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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2007年, 第27卷, 第4期 刊出日期:2007-07-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    全球城市理论与中国的国际城市建设
    吕拉昌
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 449-456.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.449
    摘要   PDF (821KB)
    全球城市是多因素作用的结果,研究范式由20世纪70年代的马克思主义政治经济学向全球与地区相互作用的范式转换。全球城市体系的划分从单一指标向经济与文化结合的多指标方向发展。但如何选取指标,如何进行指标的测量,如何确定各指标的权重分配以及如何采集城市间相互作用的数据与资料,都是全球城市研究要面对的重要问题。中国的全球城市建设要从全球城市体系的等级、位序规律出发,根据社会经济发展的实际,要有步骤、有目标、分阶段,稳步推进,逐步提升城市发展的层次,促进城市国际化的步伐,建设中国的国际城市。
    The paper reviews global city theory with some comments and examines the establishment of Chinese global city.First,the paper traces the history and analyses the paradigm of global city theory:Peter Hall is regarded as early pioneer of modern study of global city,the world city hypothesis created by John Friedmann is of great significance in the study of global city theory,Sassen has established a new view by case study of great city in the world,such as London,New York,Tokyo.The study of global city has turned to the paradigm of interaction of local and globalization from Maxims of political economics.Second,the paper reviews the main division patterns of world city system and gives some comments.World city hypothesis give a skeleton of world city,but lack the case study.Sassen failed to gave the division pattern of world city,but with her ideas of producer service as an important dynamics,Taylor and Walker give their division pattern of world city from the view of producer service,though their disadvantage were not located each city in the network of world city.Equipped with the information as the global force,Finnie worked out the division pattern of world city from World Telecom and information,but this may only showed the position of cities in the world of Telecom and information.Smith and Timberlake tried to identify the world city in the economic networks of cities in the world,but they just used the air passage to survey the connection of cites,the result may just reflected the city importance in the airline.Abrahamson established the world city pattern using the synthesized index of culture and economy,which may more show the nature of world city system.Nowadays,world city system studies have tended to use synthesized indexes of culture and economy instead of single one,however,it confronted many difficulties,such as,how to choice indexes to accurately present the nature of world city,how to survey some indexes such as the information and culture,how to evaluate the weight of each index,how to get more data and materials among the cities in the world,all of questions require to be solved in the later study of world city and also show some tendency of study of world city.Lastly,based on retrospect and comments of world city theory,the paper has some suggestions on the establishment of Chinese international or global city.With the development of Chinese economy,entry of WTO,China have speeded up its international urbanization,especially coastal area,government has great passion to establish the global city.It possible to build up the global city in the nesr future in China,but,Chinese global city establishment should rely on Chinese reality,and abide by the law of world city hierarchy,and steadily promote the establishment of global city,so as to display more roles in the world city networks.
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    长三角城市群重心移动及其驱动因素研究
    陈志刚, 王青, 黄贤金, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 457-462.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.457
    摘要   PDF (953KB)
    长三角城市群在整个中国的区域发展战略中具有十分重要的地位,为深入把握这一地区发展的空间变化态势、更好地指导长三角地区的发展实际,在测算和分析1994~2004年间长三角城市群重心位置及其变化趋势的基础上,深入探讨了近些年长三角城市群重心移动的驱动因素。结果显示,1994年以来,长三角地区的城市群重心向西北方向移动了超过20 km,重心所在位置由苏州和嘉兴的交界处移至苏州市中心附近。而从其变化的趋势来看,未来的城市群重心仍将偏向西北方向,落到苏州和无锡的交界地带。这种态势的出现主要是由于长三角内部各城市受到其自然和区位条件、经济发展以及社会环境等诸多因素的影响,使得其发展呈现出一定的差异性,进而驱动了各城市不同程度的发展及其在整个长三角地区地位的转变,并最终致使城市群重心向自然区位条件优越、经济社会发展较快的西北方向移动。
    It is important for the urban agglomeration of the Changjiang(Yangtze) River Delta to the regional development in China.In order to find out the characters of spatial changes of the Changjiang River Delta and give the guidance for the future development of this area,this paper firstly defines the urban agglomeration gravity,then calculates and analyzes the urban agglomeration gravity of the Changjiang River Delta and its changes from 1994 to 2004,according to the method of regional population gravity.Furthermore,based on the above analysis,the paper explores the driving forces of the urban agglomeration gravity changes in the Changjiang River Delta from three aspects,such as natural and spatial characters,economic development,social conditions and so on.The result shows that the urban agglomeration gravity has been moving more than 20 km to the northwest of the Changjiang River Delta since 1994,and the location of gravity moves from the boundary between Suzhou City and Jiaxing City to the vicinity of the center of Suzhou City.Moreover,the urban agglomeration gravity will still move toward northwest and locate at the boundary between Suzhou City and Wuxi City in the near future,from the direction of former changes of the urban agglomeration gravity in the Changjiang River Delta.In detail,all these changes mainly attribute to the following three aspects:First,the natural and regional conditions of the northwest cities in the Changjiang River Delta are better than those of the southen cities.Moreover,along with the rapid development of transportation,the northwest cities will be more important in the urban agglomeration of the Changjiang River Delta,and drive the urban agglomeration gravity to the northwest area of the Changjiang River Delta. Second,there are significant differences of economic development among cities in the Changjiang River Delta.From the values of main development indexes,such as GDP,structure of industry,investment in fixed assets,and place in urban development competition in China,it is clear that the northwest cities in Jiangsu Province develop with greater speed and have a higher position than the southen cities in Zhejiang Province of the Changjiang River Delta.Therefore,the economic development difference among cities in the Changjiang River Delta is considered one of the main forces driving the urban agglomeration gravity changes in the Changjiang River Delta. Third,as for the social conditions(including social development and environmental condition),they also have important effects on the movement of the urban agglomeration gravity in the Changjiang River Delta.During the past ten years,most of the social conditions of the northwest cities in Jiangsu Province were better than those of the south cities in Zhejiang Province,such as environmental quality,culture and educational development.As a result,the northwest cities develop with greater speed and larger size than the south cities and promote the urban agglomeration gravity to move toward northwest. In the end,some conclusions and suggestions are stated.The author emphasizes that it is necessary to give prominence to Suzhou City and Wuxi City and strengthen the relationship between these two cities and others of the Changjiang River Delta in the further development.
