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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2010年, 第30卷, 第2期 刊出日期:2010-03-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    廊道式工程建设对沿线地区景观格局的影响定量研究
    陈利顶, 王计平, 姜昌亮, 张海萍
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 161-167.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.161
    摘要   PDF (1061KB)
    应用景观格局指数分析法,对比分析了西气东输豫南支线管道工程施工前后管线两侧缓冲区范围内景观格局动态。研究表明:管线建设将会引起管线附近区域土地利用发生转移;在3000m缓冲区范围内存在影响强度变化拐点,且斑块聚集度指数变化对管线建设的影响较为敏感;在类型水平上不同缓冲区多数景观指数之间没有显著性的差异,景观格局变化趋势类同;从景观水平上格局变化很难看出管线建设对沿线景观格局产生影响,但在类型和景观水平上各景观指数变化对工程建设的敏感程度不同。
    Pipeline construction, as a linear project may result in significant effects on the structure and function of regional ecosystem, however a systematic and effective method to quantitatively evaluate this kind of effects is unavailable until today. In this paper, the Dianshi-Zhumadian branch line of the West-to-East Pipeline Project (WEPP)was chosen as a study area, the landscape pattern change along the pipeline was compared before and after construction based on Landsat TM and ETM+ (2002, 2003)images by using landscape metrics. The results shows that oil pipeline construction activity becomes the direct factor affecting land use changes in the area near the oil pipeline, the construction areas increase by occupying farmland, woodland and grassland, and the influence extent of the construction has an inflection point at the 1500-3000 m buffer zone. The connectivity index (COHESION)is more sensitive to impact of the pipeline construction. Paired T test indicates that no significant difference is found on the landscape indices at patch scale, and the landscape pattern change at 0-300 m buffer zone has a similar trend to the other buffers. At the landscape level, it is difficult to determine whether the construction project have produced effects on the landscape pattern changes alone the project. Based on our study, the method by comparing the significance of the difference between landscape indices both in spatial and temporal scales is useful and effective for quantitative evaluation on the environmental impacts, and it can be used to distinguish the effects of projects from the other sources when the environmental impact assessment is conducted in pipeline project construction. However, it is important to note that the response feature of landscape indices to the impact of pipeline project is different at the patch level and landscape level.
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    中国东南沿海产业空间集聚适度与生产要素优化配置研究
    唐根年, 沈沁, 管志伟
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 168-174.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.168
    摘要   PDF (1161KB)
    借助一系列投入产出指标计算分析了中国东部沿海制造业的总体集聚态势,并选择其中15个具有显著集聚特征的二位数制造业作为研究对象,采用综合规模指数进一步分析东部沿海典型二位数制造业的集聚态势;构建利润—综合规模指数关系变化趋势图,分析判断了这15个二位数制造业集聚的合理性,并将15个二位数制造业归类为集聚推进、集聚适度、集聚过度三大类型,借助数据包络分析(DEA)模型判断哪些具体制造业在哪些地区已集聚过度,借助差额变数分析,为生产要素优化配置提供决策依据。
    The changes of the whole industry by meanings of a series of input and output targets were analyzed in the paper. Fifteen industries with high agglomeration level were selected as subjects of study. According to the relationship between profit and scale indices of input production factors, the main result was found that some manufacturing industries’agglomeration became much more excessive in southeast beaboard China, there were surplus input and output deficit on combination of factors on the progress of spatial agglomeration of manufacturing industries. The result of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA)on slack variable showed that when there was a decrease in input factor or an advance in combination of factors, the cost of product could be cut down and the efficiency could be improved by increasing productivity in order to achieve a rational distribution. As a result, the manufacturing industries can be divided into excessive agglomeration industry, appropriate agglomeration industry and promising agglomeration industry. By means of DEA, the excessive agglomeration areas were fund out. The result of the analysis of slack variable can do some help to make policy of tabling the agglomeration suitability of manufacturing industries and rationalization of industry in those excessive agglomeration industry areas.
