丁晋利
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 438-442.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.438
    摘要   PDF (284KB)
    根据黄土陡坡地浅沟地形特征参数,在室内人工建筑浅沟发育初期的雏形模型,研究浅沟发育不同阶段沟头溯源侵蚀、沟壁扩张和沟槽下切变化规律,分析浅沟侵蚀对坡面侵蚀产沙的贡献。结果表明,浅沟发育不同阶段对应于不同的浅沟侵蚀过程。浅沟发育初期,沟头溯源侵蚀、沟壁扩展和沟床下切均相对活跃,且溯源侵蚀速率大于沟壁扩张速率和沟床下切速率;浅沟发育中期,以沟槽下切和沟壁扩张为主;浅沟发育后期,以沟壁扩张为主,但沟壁扩张速率明显小于浅沟发育的初期和中期阶段。浅沟发育初期和中期阶段,浅沟侵蚀量占总坡面侵蚀产沙的58%;浅沟发育后期,浅沟侵蚀量占总坡面侵蚀产沙的26%~59%。
    According to the topographic characteristic parameters of ephemeral gully at loess steep hillslopes, the mold of ephemeral gully shape at initial stage was made to quantify the change processes of ephemeral gully headcut advance, gully-wall collapse and channel deep-cutting in three stages (the beginning, middle and late stages) of ephemeral gully development. The results showed that different stages of ephemeral gully development corresponded to different ephemeral gully erosion process. In the beginning stage of ephemeral gully development, ephemeral gully headcut, gully-wall collapse and channel deep-cutting were very active, the speed of ephemeral headcut advance was much higher than the speeds of gully-wall expansion and channel deep-cutting. In the middle stage, gully-wall collapse and channel deep-cutting were dominant. In the late stage, gully-wall collapse was dominant, but the speed of gully-wall expansion was lower than that in middle stage. In the beginning and middle stages of ephemeral gully development, ephemeral gully erosion accounted for 58.4% of the total sediment yield in ephemeral gully catchment; in the late stage, ephemeral gully erosion took up 26%-594% of the total sediment yield.
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    东北典型黑土区土壤风蚀环境分析
    杨新, 郭江峰, 刘洪鹄, 刘宝元
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 443-448.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.443
    摘要   PDF (1044KB)
    根据1951~2000年的日平均风速、气温和降水数据以及1980~2000年的沙尘暴资料,分析东北典型黑土区的风蚀环境。结果表明,东北典型黑土区6个气象站点1~5月平均气温50年来显著升高,1~5月总降水量没有明显变化趋势。嫩江年大风日数1980年以来比1950~1960年多,年沙尘暴日数也有所上升,土壤风蚀环境趋于严重;哈尔滨等5地风蚀环境减弱。典型黑土区土壤风蚀环境在整个东北地区处于中等状态。
    Based on the average daily wind speed data, average daily air temperature data, daily precipitation data of 1951-2000, and the daily dust data of 1980-2000, the wind erosion environment of black soil region in the northeastern China was analyzed. In the study area, the average air temperature from January to May has been increased markedly since 1951. And the total precipitation from January to May has no obvious change. In Nenjiang annual gale days in 1980-2000 was much more than that in 1950-1960, annual dust days have increased too, so the soil wind reosion environment in Nenjiang is serious than before. In Harbin and other stations in the study area soil wind erosion environment is weakening. In the whole northeastern China, the soil wind erosion environment is moderate.
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    东北漫川漫岗黑土区浅沟和切沟发生的地貌临界模型探讨
    胡刚, 伍永秋, 刘宝元, 张永光, 魏欣
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 449-454.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.449
    摘要   PDF (752KB)
    对东北漫川漫岗黑土区进行实地测量及地形图量算,推求出临界模型,校验了Moore的沟蚀发生公式。研究发现,该区浅沟发生的临界阈值和指数参数分别为0.0631和-0.4643,切沟发生的两参数分别为0.1161和-0.4457。同时发现Moore的沟蚀预测公式在该研究区并不适用。通过与野外实测浅沟和切沟发生位置对比,临界模型预测的沟蚀位置较好地反映了野外实际状况。
    The theory of geomorphic threshold has been widely applied in study of predicting the area of ephemeral gully incision. Based on the measurement in field and relief map, this paper got the coefficient (a) and (b) in threshold model S=aA-b (where S is local slope, A is upslope drainage area), and verified whether the gully incision formula used by Moore is suitable in study area. The analysis showed that the threshold value (a) and exponent coefficient (b) are 0.1161 and -0.4457 respectively for gully, 0.0631 and -0.4643 respectively for ephemeral gully; and that gully incision formula used by Moore is not suitable in study area. Compared with the distribution of ephemeral gully in field, it is found that the prone area predicted by threshold model is fairly well consistent with the actual ephemeral gully distribution. Meanwhile, it was found that the bigger the bvalue in threshold model, the more unsusceptible the prone area to the change of threshold value, vice versa, which is approved by the prone area of gully incision. These provide primary design guidance for local soil and water conservation.