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    21世纪初中国粮食短缺地区的空间格局和区域差异
    殷培红, 方修琦, 马玉玲, 田青
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 463-472.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.463
    摘要   PDF (2044KB)
    利用2000~2003年县级统计数据,揭示了2000年以来中国缺粮地区的空间格局和区域差异。考虑气候波动和自然灾害影响,将缺粮区区分为常年缺粮区和潜在缺粮区,同时运用聚类方法,分别将两种缺粮区划分为不同区域类型,重点分析了缺粮的原因以及影响粮食供需平衡的主要因素。表明:中国的常年缺粮区主要分布集中在胡焕庸线以西地区,潜在缺粮区主要分布在此线以东地区。长江以南地区的常年缺粮总量最多;半湿润、半干旱地带上的常年缺粮区,总数最多、分布广,缺粮总量列第二位,同时还存在着不同特点的潜在缺粮区,这里,粮食安全受环境变化影响大,粮食、耕地、经济、环境矛盾突出。
    Based on the counties’statistic data in 2000-2003,this paper reveals new regional distribution and difference of food shortage in China in early 21st century.Considering impacts of climatic fluctuation and natural disasters,two types of food-shortage region are given out.One is the food-shortage region in average year that the per capita grain yield is lower than 300kg.Another is the potential food-shortage region that the per capita grain yield is lower than 430kg in average year,which would be lower than 300kg once grain yield is reduced 30% for natural disasters.In order to analyze main reasons of food-shortage and influential factors of grain supply-demand,two types of food-shortage regions are grouped into some sub-types by k-means cluster respectively.The main conclusions are as follows.(1) There are 583 food-shortage counties,about 28% of total 2075 counties and cities at county level in China,and 698 potential food-shortage counties,about 33.6% of total.The food-shortage regions in average year are mainly distributed in the planting area and semi-pasture area west to the sideline of population density near Heihe City in Heilongjiang Province to Tengchong City in Yunnan Province,namely Huhuanyong Sideline of population geography in China.On the contrary,the potential food-shortage regions are distributed widely in the area eastward to Huhuanyong Sideline.(2) Food-shortage regions in average year in China concentrate on the semi-humid and semi-arid area and the area southern to the Changjiang(Yangtze) River.The first area has the largest numbers,covers the widest range,and ranks the 2nd of population and quantity of food shortage.The second area,mostly located in hill area,has the largest population and quantity of food shortage.(3) In the semi-arid and semi-humid transitional zone,the distribution of food-shortage region in average year is dominated,and there are different sub-types of potential food-shortage region as well.More attention should be paid to this transitional zone,for that,in this region,grain security is strongly impacted by the environmental changes,conflicts among population,grain,cultivated land,economic development and environmental protection are distinct.(4) There are diverse reasons of food shortage and distinct regional disparity in food shortage region.Lake of cultivated land is the common and main factors to limit above food shortage regions to improving the self-support of grain.In the semi-humid and semi-arid area,poor natural conditions and lower grain yield per grain-sown area are another important limiting factors.In South China,the self-support of grain is influenced by comparative dominance of crops,and proportion of grain-sown area is lower.Therefore,it is very important to safeguard strictly basic cultivated land in China.At the same time,decrease trend of grain-sown area should be controlled strictly in South China and traditional grain-output region in North China.
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    南昌地区建设用地空间扩展的广义转移概率模型建设与应用研究
    曾辉, 褚艳铃, 李书娟
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 473-479.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.473
    摘要   PDF (1189KB)
    对南昌地区城市发育约束因素的分析的基础上,基于非城市像元所处的城市化梯度、距离最近建成区斑块的距离、最近建成区斑块的规模、边缘像元的邻域水平等4个城市景观格局因子和道路及地形等两个社会经济和自然影响因子,构建了广义转移概率模型,并开展了相关的动态模拟研究。表明,与传统模拟方法相比,该模型具有比较理想的精度水平,模拟结果能够很好地反映南昌地区今后城市建设用地发展趋势,提出的模型手段改进设计获得了令人满意的效果,是对现行城市景观动态模拟研究工作的一个重要的方法论补充和完善。
    In the traditional research about the spatial dynamic modeling of urban built-up area,there are some unavoidable deficiencies derived from the limited image datasets for a certain time interval and the subjectivity in the determination of transitional threshold.In order to solve the aforementioned problems,the author established a general-conversion probability model which can consider the transition of all the pixels and improve the existing urban landscape dynamics models.In the case study of Nanchang City in Jiangxi Province,the author established a general transition probability model and conducted related dynamic modeling by taking into consideration of 4 urban landscape pattern factors including the urbanization gradient of non-urban pixel,the distance to the closest built-up patch,the size of the closest built-up patch,and the neighborhood level of peripheral pixel,and 2 socio-economic and natural factors including road and topography,which all together can strongly control the urbanization process in the region.The simulation result indicates that this model is more precise compared to the traditional models.It can simulate the expansion of urban built-up areas of Nanchang perfectly,and it is an important methodology supplementary of the research about the current spatial dynamics modeling of urban landscape.
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    区域规划理论的演进
    方中权, 陈烈
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 480-485.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.480
    摘要   PDF (925KB)
    根据区域规划理论的形成、产生和发展及不同时期理论指导意义的不同,将区域规划理论划分为三个阶段:①早期区域规划思想的形成—没有形成系统的区域规划理论;②传统区域规划理论的产生—着眼于经济的增长;③现代区域规划理论的发展—注重经济、社会和环境协调发展。未来区域规划理论在坚持可持续发展思想的同时,将在动态性、创新性及区域调控等方面得到发展。
    Because of the characteristics such as whole,comprehensive and complexity etc.of the regions,it is important for the regions to carry on reasonable planning,and the right theories are necessary to guide the regional planning.The article discussed the evolution of the regional planning according to the formation,production,development and different meaning of theories of regional planning.It also divided the planning theories into three stages:the formation stage of the classic regional planning thought,the creation stage of the traditional regional planning theories,the development stage of modern regional planning theories,then discussed the practice of theories on each stage.The paper thoug that regional planning theories do not become system at early stage.The traditional regional planning theories mainly was a medium promoting regional economic growth with its application in regional planning,mainly study how to carry out elements to optimize and integrate at the aspect of spatial structure,industry layout and development strategy mode etc.in order to carry out regional economic growth.Modern regional planning theories are applied on regional planning to realize economic growth by the coordinated development of society,economy and environment,but not just economic growth,or social progress and ecological environment protection.In the end,the paper approached:1) the perspectives of the planning theories in the future and thought sustainable development was an eternal theme;2) the theories,such as dynamic planning,regional control,will get a development;3) regional planning theories will get a creative application.