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    芝加哥制造业发展过程及区位因素分析
    王法辉, 胡忆东
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 175-183.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.175
    摘要   PDF (1338KB)
    作为美国三大城市之一的芝加哥位于美国中西部的老工业区,其兴衰历程与制造业的发展密切相关,是老工业区"锈带复兴"的典型案例之一。从地理学的角度,简要介绍芝加哥的地理位置与制造业发展历史;阐述制造业在芝加哥整体经济中的地位,制造业的地理分布及郊区化;分析芝加哥制造业发展的区位因素,加深对工业发展一般规律的理解;讨论政府政策和规划对芝加哥制造业的影响,提高对公共政策和规划设计重要性的认识;最后总结对芝加哥制造业研究的一些启示。重点在于分析芝加哥制造业发展的区位论原理,探索产业发展的一般规律,以期对中国当前的老工业基地改造以及新产业的合理布局起到借鉴作用。
    Chicago, one of the three largest cities in the U.S., has been a major manufacturing city in the Midwestern "Rusty Belt" since mid-1800s. As illustrated by the famous geographic historian William Cronon, Chicago is a "nature’s metropolis", and its growth is largely attributed to its unique geographic location. In its early stage of development throughout the 19th century up to the early 1900s, Chicago’s industries relied on its hinterland for lumber, grain and meat supplies and also provided the surrounding rural areas with agricultural machinery and other industrial goods. Its interdependence with the rural hinterland and its surrounding agricultural patterns can be explained by the von Thünen model. From the early 1900s to 1970s, Chicago gained significant growth in heavy industries (iron and steel, transportation equipment, chemical and construction materials, etc.). Its economic prosperity benefited from its proximity to the Great Lakes and access to Mississippi River (through Illinois River)for cheap waterway transportation as well as a radial railway network centered at Chicago. Weber’s industrial location theory, particularly the role of transportation cost, sheds light on understanding Chicago’s industrial development during this period. In the later 1900s, like many cities in the old "Rusty Belt" (from the Midwest to the Northeast)in the U.S., Chicago lost much of its manufacturing to the suburbia, to the south and even overseas. In addition to the drive for cheaper labor, more spacious land, easy access to interstate highways or better climate, non-traditional location factors particularly government policy and planning have played an important role. Chicago has minimized the impact of loss of manufacturing employment, to a large extent, by diversifying its economy. The purpose of this study is two-fold:to understand the history of Chicago’s manufacturing development in light of the classic location theories, and also in the hope, to learn some valuable lessons from Chicago’s experience and help us craft effective plans and policies in some old manufacturing regions in China.
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    空间格局及其经济效应的分析——泛长三角FDI实证
    朱道才, 陆林, 晋秀龙
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 184-189.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.184
    摘要   PDF (1049KB)
    利用锡尔熵指数、相对熵指数和变异系数以及半对数经济增长模型,分析泛长三角外资直接投资(FDI)的时空分布和变异以及空间格局对经济增长的效应,认为FDI在泛长三角地区时空分布上,呈现总体扩散的趋势;扩散路径是沿"Z"形轴线,形式有接触扩散和等级扩散,2001年后,等级扩散显著。FDI对该地区经济增长起着显著的正向作用,但区际之间效率差别显著;FDI的变异程度与经济增长呈负相关,且区域间差异较大。宏观政策在巩固和扩大泛长三角地区FDI的规模同时,应优化FDI空间格局,着眼区域协调发展。
    In early 1990s, the development of Spatial Economics laid down certain theory foundation for the study of spatiality of economy. Such spatial research is defined as the research of economic spatial pattern in spatial economy to explain the reasons and formation mechanism for phenomenon of spatial agglomeration. Some tools, such as Theil entropy index, relative entropy index, Coefficient of Variation and half-logarithm economic growth model, are utilized to analyze the evolution of the spatial and temporal distribution and the variation of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI)as well as economic growth effect of FDI in the Pan-Yangtze Delta. The models of spatial pattern of FDI and economic impact of spatial variability for FDI are constructed respectively. A wholly trend of diffusing is found on the spatial distribution of FDI in Pan-Yangtze Delta. The diffusing way is along the "Z" shape spool thread, and the diffusing forms include two kinds:one is the contagious proliferation and the other is the hierarchical proliferation. The hierarchical proliferation is more remarkable after 2001. Based on correlated statistical data from 1990 to 2007, variation degree and economic effect of the five provinces and Shanghai city of Pan-Yangtze Delta were worked out. The results showed that FDI have been playing a positive role to the regions economic growth. However, the efficiency is different in different regions. The variation degree of FDI is inverse correlated to economic growth. Based on above findings, three fields should be concerned when making and implementing related policy of FDI. Firstly, trying to create friendly financing environment and further consolidate and enlarge the scale of FDI after world financial crisis. Secondly, establishing expedite FDI spreading corridor and optimizing its special framework. Spatial framework and variation which based on capital efficiency are decided by rent seeking nature of FDI. It is concentrated on Shanghai firstly, and spread to the other provinces. In order to improve the practical efficiency of FDI, open FDI spreading channel should be constructed by every region. Then FDI can be allocated appropriately and effectively used under the market mechanism. Last but not least, the harmony of regional development should be kept to promote national economic revitalization. The blue print of the Pan-Yangtze Delta Area should be designed and even all Yangtze River valleys as soon as possible in the background of harmonious development at the national level.