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    内蒙古河套灌区水盐平衡与干排水脱盐分析
    王学全, 高前兆, 卢琦, 李彬
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 455-460.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.455
    摘要   PDF (883KB)
    内蒙古河套灌区由于气候和水文地质条件影响,外排水不畅,地下水位超过临界水位,土壤次生盐渍化严重,河套灌区续建配套和节水改造是防治土壤盐渍化根本工程措施。根据1987~1997年期间的水盐均衡计算,河套灌区,整体处于积盐过程。灌区荒地和低洼湿地有排水积盐作用,从而减轻耕地盐渍化,通过蒸发,可积聚进入灌区盐分的65%。这种干排盐技术,可作为灌区农田土壤盐渍化脱盐的一项重要措施。调整河套灌区种植结构,选择耐盐作物品种种植,可起生物排盐作用,增加土壤有机质,抑制土壤积盐。
    Hetao irrigating area of Inner Mongolia is a major irrigated area in the upper reaches of the Huanghe(Yellow) River. Affected by arid climate and special hydrogeology, with unfavorable drainage networks, underground water table rises to and above critical depth, which leads to salinity and waterlogging. It is necessary for Hetao irrigating area to undergone the water-saving and modification project for salinity and waterlogging controlling. In the Hetao irrigating area by quantitatively assessing the input and output of water and salinity, it has been calculated that saline accumulation reaches 1.6826?106t annually. The desert or fallow areas in the Hetao irrigating area have the function of salts accumulation with the aid of evaporation to prevent the cultivated land from salinity, and these salts accumulation accounts for 65% of the salts that are introduced to irrigated land with the irrigation water from the Huanghe River, which are also much more than the amount of salts drainage to the Wuliangshu Lake. The dry drainage technique should be developed for the controlling of salinity and waterlogging in Hetao irrigating area. It has also been shown that adjusting planting structure to growing salt-tolerant native and introducing species for grazing and forage use could improve profitability of more saline soils, promote fertile procession, restrain the effect of salt in the arable land.
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    不同比例尺下中国水系分维数关系研究
    何钢, 蔡运龙
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 461-465.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.461
    摘要   PDF (227KB)
    应用分形理论,再次验证整个中国水系及各流域水系分形特征的客观存在;通过比较1:450万及1:1200万比例尺计算的分形维值大小及变化规律,表明单一尺度的分形规律在其它尺度下依然存在;大比例尺条件下计算得到的分形维值也大,且各层次不同流域的分维值在不同比例尺条件下的变化也呈现相同的趋势,表明图源比例尺对分维计算值的影响。
    Fractal theory, which has already been widely used in various fields, provided new tools in geographical studies especially the scale issues. Fractal theory is used in this paper to study the fractal character of China's river basins at 1:4500000 and 1:12000000 scales respectively, and the relation between the fractal character of the two scales is analyzed accordingly. Some significant conclusions are drawn as follows: (1) The objective existence of fractal character of the river basins in China is approved again within larger scale. (2) The calculation and comparison of fractal dimensions of China's river basins show that the fractal rule in one scale also exists in other scales. (3) The larger the scale is, the bigger the calculated fractal dimension is, and the same trend is also seen in different hierarchy of river basins at different scales.