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    1990年以来辽宁省环境与经济协调度评价
    李鹤, 张平宇, 刘文新
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 486-492.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.486
    摘要   PDF (1144KB)
    环境与经济协调发展是实现可持续发展的重要途径。关于环境与经济协调发展程度的定量评价方法和理论目前尚未成熟,从环境与经济协调发展及其协调度的概念出发,利用因子分析与相关分析相结合的方法设计了一套环境与经济协调度的定量评价方法,并对1990年以来辽宁省环境与经济协调发展状况进行了定量评价,结果表明:1990年以来辽宁省环境与经济协调状况经历了从失调向初级协调的转变过程,环境与经济协调度的发展大致呈“V”型趋势变化,“九五”时期是协调状态由失调向初级协调的过渡阶段,1997年以后环境与经济处于初级协调状态。对辽宁省环境与经济协调度的限制因子进行了分析,指出能源和水资源短缺、工业三废排放量大、局部地区生态环境问题突出、区域经济差距扩大等因素将长期制约辽宁省环境与经济协调发展。
    The coordinative development between environment and economy is viewed as an important way to realize regional sustainable development.A quantitative assessment of the Coordination Degree between Environment and Economy(CDEE) can effectively identify whether the relationship between environment and economy is in the state of coordination.Although researchers have done a lot of studies in the area,it is still a disputable question how to make a reasonable quantitative assessment of CDEE.The article makes an attempt at the quantitative assessment of CDEE in Liaoning Province of China which used to be a typical area of "Northeast Phenomenon" in the 1990s.First,the article discusses the fundamental concepts of the coordinative development and coordination degree between environment and economy.Based on those,a method integrating Factor Analysis with Correlation Analysis is designed for the quantitative assessment of CDEE.In the second part of paper,the assessment procedure of the method and the classification of coordination degree is introduced in detail.The third part focuses on the quantitative assessment of CDEE in Liaoning Province from 1990 to 2003.The indicator framework,which contains 30 indicators,is set up accordingly.By using the method mentioned above,the characteristics of the trend of CDEE in Liaoning Province during 1990~2003 are revealed:1)The CDEE of Liaoning Province from 1990 to 2003 had undergone a transformation from discoordination to elementary coordination.It is evident that the development process of CDEE can be divided into two phases.The CDEE of 1990~1997 is 0.6119 which belongs to discoordination.The CDEE of 1997~2003 is 0.8539 which can be classified as elementary coordination;2) Taking five years as a circle to study the change of CDEE in Liaoning Province during 1990~2003,the result indicates that the trend of CDEE in Liaoning is almost in line with the "U-shaped" curve.The CDEE of 1993~1997 is-0.442 which is the lowest.The transition of CDEE from discoordination to elementary coordination can be seen during 1996~2000.After 1997,the CDEE of Liaoning Province keeps increasing.Although the CDEE of Liaoning province has been in the state of elementary coordination since 1997,some factors which curb the CDEE increase still exist all the time,and these factors can hardly be eliminated in a short time.They involves 1) the shortage of energy and water resources coexists with the low utilization efficiency of energy and water pollution;2) annual amount of industrial waste gas and solid waste still keep increasing;3) in some parts of Liaoning Province,especially the northwest of Liaoning,the degradation of eco-environment has become a problem;4) with the economic development,the economic disparities among different cities are becoming bigger and bigger.
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    福建省城镇体系分形研究
    伍世代, 王强
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 493-498.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.493
    摘要   PDF (951KB)
    应用分形理论对福建省城镇体系进行了规模和空间结构研究,验证了福建省城镇体系得规模分布和空间布局均符合局部的分形特征,同时得出以下结论:第一,福建省城镇体系规模分布还处于初级的首位型阶段,城镇体系规模等级发育不成熟;第二,福建省城镇体系在空间分布上存在区域、地方两个不协调的现象;第三,福建省地区城镇体系交通网络的通达性较高,城市间联系较为紧密,但也注意到区域城镇网络的均衡性还有待提高。最后,通过自然、社会及历史等原因对成因进行讨论,据此提出福建省城镇体系结构优化的建议。
    Based on the fractal theory,the size distribution and spatial distribution of urban system have been studied.The paper made deep study on the urban system of Fujian Province,and proved that the cale and spatial distribution of urban system both take on fractal structure.The conclusions show that:firstly,the scale of urban system is at the primary first stage,the development of urban system is not yet mature.The biggest town is too big but just single one and the middle towns are absent,so the scale structure is loose;secondly,the spatial structure of urban system is regionally and locally discordant,the spatial distribution is linear,and most towns lie on geographic areas which are the river and road corridor;thirdly,although the spatial relating degree and spatial interaction among cities are generally rapid and intense,the balance of regional urban network waits for the enhancement;finally,the paper discussed the reasons of the urban system’s fractal features,then it pointed out how to improve the urban system by means of fractal theory in Fujian Province. During study on the urban system of Fujian Province with fractal theory,the process and results reveal the following questions:the first one is that to eliminate non-agricultural population to measure the size of towns fractal dimension,and we should access to the urban population census and county urban population size;The second one is that in measuring Town Center radius we should excluden the built-up area,and revise the center of gravity through its radius,as to prevent the fractal dimension calculated diverging from the actual value;Last,the fractal dimension of the measurement accuracy directly impact on the geographic data interpretation,and the theory system needs to be developed in the unity and comprehensiveness in the future.