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    区域产业布局模式识别:指标体系与实证检验
    刘涛, 曹广忠, 江艺东, 郜晓雯
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 190-196.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.190
    摘要   PDF (1851KB)
    关于区域产业布局模式的已有研究多是针对特定地区或特定产业的经验归纳,缺乏连续性和可比性。在综合性、典型性、独立性、可比性和可操作性原则的指导下,从中心性、分布集中性、空间集聚性和耦合关联性4个维度构建了表征产业布局模式的综合指标体系。以南充市2位数产业的模式分类为例,综合使用相关分析、聚类分析、因子分析、图谱分析等多元统计方法,结合定性分析,从4个维度分别归纳了其产业布局模式,进一步总结了单中心极度集中型、“中心-外围”均衡簇群型、点状散布型和人口依赖的遍在均衡型等4种产业布局的综合模式。指标体系的合理性和灵活性得到了实证检验。
    Regional industrial layout patterns have drawn the attention of many geographers. Focusing on specific industry and (or)specific area, however, most of previous researches are lacking of continuity and comparability. A rational, comparable, and feasible index system is essential for describing and evaluating layout patterns of various industries in different areas. This paper tries to establish such an index system and estimate its rationality and feasibility through the followed case study. The index system is constructed to represent the industrial layout patterns from perspectives of centricity, inequality, spatial agglomeration, and correlation between observed industry and other industries and economic factors. Firstly, the proportion of employment in the center to that in the region and to that in the sub-center, are recommended to represent the centricity of the industrial layout. Secondly, the authors set up indices of ubiquity, measured by the proportion of subregions with one or more enterprises of the observed industry, and concentration ratio to represent the inequality of industrial distribution among subregions. The concentration ratio can also be estimated excluding the center. Thirdly, spatial agglomeration of an industry is measured by distances between the center and sub-centers and other industrial agglomeration areas, and distances among industrial agglomeration areas without regard to the center. Finally, it is also important for recognition of industrial layout patterns to investigate their relationship with the spatial distribution of other industries, population, land use and other socio-economic factors, which can be measured by Pearson correlation coefficient, similarity coefficient or grey relational degree. Taking Nanchong as a case, we classify 2-digital industries from the aforesaid perspectives respectively with quantitative analysis methods. At last, four typical comprehensive patterns of industrial layout are concluded. The case study provides evidence for rationality and flexibility of the index system, which can also be used in industrial layout pattern recognition and classification in all kinds of areas, at different times and on multi-scales.
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    全球金融危机传导的地理层级性及其对中国防范金融危机的启示
    傅雪莹, 陈才, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 197-203.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.197
    摘要   PDF (787KB)
    金融危机已取代工业危机成为经济周期的标志。通过分析2008年金融危机,揭示全球金融危机传导的地理层级性规律:第一层级,金融危机在世界金融中心间的传导,是通过信息对市场的影响而实现的,在经济地域上具有点对点传导的特点;第二层级,危机从金融中心向发达国家传导,是通过金融系统对实体经济的影响而实现的,具有点对面传导的特点;第三层级,危机从发达国家向发展中国家传导,是通过流向发展中国家的资本流和贸易额锐减而实现的,具有面对面传导的特点。详细分析每一层级危机传导的机理和特点,为中国今后金融危机防范提供启示。
    The financial crisis has been taking the place of the industrial crisis to be the symbol of the economic cycle since 1980s when the human society entered the era of knowledge economy and the era of globalization. Nowadays the assertion that financial crisis has become the main form of economic crises is strongly proved by the financial crisis breaking out in 2008, which has been called as a global crisis and a crisis of the century because of its vast destructiveness and profound impacts. This paper explored an issue:how does the global financial crisis contagion happen in the geographic dimension? According to the research on the financial crisis erupting in 2008, the process of global financial crisis contagion can be divided into three geographic stages based on the different mechanisms and characteristics of crisis contagion among different regions of the world. At the first stage, the financial crisis was transmitted from New York City to other major financial centers in the world with a geographically point-to-point transmission characteristic. The sub-prime mortgage crisis became the direct incentive for the financial crisis. Information played a crucial role at this stage. A series of bad news about the significant losses of many huge financial institutions due to the sub-prime crisis flied fast among financial centers. It triggered the confidence crisis over the major world financial markets, which finally developed into a devastating blow to financial system. Crisis contagion at this stage has its own