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    西藏大骨节病区的地理环境特征
    杨林生, 吕瑶, 李海蓉, 李永华, 李顺江, 王五一, 谭见安
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 466-471.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.466
    摘要   PDF (909KB)
    西藏90%以上的大骨节病县分布在高山温带环境中,病区最暖月平均气温在10~18℃之间,≥0℃日数在180~350天之间;病区集中分布在喜马拉雅山与冈底斯山和念青唐古拉山之间以及横断山北段山间地带的山区或高山谷地地区,病县山地、丘陵占78.4%,非病县山地、丘陵面积占66.7%;就海拔高度而言,病区主要分布在3600~4000m之间;病区涉及多种类型的耕作土壤,其中酸性棕壤和暗棕壤、灰褐土和石灰性褐土、褐土性土等淋溶、半淋溶土壤类型是大骨节病集中分布区;在高山土壤类型中病区趋于分布在典型亚高山草甸土和山地灌丛草原土地带,而亚高山草原土带相对较少。西藏大骨节病区地理环境特征既与内地大骨节病区有很强的相似性,又因其独特的地域分异格局而具特殊性。
    Kaschin-Beck Disease is regarded as an endemic, deformed osteoarthropathic disease with high deformity rate. China is the country with widest Kaschin-Beck Disease incidence and prevalence in the world. The areas of endemic Kaschin-Beck Disease are relatively stable and correlated with specific geographical environments. It is mainly distributed in a broad belt extending from northeast to southwest, approximately covering the transitional belt between tropical and subtropical humid zone in the southeastern China and arid and semiarid northwest China. It only hurts the poor rural farmer. Since the 1980s, though the effective countermeasures for preventing, with the inhabitant living level increasing, the disease has been effectively controlled. But it is still active in some western areas, especially in the Tibetan Plateau. The affected counties in Tibet have been increased from 13 to 34 since the 1970s. As the Tibetan Plateau is a most special geographical landscape, where the horizontal and altitudinal regional differentiation are everywhere and complicated, it is important to systematically study the relationship between the distribution of Kaschin-Beck Disease and the differentiation of geographical environment to macroscopically guide the disease prevention and control in the areas. In this paper, with the help of ARCGIS 8.0 and SPSS 10.0 software, using the geographic data of Tibet (climate, soil and land use, etc.) surveyed in last two decades, the geographic characteristics of Kaschin-Beck Disease in Tibet are analyzed. The results show that more than 90% of Kaschin-Beck Disease affected counties are located in plateau-temperate zone. The average temperature of the warmest month is 10℃-18℃ and the days above 0℃ is between 180 and 350. Most disease affected counties are concentrated in the valleys between the Himalayas and the Nyainentanglha mountains, and in the north part of the Hengduan Mountains. Of the areas of the disease affected counties 78.4% are mountains or hills, 11.7% higher than those of the non-disease counties. The plain areas in disease affected counties are only 19.3%, 11.3% less than those in non-disease counties. Most heights of the disease sites are between 3600m and 4000m. The cultivated soils in disease affected counties are mountain soils. In east part of Tibet, the acidified mountain brown soil, mountain dark brown soil, mountain cinnamon soil, mountain calcareous cinnamon soil and gray cinnamon soil are typical soils in Kaschin-Beck Disease affected countries. In middle Tibet, Kaschin-Beck Disease is more distributed in subalpine meadow soil areas and less in subalpine steppe soil areas. The spatial characters of Kaschin-Beck Disease in Tibet are related both to the horizontal and the vertical distribution of the geographic factors. It is concluded that distribution and prevalence of the disease is correlated with the special regional differentiation of the Tibetan Plateau, cultivated soil in Kaschin-Beck Disease affected areas is mostly developed in semiarid and sub-humid stream valleys and scrubs steppe soil. This is very similar to the geographic characters of the disease distribution in inland China, as the geographic zonality of the Tibetan Plateau is almost replay the zonality in inland of China. Experiences and measures of Kaschin-Beck Disease prevention and control in inland of China, especially the measure of environmental improvement, can provide well examples for Kaschin-Beck Disease control in Tibet.