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    中国内陆热带地区近40年气候变化特征
    何云玲, 张一平, 杨小波
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 499-505.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.499
    摘要   PDF (1368KB)
    用西双版纳6个气象站40余年观测资料,探讨中国内陆热带地区气候变化特征及趋势。结果表明:西双版纳地区的平均气温、平均最低气温、平均最高气温总体上呈逐年增暖的趋势,其中平均气温上升率0.016 5~0.033 4℃/a,平均最低气温上升率0.008 6~0.038 7℃/a,平均最高气温上升率-0.001 4~0.018 6℃/a;降水长期变化特征则较复杂,规律不如气温明显,但总体趋势减少,年降水量变化主要决定于雨季降水量变化;相对湿度呈现逐年降低趋势。说明该地区气候向干热型转变。
    Up to now,studies on climate change are,more and often,concerned with global or national scale.It is noted that the climate change is not globally uniform.Regional variations can be much larger and considerable spatial and temporal variations may exist between climatically different regions.The climate of a specified location can not be considered a constant environmental factor.In addition,a climate change in a specific region or nation is of particular interest to that region and its economic activity.The aim of this paper is to present a responsibility of a region to global change by studying climate characteristics and change trends of a specific region,the tropical area of southwestern China.Based on long-term meteorological data of 6 meteorological stations in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan Province,the spatial and temporal distribution of change trend for temperature and precipitation are studied.The results show that the general trend of climate change in Xishuangbanna is basically the same with that in China and even in the world.The mean annual air temperature has been gradually increasing,and with an average trend of 0.0165-0.0334 ℃/a.Meanwhile,there are some differences on increasing rate between the mean maximum and mean minimum temperature.The annual precipitation changes complicatedly with an entire decreasing trend.The air relative humidity presents an obvious decreasing trend.In addition,the climate change trends show the differences that exist in the various regions and the notable seasonal variations,and the temporal and spatial distribution of climate characteristics and change amplitude is different in different regions.
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    邕江洪水的特征及其气候成因研究
    何慧, 覃志年, 庞芳, 李艳兰
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 506-511.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.506
    摘要   PDF (856KB)
    利用邕江洪峰水位、年最高水位资料及邕江流域气象测站逐月降雨量资料,对邕江洪水的特征进行分析表明,洪水多数发生在华南后汛期7~9月,并与流域夏季降雨量密切相关。利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料以及NOAA卫星观测的OLR资料,分析邕江洪水形成的天气气候条件,研究结果表明:热带气旋影响是邕江发生洪水的主要原因。当西太平洋副热带高压位置偏北,邕江流域易受热带辐合带(ITCZ)影响,对流活跃,热带气旋活动频繁,此时邕江易发生洪水;地形对邕江洪水的形成有较重要的作用;邕江洪水易发生在赤道东太平洋海温为负距平的条件下。分析了邕江洪水气候成因。
    The analysis of the characteristics of flood in the Yongjiang River shows that the floods almost occur in July-September,the later rainy season in the southern China,and its variations correlate closely to the summer precipitation in the Yongjiang River drainage area by using the data sets of the flood peak and the annual highest water levels of the river,and the monthly precipitation over every observatory in the river drainage area.In this work,we analyse the climatic conditions causing flood in the Yongjiang River based on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and the Outgoing Longwave Radiation(OLR) data.The results are as follows:(1) The flood in the Yongjiang River is mainly caused by Tropical Cyclones.When the West Pacific Subtropical Anticyclone is more northward than usual,ITCZ(intertropical convergence zone) can more easily affect the Yongjiang River drainage area,associating with the frequency of Tropical Cyclones and the activity of convection.(2) Landform makes an important contribution to the flood of the Yongjiang River.(3) The flood occurs easily in negative sea surface temperature anomalies(SSTA) over the eastern equatorical Pacific.We also analyse the variation of the synoptic systems cuasing the flood,and changes of the annual highest water levels in the condition of climate warming to futher realize the climatic reasons causing the flood.
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    宁镇及宜溧地区全新世中晚期典型沉积相与5700a B.P.前后的气候突变事件
    史威, 朱诚, 王富葆, 田晓四, 徐伟峰
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 512-518.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.512
    摘要   PDF (1551KB)
    分析宁镇及宜溧地区中晚全新世典型剖面的地层划分与特征,采用R-Q型因子分析方法估算气候变化值,揭示5700a B.P.前后发生在本区的干燥降温异常气候突变事件。气候曲线与沉积相序列的对比分析表明,宝华山浅棕黄色砂土夹角砾层洪-坡积相是该突变事件背景下的产物,且该突变事件还具有全球变化区域响应的征候,林峰桥同期淤泥质层中Fe3+/Fe2+比和粘土百分含量异常值进一步印证了这一论断。
    Through analysis of characteristics of representative stratums in Ningzhen and Yili region since the middle and late Holocene,estimating the climate change values with the method of R-Q factor analysis,combined with the formation periods of the turves and buried ancient trees,we establish the comprehensively comparable chart between parts of the sequences of sedimentary facies and the transformed climate curve through pollen-spore since the middle and late Holocene.According to the comparison and contrast between macroscopical and microcosmical characteristics in sedimentary facies,a climate sudden event occurred around 5700 a B.P.has been exposed.The comparative analysis between climate curve and sequences of sedimentary facies indicates that the light brown and yellow sand,clay stratum with angular gravel in Baohuashan is the result of a dry and low temperature event,which possesses the characteristics reflecting the global change,furthermore,it is also confirmed by the clay content and Fe3+/Fe2+ value in the same term miry soil stratums in Ningfengqiao.