characteristics:fast transmission speed, violent vibration and profound impact. The second stage that the crisis was transmitted from the major financial centers in the world to the developed countries is actually a process of crisis contagion from the financial sector to the real economic sector. The geographic characteristic of crisis contagion at this stage is a point-to-plane transmission process. The liquidity crisis deriving from the confidence crisis in financial system reduced the capital flow to the real economy, which made the production activity of most developed economies drop dramatically. The pessimistic anticipation of individuals and enterprises further weakened the demand of consumption and investment. The developed economies entered a vicious circle. The crisis at the second stage was self-enhanced. At the third stage, the crisis contagion from the developed countries to the developing countries was a result of the reduction of capital inflows to developing countries and the reduction of international trade amount. The crisis contagion at this stage has its own characteristics:the geographic contagion characteristic was a plane-to-plane transmission process;the speed of crisis transmission was relatively slow;crisis affected different developing countries in different ways, and economic recovery was slow because the deep-seated problems of the world economy were revealed at this stage. This paper analyzed the mechanism and characteristics of the global financial crisis contagion on every geographic stage, which enlightened the financial crisis contagion-proof measures for China. At first, an early-warning mechanism for crisis should be built up by establishing a comprehensive index system, a full-coverage information network and a immediate reaction mechanism, most of all, by enhancing the development of qualified personnel;secondly, the government should promote financial development under market-orientation principle and at the same time, should adopt appropriate regulation especially on certain important financial areas to prevent risks;thirdly, the domestic demand should be expanded to improve the ability to withstand the future crisis by creating more job opportunities, extending basic social security coverage, stimulating consumer demand in the rural areas and exploring potential markets;fourthly, the industrial structure should be further optimized, in order to improve the overall national strength.
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    机场体系中心性的网络分析方法与实证
    莫辉辉, 金凤君, 刘毅, 王姣娥
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 204-212.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.204
    摘要   PDF (1996KB)
    机场体系是航空运输组织网络的核心组成部分,认知其空间结构特征对航空运输网络的建构及辨析其表征的城镇体系结构等具有重要的意义,而中心性在刻画机场体系空间结构特征中具有基础性的作用。在研究Christaller中心地理论及其分析方法的基础上,引入网络分析方法的度中心性、邻近中心性和介中心性,这3个指标分别反映了节点在网络中的直接交流能力、可达性服务水平和控制网络交流的能力。以中国航空网络为例,研究表明网络中心性指标对机场体系的空间结构具有较好的解释性。度中心性和邻近中心性表现出较好的一致性,但与介中心性差异较大。尽管北京和上海的各类中心值始终位居前两位,但对于度中心性和邻近中心性2个指标,第三、四和五位分别为广州、深圳和成都;而对于介中心性,取而代之的是昆明、广州和乌鲁木齐,更多地体现了地缘政治的影响。综合3类网络中心性测度方法和中心地理论,提出具有探索性意义的系统中心性分析方法,其研究结果较好地体现了中国机场体系的等级结构、上层系统“鼎形”集聚特征和国家地域系统的“鞍”型效果,且与《全国民用机场布局规划》的五大机场体系具有较好的耦合性。
    The airport system is an important component for the organization of aviation transportation. It is an effective way to analyze the constitution of air transportation and urban systems by identifying the spatial structure of airport system. Centrality is one of the basic methods. Based on network analysis, three common indices, degree centrality, closeness centrality and betweenness centrality were used to measure centrality for individual cities in the paper. That is to say, "Being central" is not limited to being connected to others, but also being close to all others and being intermediary between others. In the airport system of China, degree centrality shows the "Ding Pattern" for the top class and the "Flyover Effect" for the national network. Closeness centrality makes it measurable for the airport service. Betweenness centrality is a good measure to analyze regional hubs and the core-periphery pattern. On individual cities, Beijing and Shanghai are clearly the top two central cities in all three indices;and rankings on other cities by the betweenness centrality differ significantly from those by the degree and closeness centralities. Based on the three centrality indices, an Exploratory Weighted Method (EWM)were put forward, namely system centrality, to do a further research. The results showed the hierarchical structure with the "Ding Pattern" in the top class and the "Flyover Effect" in the national network. Besides, the spatial pattern by the system centrality accords well with the five airport clusters designed in the National Civil Airports Deployment Plan.