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    基于TM数据的太湖叶绿素A浓度定量反演
    吕恒, 江南, 罗潋葱
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 472-476.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.472
    摘要   PDF (676KB)
    利用TM(ETM)数据与准实时地面采样数据,建立太湖叶绿素浓度反演模型。结果表明,TM3/(TM1+TM4)与叶绿素A浓度的相关性最好,并以此建立了太湖叶绿素A浓度线性反演模型,但反演精度并不高,因此,建立了一个两层BP神经网络模型反演太湖的叶绿素A浓度,结果表明,神经网络模型的反演精度远高于线性反演模型,16个测试样本表明,神经网络模型反演的相对误差小于30%的有15个点,占总测试样本93.75%,而线性反演模型反演相对误差在30%以下的仅有3个点,这表明对于太湖这样一个光谱特征复杂的二类水体,可以利用神经网络模型反演水质参数。
    Based on TM (ETM) data and in-situ measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration (Chla) in Taihu Lake, analysis was conducted to decide the correlation between Chla and the ratios of different reflectance corrected by the 6S model. The results show that Chla is closely related to TM3/(TM1+TM4) and the inverse model to infer Chla in Taihu Lake can be written as ln(ChlA)=-9.247*(TM1+TM4)/(TM2+TM3)-27.903*TM3/(TM1+TM4)+24.518. However, the accuracy of this model can not be enssured due to the complexity of spectral reflectance strongly depending on water quality in Taihu Lake. Thus a further 2-layer BP neural net model based on 4 input nodes, 7 hide nodes and 1 output node was made to decide Chla in the lake. The derived results reveal that the BP model has much higher accuracy than the linear model. A test was made based on the chosen 16 samples and the results suggest that the maximum relative error (RE) of BP model was only 35.43%. Of all the samples, 15 ones had a RE of less than 30%, accounting for 93.7% of the total samples. However, there were only 3 with RE less than 30% from the results derived from the linear model. The comparison shows that the BP model has high availability for inferring Chla of surface water having complex spectral reflectance.
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    基于影象融合的干旱区城镇居民地信息提取研究
    吴宏安, 蒋建军, 周杰, 张海龙, 张丽, 解修平
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 477-482.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.477
    摘要   PDF (357KB)
    针对TM多波段图象中城镇居民地与裸地光谱特征相似难以准确提取城镇居民地信息的问题,利用雷达图象对居民地信息的敏感性,采用HIS变换方法,融合了2003年西安地区的Landsat TM和Radarsat SAR影象,并对融合影象做二类监督分类提取出城镇居民地信息,结果显示与TM图象监督分类相比,融合后的图象能很好地消除裸地对城镇居民地提取影响,其精度可达到84.21%,大大高于由TM多光谱影象监督分类所得到的精度71.79%,为提取干旱区城镇居民地信息提供一种新方法。
    With the impletion of the policy of great development of Western China, the process of urbanization in the western China has increased rapidly, especially for some big cities. At the same time, urbanization also affected urban periphery ecological environment deeply. So how to get information about urban residential areas in time and accurately is important to urban monitoring. The study area is in the Weihe Plain, where the precipitation is low and barrens are distributed widely. In this research, to retrieve urban residential areas in the west of China, Radarsat SAR image and Landsat TM image were emerged using HIS transformation and then 2-class supervised classification was used to obtain urban land use information, that were urban areas and non-urban areas. This method takes advantage of both multi-spectral image and radar image. As we know, in the TM image the spectral features of urban residential areas and barrens are so similar that we could not distinguish them. However, the radar images can differentiate urban residential areas from barrens, for SAR data are sensitive to residential areas. To reveal the advantage of this method, the TM image was also classified into 5 land covers, namely urban residential areas, farmland, woodland, water body, and uncultivated land (including barrens) using traditional supervised classification. By comparing the two different methods, we find that the urban residential areas derived from the merged image of TM and SAR is more accurate than that using TM image only, the overall accuracy of them are 84.21% and 71.79%, respectively. So we considered that the image fusion method is an effective way to retrieve urban residential areas for the arid region where barrens are distributed, which could not only obtain all the residential information, but also eliminate barrens, thus the retrieving accuracy is very high.