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    中全新世7~6ka东亚季风气候的高分辨率石笋记录
    李明霞, 汪永进, 邱庆伦
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 519-524.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.519
    摘要   PDF (1348KB)
    基于神农架青天洞石笋两个230Th年龄、582条纹层计数和183个氧同位素数据,重建了7~6ka B.P.期间平均3年分辨率的δ18O变化序列。持续约580年振幅达1.8‰的δ18O在平均值-9.66‰上下波动,指示了东亚季风降水强度的长期演化趋势和高频振荡信息,大致划分为4个百年尺度旋回。青天洞与阿曼石笋δ18O记录的对比表明,东亚季风和印度季风在百年或更短时间尺度上同相位变化,可能反映了两地季风气候受统一的印度洋/太平洋大尺度水汽循环控制。功率谱分析揭示出163、81、16和11年的周期,大致与树轮Δ14C百年至数十年尺度太阳活动变化周期相同。
    The Asian monsoon system,composed of the Indian and East Asian mosoon subsystems,is a dynamic component of the modern and paleoclimate system.Studies of different influence extent of solar radiation and coupled atmosphere-ocean system to Asian monsoon subsystems still remain complex.Some stuidies indicated the inverse phase variations between the Indian and East Asian mosoon,which is different to most of monsoon proxies results.Understanding the interactions among them and their sensitivity to internal feedback mechanisms requires high resolution proxies of monsoon climate. Qingtian Cave(110°22′E,31°30′N,1 630m above sea level) is located almost at 10 km NW apart Muyu Town,Shengnongjia Natural Reserve,Hubei Province.Here,most of peaks are higher than 1500 m and generally become lower from SW to NE.Mean annual precipitation and temperature are 1 500-2 000mm at 1 500-2 000 m above sea level and 15.5℃ in the cave(measured in Sep.2004).Two samples for ICP-MS dating were conducted in the Isotope Laboratory of Geology and Geophysics Department,Minnesota University,USA.The reported error is in 2σ.A total of 183 samples for δ18O measurements have been analyzed with on-line automated carbonate preparation system(KIEL CARBONATE DEVICE) linked to Finnigan MAT-253 ratio mass spectrometer at Isotope Laboratory of College of Geography Science,Nanjing Normal University.Reference standards have been used to ensure a precision better than 0.06‰ and results were reported to PDB standard. A 3-year-resolution stalagmite oxygen-isotope record from Qingtian Cave has been established based on 230Th dates and results of annual band-counting.The variation of oxygen isotope ratios with time,with amplitude as large as 1.8‰ in δ18O,reflects changes in the amount of monsoon precipitation for the period from 6.7 to 6.1 ka B.P.This high temporal resolution δ18O series enables us to reconstruct decadal-centennial scale variation of East Asian monsoon intensity persisting about 580 years in Mid-Holocene. Comparison of the stalagmite δ18O time series between QT9 from Qingtian Cave and Q5 from Oman,shows the close relationship on multi-decadal to centennial variations in monsoon precipitation,indicating that the East Asian monsoon intensity is in phase with Indian monsoon.This observation suggests that Indian and East Asian monsoons,two sub-systems of Asian Monsoon system,are controlled by common forcing mechanisms.Consequently,these two climate subsystems may be influenced by large scale water transporting from Indian and Pacific Ocean,reflecting the integrated Asian land,ocean and atmosphere interacting system.A comparison between the stalagmite δ18O record and tree-ring 14C provides strong evidence for solar forcing of East Asian monsoons on centennial even multi-decadal time-scales.Results of spectrum analysis of the stalagmite δ18O indicate statistically significant periodicities centered at 163,81,16 and 11 years.The 163-year cycle is close to the 148 years periodicity of the tree-ring 14C records,while 81 and 11 years are similar to Gleissberg and Sunspot periodicities respectively.This statistic analysis further reinforces our interpretation for the solar forcing of Asian monsoon.
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    基于DEM的山区气温地形修正模型——以陕西省耀县为例
    杨昕, 汤国安, 王春, 邓凤东
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 525-530.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.525
    摘要   PDF (785KB)
    提出基于DEM的山区气温地形修正模型,以具有多种地貌类型的陕西省耀县为实验样区,以DEM模拟的坡面与平面太阳总辐射量为地形调节因子,实现对传统山区温度空间推算模型的改进,并与TM6热波段反映的地表温度进行了对比验证。实验结果显示,该方法能够较为精细地刻画山区局地温度随地形的空间分异规律,一定程度上提高了山区地面温度推算的精度。
    The geographical features,i.e.latitude,altitude,distance to large water area and mountain structure,etc.,are commonly accepted as the global factors impacting the spatial distribution of groud surface temperature.However in the mountainous area,local topographical features,such as slope gradient,aspect and terrain shading play a significant role to the redistribution of thermal energy.The traditional method for calculating the spatial distribution of surface temperature in rugged areas usually employs a model of statistic regression,namely a regression of temperature against latitude,longitude and altitude,etc.,which is suitable for revealing the regional surface temperature,but not for refined climatic source exploration and application.Taking Yaoxian County in Shaanxi Province as a test area,DEM dataset of 1:50000 map as basic information sources,the authors conducted a terrain-revised model for calculating temperature at local slope level.The key process is a cell by cell revising of traditional model by calculating the astronomical radiation based on DEM.A comparison between simulated temperature and radiation one from TM6 thermal infrared image shows that the new method gets more reasonable result which could reveal not only accurate local temperature,but also their finer distribution.It will be great helpful to improve the temperature simulation both qualitatively and effectively.
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    东北典型丘陵漫岗区沟谷侵蚀动态及空间分析
    李晓燕, 王宗明, 张树文, 闫业超
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 531-536.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.531
    摘要   PDF (1020KB)
    以黑龙江省克山县为例,分析1954年和2000年侵蚀沟密度变化,探讨研究区土壤侵蚀的时空动态变化,并以侵蚀沟密度变化值为依据进行不同分区侵蚀因素的耦合分析。结果表明:过去46年间,克山县东南部侵蚀沟密度趋于减少,西北部侵蚀沟密度增大。1954~2000年侵蚀沟密度变化值在侵蚀减弱区与高程和坡度呈负相关,在侵蚀增强区呈正相关。随着坡长增加,侵蚀沟密度变化量呈增加趋势。侵蚀沟变化与坡长相关性最大,R2达0.9743,其次为高程,R2为0.6893,与坡度的相关性最小,R2为0.3437。结果表明,高程和坡度不是东北丘陵漫岗地区土壤流失的主要影响因子,坡长是该区侵蚀的一个重要影响因子。土地利用结构变化与土壤侵蚀强度变化密切相关,耕地面积大幅度增加与草地面积明显减少加速侵蚀沟发育。
    Based on RS and GIS technology,spatial and temporal dynamics of soil erosion were explored by analyzing the change of gully density in 1954 and 2000,taking Keshan County,Heilongjiang Province,as an example.Furthermore,correlation analyses were conducted for related factors in different sub-regions according to change values of gully density.Results showed that,in the past 46 years,gully density in southeastern part declined and that in northwestern part increased.In sub-regions with lessened erosion,changes in gully density negatively correlated to elevation and slope.However,in sub-regions with enhanced erosion,the correlation is positive.Changes in gully density increased when slope length increased.The decision coefficient(R2) between gully density change and slope length,elevation and slope degree was 0.9743,0.6893 and 0.3437 respectively.Slope length plays an important role in affecting soil erosion in upland region of Northeast China.The change of land use has impact on soil erosion degree.In the study area,obvious increase in cultivated land and decrease in grassland accelerated formation of gully.
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    风沙过渡区耕地生态系统净第一性生产力动态变化研究——以陕西榆阳区为例
    莫宏伟, 任志远, 王欣, 韩用顺
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 537-541.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.537
    摘要   PDF (385KB)
    对榆阳区1984~2003年各乡镇耕地NPP单位面积量及总量进行分区动态测算。研究表明:①1984~2003年,榆阳区耕地净第一性生产力总量在波动中上升;②1984~2001年,榆阳区北部耕地净第一性生产力远高于南部,且呈较快上升趋势,南部黄土丘陵沟壑区耕地净第一性生产力呈较平缓的波动变化,且略有下降;③1984~2001年,榆阳区城区、近郊、远郊的差异性在单位耕地面积净第一性生产力上体现为城区>近郊>远郊;在耕地NPP总量方面,城区、近郊和远郊都表现为在波动中上升,三区变化以远郊波动幅度最大;④榆阳区耕地净第一性生产力总量的大幅增长有农业投入增加的原因,但主要得益于该区生态环境的改善。
    Based on the grain yield of Yuyang area from 1984 to 2003,the authors have chosen a suitable model to estimate net primary productivity of cultivated land of different regions to research the relation between ecological environment and NPP of cultivated land.Study has shown:(1) The total amount of NPP of cultivated land was on the rise generally in Yuyang area during 1984-2003.Its total amount has grown from 21.94?104 t/a in 1984 to 57.98?104 t/a in 2003.The annual increasing degree was 5.24%.(2) The unit area amount of NPP of cultivated land in the north was not only much more than that in the south but also increasing fast during 1984-2001.At the same time,the unit area amount of NPP of the cultivated land changed little in the south.(3) During 1984-2001,the unit area amount of NPP of cultivated land in urban was the highest and that in suburb was the second higher.The total amount of NPP of cultivated land in urban,suburb and outer suburb of Yuyang area was all on the rise generally,and that in outer suburb fluctuated at the largest range.(4)The increasing of the NPP of cultivated land was partly because of increasing investing in agriculture,but mainly because of ecological environment improvement of Yuyang area.
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    多智能体与元胞自动机结合及城市用地扩张模拟
    杨青生, 黎夏
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 542-548.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.542
    摘要   PDF (1431KB)
    运用多智能体(Agent)和元胞自动机(CA)结合来模拟城市用地扩张的方法,将影响和决定用地类型转变的主体作为Agent引进元胞自动机模型中,Agent在CA确定的城市发展概率的基础上,通过自身及其周围环境的状况,综合各种因素的影响做出决策,决定元胞下一时刻的城市发展概率。运用Agent的决策结果,对CA模型中以随机变量体现的不确定性通过Agent决策行为给予地理意义的新解释。以城市郊区—樟木头镇为例,对1988~1993年城市用地扩张进行了模拟研究,取得了良好的模拟效果。
    This paper demonstrates that urban land expansion can be well simulated by the integration of multi-agent systems with cellular automata(CA).There are increasingly studies on using CA models to simulate urban development.Very plausible results can be generated,although there are still some limitations by using CA models alone.CA models have limitations by taking human and social factors into account in simulating complex urban systems.Agents can be used to simulate complex urban systems more effectively because human factors can be considered.An agent has the ability to make decisions by interacting itself with the environment and other agents.It could embody the uncertainties and complex behaviors in the simulation process.In this paper,agents are used to make decisions for determining land use changes by considering their economic factors,family conditions and the profit of land use conversion.These behaviors of these agents influence the probability of urban development in the model. Based on this Agent-CA model,urban development of Zhangmutou Town was simulated from 1988 to 1993.The result indicates that the simulation accuracy is much better than those of the traditional CA models.Moreover,the uncertainties of urban development can be well explained by using the agents.
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    基于生态系统服务价值核算的土地利用规划战略环境评价
    王娟, 崔保山, 卢远
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 549-554.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.549
    摘要   PDF (691KB)
    以生态系统服务价值为评价指标,对河北省易县的土地利用总体规划进行了战略环境评价。结果表明,从1997年到2010年期间,易县的土地利用的生态系统服务价值呈增加趋势,从生态环境保护和自然资源利用角度,表明此规划基本合理。但生态价值的增长速率小于其GDP的增长速率,显示该土地利用规划还存在一些问题,需对该规划做一些修改与补充。
    In this article,the service value of eco-system was taken as assessment index,and the strategic environment assessment on the general planning of the land use was carried out for Yi County in Hebei Province.The results showed that the eco-system services value of land use in this district were increased between 1997 and 2010.On the view of eco-environment protection and natural resources utilization,this planning was regards as reasonable one.However,some problems were still existed in this planning since the growth of eco-system service value was slower than that of GDP.Therefore some supplementary modification was necessary for this planning.The quantitative study on the eco-benefit of land use was studied on the view of service value of eco-system in this paper and the methodology employed might be instructive and referenced in the future sustainable use of land and SEA of land use.
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    二次综合分析法在土地总体规划环境影响评价中的应用研究
    华文, 周炳中, 陈逸, 张健, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 555-560.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.555
    摘要   PDF (775KB)
    土地总体规划环境影响评价,应着眼于广义上的环境,在以生态环境影响评价为重点的同时,兼顾社会经济环境影响。环境综合体在规划期的总质量体现在各环境子系统之间的相互作用关系及其协调程度。土地总体规划期的环境状态可采用态势度和协调度来综合量度。以江苏南京溧水县为例展开的典型研究,表明二次综合分析法在土地利用总体规划环境影响评价中的应用是有效的、可行的。
    The environmental effect appraises of land utilization overall plan is an academic field to be strengthened on its theory and methodology research.This article researches the applied problem of double aggregate analysis methods in this field.The comprehensive and long-term attribute of the land utilization activity in a region determines that the environmental effect of the overall land plan is comprehensive and widespread.The environmental effect appraises of land utilization overall plan should have a view to the environment in a generalized way and emphasizes the ecological environment influence,in the meanwhile some attention should be gaven to the environmental effect of social economy.The overall quality of environment syntheses in the programming time reflects the reciprocity relation and coordinated degree of various environment subsystems.The environment condition in the land utilization overall programming time can be fully measured from a situation and harmony perspective.Analysis about set pair is applied for the measurement of state of environment in the programming time in the article.Weighing analysis is applied when we analyze the number of subsystem characteristics.The order of subsystem state is set up after expression of relation degree in common or different and in reverse part has been established.The overall quality of environment is appraised according to harmony degree index,and then we determine the character,extent and general trend of change of environmental system. Taking Lishui County in Nanjing City,Jiangsu Province as an example,the model research indicates that the use of double aggregate analysis in the environmental effect appraises of land utilization overall plan is effective and feasible.