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    辽宁沿海地区风能资源状况及开发潜力初步分析
    龚强, 袁国恩, 汪宏宇, 蔺娜, 于华深
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 483-489.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.483
    摘要   PDF (943KB)
    主要采用风电场的实测风资料,初步分析了辽宁沿海地区的风能资源特征及开发潜力。结果表明:辽宁沿海岸一带为风能资源丰富区和较丰富区,辽东湾沿岸风资源较黄海北部沿岸更为优越,风资源条件上具有更大的开发潜力;海岸到内陆风速迅速减少,离海岸稍远的陆上以辽东半岛顶部和辽河平原地区风速较大;沿岸50m高处风能资源较10m高处多1倍以上,年有效风力时数超过70%,表明辽宁沿海地区具有大规模开发利用风能资源的潜力,适合建大型风电场,且风电场离海岸越近越好。
    Liaoning Province lies on the main wind belts of China, which abuts on the Bohai sea and the Yellow Sea and has more than 2000 km of coastline. There is the better prospects of exploitation and application of wind energy resources (WER) in Liaoning littoral. But the existing wind observation data (from meteorological observation stations mainly) and the former investigation did not meet the needs of WER survey enough due to stronger local character of wind. Lacking observation data and unknowing the resources distribution exactly have been an important problem among all the factors limiting large-scale exploition of WER. Aiming at the existing status of unknowing WER exactly, the features and exploitation potentiality of WER in the Liaoning coastal area are studied elementarily based on observation data of 14 meteorological stations and 6 wind power stations located in Liaoning littoral. The main results are as follows: (1) The areas along the coast of Liaoning are the abundant or relative abundant region of WER. The mean yearly wind speed is mostly more than 5.0 m/s in the coast of the Liaodong Gulf and mostly lower than 5.0 m/s on the north shore of the Yellow Sea. So WER is more in the area along the Liaodong Gulf than in the area along the north Yellow Sea. (2) Wind speed decrease remarkably from the coast to inland. Wind speed over the top of Liaodong Peninsula is bigger among the littoral, where the average yearly wind speed is 4.4-4.6 m/s. The rest regions are lower than 4.0 m/s. (3) Orientation of wind energy is concentrative, which is of great benefit to arranging wind turbines. Wind direction on the north side and on the south side are the two main orientation of wind energy on the coastal area along the Liaodong Gulf. However, only wind direction on the north side is main on the coastal area along the Yellow Sea.(4) WER presents seasonal and daily change. Spring is the best season of utilizing WER on the coastal area in Liaoning Province. Autumn or Winter is the second and Summer is the last. The best period of utilizing WER in a day is usually in the daytime, especially in the afternoon. (5) The WER at 50 m height along the coast is 2 times of that at 10 m height, and the usable wind hours in one year are more than 70%. Yearly available wind energy is 2763.2 and 1481.6 (kW·h)/m2 at 50 m height in Liaobin and Mingyang, which are located in north shore of Liaodong Gulf and the Yellow Sea respectively. Taking Nordex N54 (1.0 MW) wind turbine as an example, power generation capacity of a wind turbine is 2.16?106 and 1.44?104 (kW·h)/a in the two areas respectively.(6) There is greater resources potentiality in a large-scale exploitation and application of WER in Liaoning littoral. It is suitable for developing big wind power plant in those regions, and the position of wind power station more near the coast is more better.
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    行政建置变更对海南岛区域文化历史发展的影响研究
    朱竑, 司徒尚纪
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 490-496.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.490
    摘要   PDF (1047KB)
    一个区域文化的发展除了受历史时期科技发展水平、移民、国家开拓方略等因素的影响外,也因为行政建置的不同而产生很大的不同。不少地方因为长期隶属于同一个行政区,在文化上就表现出非常明显的趋同性。而历史期海南岛区域文化的发展进度则与反映中央王朝重视程度的行政建置的级别、深入岛内实质管理的辖区大小等要素紧密相关。行政建置变更某种程度上已经成为海南岛历史文化发展进程中重要的导向标。在探讨了历史期海南岛行政建置变更对海南岛文化发展带来的影响,以期对海南岛区域文化的生成和发展寻求上层建筑方面的依据。
    Besides the historic technological level, migrant, strategy of national development and so on, administrative regionalization also has some impact on the development of regional culture. Many areas obviously tend to sameness in the cultural aspects because they belong to one district. In historic period, there were high relations between the development of culture in Hainan Island and the rank of administrative regionalization as well as the acreage of real management. In a certain extent, the alteration of administrative regionalization has become an important indicator in the process of cultural in Hainan Island. The paper discussed the impact of the alteration of administrative regionalization on the cultural in Hainan Island, in order to seek the polititcal explanation for the shape and development of culture in Hainan Island.