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    西安市典型区域城市生境制图与自然保护规划研究
    赵振斌, 薛亮, 张君, 卫海燕
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 561-566.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.561
    摘要   PDF (1160KB)
    城市自然保护已成为城市生态建设的重要内容。城市自然保护有赖于相关数据采集、评价方法的建立和规划途径的支持。本文结合西安市典型区域,运用RS和G IS技术,探讨了城市生境制图的一般方法与程序,主要工作包括以下方面的:城市生境分类体系的建立;城市生境制图及数据库的建立;城市生境保护价值评价;城市生境链的规划。主要结论:①城市生境制图是一种多学科结合的综合性研究,为城市生态建设提供了新的数据源;②通过生境单元综合评价,有价值的生境单元及空间格局可被识别出来;③基于生境制图及评价的生境链规划为城市自然保护提供了一条极富操作性的途径。
    Urban nature conservation has come to be one focus of urban ecological construction.This work should rely on the advent of the approaches of the relevant data gathering,evaluation and planning.A typical study area is chosen on the border in the south of Xi’an City of China,and with RS and GIS,general ways and procedures of urban biotope mapping are studied in this paper.The work includes the following main aspects:the building of the urban biotope category system,the building of the urban biotope data base of study area,the evaluation of the biotopes relating to the value of nature conservation in urban area,and the planning of the urban biotope chain.The result shows that:1) the urban biotope mapping is an inter-discipline and comprehensive work in urban area,which provides a new data source for the urban ecological construction and researches;2) some biotope spatial patterns can be identified in the multi-purposed evaluation process,which provides the conservation potential in urban area;3) the biotope chain planning provides a very practical and meaningful approach to urban nature conservation.
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    从阶地砾石的统计特征看保德至克虎段河流演化
    刘运明, 李有利, 吕红华, 李新坡
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 567-572.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.567
    摘要   PDF (963KB)
    通过对保德至克虎段不同地点砾石的岩性、粒径和产状的野外统计与测量,并对不同地点和不同阶地上砾石的岩性、粒径和产状进行对比,发现同一地区不同阶地砾石岩性具有很好的相似性,不同地区同一阶地砾石中灰岩砾石成分从上游向下游由主导成分变为次要成分,灰岩砾石粒径也从大变小,反映该区砾石为南北向古黄河冲积物。由于较老的一套砾石层为晚第三系红粘土所覆盖,说明黄河至少在晚第三纪已经在该区已形成。
    The lithology,grain size and orientation of the pebbles in different sites and on different river terraces have been studied along the Huanghe(Yellow) River from Baode to Kehu in the Shanxi-Shaanxi Gorge area.It is found that the pebbles are similar in lithology on different terraces in the same region,as well as on the same terrace from the upstream to the downstream.The grain sizes of limestone pebbles have a tendency of becoming smaller from upstream to downstream.This indicates the pebbles maybe the relics of the ancient Huanghe River.Because the highest pebbles are covered by late-Tertiary red clay,it is concluded that the Huanghe River run through this area at least in late Tertiary.
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    综述
    基于Agent的土地利用/土地覆盖变化模型的研究进展
    吴文斌, 杨鹏, 柴崎亮介, 唐华俊, 陈仲新
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 573-578.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.573
    摘要   PDF (957KB)
    在查阅国内外大量LUCC模型应用研究文献资料的基础上,重点对基于Agent的土地利用/土地覆盖变化模型(ABM/LUCC)的研究进展进行了详细论述。首先指出ABM/LUCC模型提出的背景,并对模型的基本理论和概念进行简要介绍;其次,重点论述ABM/LUCC模型的主要研究问题以及该模型在城市土地利用、农业土地利用以及自然资源管理等领域的国内外研究进展;最后,分析总结目前模型应用中存在的主要问题,并探讨模型未来发展的主要方向。
    Land-use/cover change(LUCC) models have been playing a very important role in analyzing the process and its consequence of various land uses,understanding the ecological and environmental effects of LUCC,providing a great support service for land use planning and policy-making activities.This article presents an overview of Agent-based models for land-use/cover change(ABM/LUCC).The authors firstly review the development of Agent-based model in comparison with other alternative LUCC modeling techniques,and then summarize its basic concepts and core ideas.More attention is paid to discussing the main study issues of ABM/LUCC and reviewing the ongoing modeling efforts around the world in several research fields.Finally,this article outlines some important challenges and open research questions in this new domain,and concluded that,although significant challenges existing,this model offers a promising direction for scientists whose goals are to develop better LUCC models for simulating the complexity of human-environment interactions.
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    国内外海岛旅游研究进展及启示
    陆林
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 579-586.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.579
    摘要   PDF (1002KB)
    近年来,海岛旅游蓬勃发展,海岛旅游研究已成为国内外旅游研究重要领域之一。根据近十多年来国内外相关文献,对海岛旅游发展的环境影响、经济影响、社会文化影响、旅游地演化、规划管理和可持续旅游发展等方面的研究进展进行了较详细分析,认为国外海岛旅游研究已经逐渐成熟,形成较完备的体系。国内海岛旅游研究应在理论、方法和内容上有所拓展。
    In recent years,island tourism has been being one of the most important tourism research fields at home and abroad.Based on a great deal of related references,the analysis of island tourism development could be classified into some aspects:the environment impact,economic impact,social-cultural impact of island tourism,the evolution of tourist resort,the planning and management and sustainable tourism development,and the following conclusion can be realched:the research of island tourism has been already in maturity and integrity slowly at abroad.The research of island tourism need be improved and expanded in theory,method and content at home.
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    研究报导
    坡谱提取与应用的基本地域条件
    王春, 汤国安, 李发源, 杨昕, 葛珊珊
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 587-592.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.587
    摘要   PDF (1585KB)
    阐述坡谱提取原理,借鉴地理空间数据不确定性处理中的"ε-带"模型概念,构建坡谱稳定的判定模型,最后以陕北黄土高原和秦岭山区的典型地貌类型区为实验区,以1:10000 DEM为信息源,分析研究不同地貌类型区坡谱的变异特征,揭示坡谱提取与应用的基本条件:地貌形态的相似性与渐变性、研究尺度的合理性以及地貌类型的完整性。该研究为坡谱的进一步深入研究与应用奠定良好的理论基础,也为地理学研究中如何确定基本地域单元等重要的理论问题提供了借鉴思路。
    Slope spectrum is an original methodology to analyze terrain character of the Loess Plateau.Both1:10,000 DEMs of representative area in Loess Plateau and Qinling Mountains were taken as the test data,from which slope spectrums are derived.With the conception of "ε-band" from spatial data uncertainty,the variation character of different sampling area and position in different test areas were studied.The fundamental conditions of slope spectrum abstraction and application are geomophlogical similarity,rationality of study scale and the integrality of landform types.During the same time,the critical area in which the slope spectrum can exist stably is not only the foundation of derived correct slope spectrum,but also the reflection of the comparability of topographic feature between the local and globe.It makes great significance in many geography studies.
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    步云山自然保护区生态功能价值研究
    于航, 董德明, 陶磊, 王宪恩, 于连生, 阎振元, 孔令锦, 于新
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 593-596.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.593
    摘要   PDF (525KB)
    以可持续发展为目标,以生态学原理为标准,通过对保护区涵养水量、森林价值以及生态足迹三方面的研究和计算,系统分析了步云山自然保护区的生态功能,指出保护区在规划过程中存在的问题,提出相应解决办法的依据。
    Buyun Mountain nature reserve is an important region of water supply for Dalian City.In this paper sustainable development was used as the target,ecological principle was taken as the standard.By calculating conservative water,ecological value and ecological footprint,the ecological function of Buyun Mountain nature reserve was analyzed systematically.The amount of conservative water was 175?106m3,and ecological value was 2694692000 yuan(RMB).Moreover,the ecological value was still increasing.The total ecological footprint was 28.751 km2,there was certain distance with the demand of sustainable development.For protecting the ecological environment of Buyun Mountain nature reserve and resolving the tense situation of water supply in Dalian City,some measures have been presented in this paper,such as developing ecological immigration and increasing conservative forest.These measures can guarantee to implement tactic of sustainable development.
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    江苏省农田畜禽粪便负荷时空变化
    张绪美, 董元华, 王辉, 沈旦, 刘德雄
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 597-601.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.597
    摘要   PDF (744KB)
    计算江苏省各地区1997~2004年畜禽粪便量及其农田负荷量,分析其时空分布特征与变化趋势。结果显示,全省畜禽粪便农田负荷量总体逐年升高,畜禽粪便农田负荷量较高地区主要集中在沿江和沿海地区,同时全省轻污染区域在逐渐缩小,而重污染区域却不断扩大,并且存在向西和东部沿海方向扩散趋势。表明,江苏省畜禽粪便污染日益严重;家禽和猪的养殖是影响江苏省畜禽粪便污染的主要因素;近海区与沿江地区畜禽粪便农田负荷量过高,对环境构成严重潜在威胁。
    In the last eight years,the production of livestock in Jiangsu Province has been increased gradually.Based on the investigation data of 1997-2004,and according to the discharge rate of various livestock,this paper calculated the fecal pollution of livestock and its pollution load from 1997 to 2004.The result showed that the fecal amount of livestock was increased significantly,and the fecal pollution load had been increased from 12.5 t/ha in 1997 to 14.9 t/ha in 2004.Meanwhile,the higher fecal pollution load was mainly distributed along the coast and the Changjiang(Yangtse) River,which has already been exceeded the critical value.The results indicated that the fecal pollution of livestock in Jiangsu Province became a serious problem.Therefore,it is urgently needed to strengthen prevention and control of the feces pollution from livestock.
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    基于旅游地居民感知和态度的旅游影响空间分异研究——以安徽省三河镇为例
    李东和, 张捷, 赵玉宗, 史春云
    地理科学. 2007, 27 (4): 602-608.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2007.04.602
    摘要   PDF (1285KB)
    旅游影响近年来成为旅游研究热点,但鲜有研究涉及旅游影响的区域空间不均衡问题。以安徽省三河镇为例,探讨古镇型旅游地旅游影响的空间分异问题。将全镇划分为三个不同的旅游影响区域,即核心区、过渡区和外围区,分别发放居民对旅游影响感知和态度的调查问卷,以此进行旅游影响的空间分异分析。结果表明,古镇型旅游地旅游影响的空间分异呈现出一定的规律性,不论是旅游收益的分配,还是成本的承担,都呈现区域不均衡性。
    Spatial differentiation of tourism phenomena is a long-time research topic in tourism geography,and spatial structure of tourism industry is its research focus.We noticed,however,most of existing studies pay more attention to spatial differentiation of factors of tourism development related to tourism resources and tourism market.Few of studies focus on the aftereffects of tourism development,namely spatial differentiation of tourism impact.In this paper,taking Sanhe Town,Auhui Province,China,as an example,we make a case study of spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town.Since the local residents’perception and attitude on tourism development are the important indicators of tourism impacts,in this research we use them to measure the spatial differentiation of tourism impact in Sanhe Town.At first,Sanhe Town is divided into three different districts according to its spatial structure and tourism development conditions,which are core district,transitional district and periphery district.We distribute the questionnaire about residents’perception and attitude in the three districts,and take them as basic data for analyzing the spatial differentiation of tourism impact.Findings from this study indicate the existence of spatial differentiation of tourism impact.The spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town manifests its own unique rules.Either the benefit or the cost of tourism development distributes unevenly in the region.The residents in the core area of tourism development obviously have the more intensive perception on tourism impact,which shows its status as key area of tourism development.It is proposed that the differentiation of residential areas resulted from tourism development be fundamental factor leading to spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town.And the way of tourism impact,such as residents’participation degree in tourism development and the length of residence is also important factors contributing to the spatial differentiation of tourism impact in ancient town.The findings of this paper offers valuable reference to make a community-oriented and humanism strategy of sustainable tourism development for the region.
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