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    历史文化村镇保护评价体系及方法研究——以中国首批历史文化名镇(村)为例
    赵勇, 张捷, 李娜, 梁莉
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 497-505.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.497
    摘要   PDF (1136KB)
    历史文化村镇是我国遗产保护体系的重要组成部分。本文首先从物质文化遗产和非物质文化遗产两个方面遴选了15项指标构建历史文化村镇保护评价指标体系,然后在对中国首批历史文化名镇(村)保护状况进行社会调查的基础上,运用因子分析方法对首批名镇(村)的保护状况进行分析评价,证明了环境风貌、建筑古迹、民俗文化、街巷空间和价值影响是决定历史文化村镇保护状况的主要因素。最后,运用聚类分析法按照保护状况将首批名镇(村)划分为4种类型并做出相应评价。
    Historic cultural towns & villages are the important parts in the conservation system of the heritage in China. The conservation entered into a new phase with the proclamation of the first group famous historic cultural towns & villages in China in 2003. However, the actual studies are very short of and the most studies focused on the physical material cultural heritage with qualitative research, and the research cases often from restricted region. The precious historic heritages and their surroundings of famous historic cultural towns & villages are faced to a serious crisis and destroyed to some extent due to rapid development of economy and rural urbanization. In order to salvage the heritage resources and make up the shortage of the study on historic and cultural heritage, the article reviews the relative research on heritage conservation and evaluation of the international and domestic historic towns & villages. The author explored qualitatively and quantitatively conservation evaluation systems, and examined with cases of the first group famous historic cultural towns & villages in order to provide the theoretical background. The conservation evaluation of historic cultural towns & villages means integration assessment of valuable traits and conservation status. The paper firstly builds up the evaluation system of historic cultural towns & villages with 15 variables. The 15 influential evaluation factors were selected concerning both physical cultural heritage and immaterial culture heritage. Secondly, based on social investigation and questionnaires, the author constructs a standard comparative matrix with the case town of Zhouzhuang Town using data-base techniques, and constructs correlation coefficient among the first group famous historiccultural towns & villages. With Factor Analysis of SPSS software, a 22*15 matrix was statistically analyzed with result that the 5 main factors of historic and cultural towns & villages evaluation were revealed as environmental view, architectural relic, folk-custom, street space and value impact. In the end, by Cluster Analysis the paper classifies the first famous towns & villages into 4 types and evaluates them respectively.
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    综述
    景观价值与景观保护评价
    肖笃宁, 解伏菊, 魏建兵
    地理科学. 2006, 26 (4): 506-512.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2006.04.506
    摘要   PDF (754KB)
    景观以其兼具经济、生态、文化等多重价值而为人类所重视,又由于人类活动日益强烈的干扰而面临景观破碎化和景观组分间连接性丧失的威胁,从而备受国内外学者的关注。文章从稀有性、多样性、功效性、宜人性、资源性以及美学价值等方面对景观价值的内涵进行了评述,并介绍了景观价值定量化研究的方法;从视觉感知的角度对景观保护的评定方法和不同景观评定的实例进行了综述,并结合中国的实际情况,列举了当前中国急需保护的各类景观,为中国自然保护事业提供参考依据。
    Landscape has multi-functions such as economy, ecology and culture, and it faces threats from landscape fragmentation and loss of connectivity among landscape components induced by more intensive anthropogenic disturbances, therefore, landscape attracted more and more attention all over the world. Firstly, this article reviewed the connotation of landscape value, including rarity that is an important landscape character, diversity expressing the structure and function diversity of landscape cell, efficacy that means the transformation function of substance, energy, information and value in a given ecosystem, livability implying a landscape being suitable for existence of human beings and aesthetic value defined from human behavior model and information process theory. Secondly, it introduced the quantitative methods of evaluating landscape value, including direct use value, indirect use value, optional value, hereditable value, and subsistent value. Corresponding assessment methods for above landscape value were summed up, they are cost analysis method, income analysis method, shadow price method, substitute cost method, estate value analysis method, respectively. In addition, the assessment methods and cases on various landscapes according to human visual sensing were also listed. In the view of authors, national natural heritage with rarity, unique and aesthetic characteristics, anthropogenic management landscape with important culture value, destructed landscape which need ecological restoration or rehabilitation due to engineering destruction or landscape contamination by irrational use, should be protected first and foremost. The scenic beauty of landscape obtained by testing the public taste, landscape vulnerability and landscape threshold value that is a token of resistance, assimilation and restoration ability to disturbance, and landscape susceptibility expressing the attention extent by public, were then summarized combining the physical circumstance in China, which might be helpful for natural conservation in China.
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