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    基于改进潜能模型的就医空间可达性度量和缺医地区判断——以江苏省如东县为例
    宋正娜, 陈雯, 车前进, 张蕾
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 213-219.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.213
    摘要   PDF (2395KB)
    潜能模型广泛应用于就医空间可达性评价,现有模型综合了医疗设施服务能力、居民点人口数量、医疗设施与居民点之间的出行阻抗。在此基础上通过考虑"医疗设施不同等级规模对居民就医选择行为的影响"对模型进行修正。结果表明,改进的潜能模型能够更为合理地评价就医空间可达性,准确揭示居民实际所能获取的医疗资源,结合医疗资源配置相关标准,则能有效判定缺医地区,为政府相关部门规划决策提供依据。
    Potential model has been widely applied in measurement of spatial accessibility to health care services, and such approach can be used to evaluate the fairness of the distribution of health care facilities. The existing formulas had integrated three main factors including the service capacity of health care facilities, the population in demands and travel impedance between population location and provider location. It is worth mentioned that a vital factor that the impact from the health care facilities with different levels (different grades and scales)to the selections of residents with some approximate service demands was considered in the study, and such factor was integrated into the existing formulas to improve the comprehensiveness and accuracy of potential model when measuring spatial accessibility. Based on the data of Rudong county in Jiangsu Province by the end of 2007 which refer to hospitals, residents, traffic network and so on, the improved potential model was applied to assess the variation of spatial accessibility to hospitals in Rudong county as positive area. Through the study, the following conclusions were reached:Based on the proper travel friction coefficients, the improved potential model proposed can be more reasonable and comprehensive to measure spatial accessibility to health care facilities, and can be accurate to reveal the health care resource quantity which any population location can access in the context of competition by those demanders due to travel impedance within certain threshold travel time, furthermore, health professional shortage areas of positive area can be defined effectively with certain standards developed by public health management sector, which can support the basis for decision-making of health service planning. On the whole, such approach was explored for spatial accessibility to health care services and the designation of health professional shortage areas by covering more factors closer to reality in this research.
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    企业区位特征、影响因素及其城镇化效应——基于中国东南沿海地区的实证研究
    祁新华, 朱宇, 张抚秀, 林小阳
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 220-228.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.220
    摘要   PDF (1200KB)
    企业区位选择是理解城镇化内在机制的重要微观视角。应用西方区位因素分析框架,探讨中国东南沿海地区企业区位特征、影响因素及其城镇化效应。问卷调查结果显示,企业区位选择背离了西方工业区位理论中倾向于选择位于或接近大城市的预期,而呈现出以镇村行政区域为主以及“大分散,小集中”的分布格局;同时,大多数企业没有过搬迁的经历,或属于近距离搬迁且迁移至开发区或大中城市的意愿并不强烈。根据调查结果,探讨了影响企业区位选择的区位因素(运费、技术成本、交易成本、集聚经济、劳动力、土地成本、资本因素、个人因素等),并揭示了导致该地区就地城镇化现象的微观机制,验证与完善了西方工业区位理论。
    The industrial location selection is the important micro perspective of understanding the underlying mechanism of urbanization. The characteristics and influencing factors of enterprise location and its urbanization effect were discussed based on the analytical frame of western location factors. The results of the questionaire survey showed that the enterprise location deviated from the western industrial location theory anticipation of being located or approaching to the metropolis. On the contrary, the enterprises mainly centrer around towns or countries and with the spatial pattern of "scattering around large scale areas and concentrating on small scale areas". At the same time, most of the enterprises never relocated or only moved within short distance. If they want to relocate, their intention of moving to development areas or medium and large cities is not very strong. The influcing location factors, such as transportation expenses, technological cost, transactional cost, agglomeration economies, labour cost, land cost, capical and private factors were examined, which resulted in the phenomenon of in situ urbanization in coastal aeras in Southeast of China. The article testifies and perfects the western industrial location theory.
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    地下水环境风险的模糊多指标分析方法
    李如忠, 汪明武, 金菊良
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 229-235.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.229
    摘要   PDF (1016KB)
    从影响地下水脆弱性的地质与水文地质条件、地貌特征、污染物性质、土地利用状况以及地下水社会价值功能等因素出发,筛选出22项评价指标,初步构建具有多层次结构特点的地下水环境风险评价指标体系。在将地下水环境风险定义为风险等级与风险重要性乘积的基础上,对风险等级与风险重要性等级的分级标准进行探讨,建立风险评价的模糊多属性决策分析模型。作为案例,将上述指标体系和评价模型应用于皖北3个城市浅层地下水环境风险的分析,取得较好效果,为地下水环境风险评价研究提供了新思路、新方法。
    Groundwater environmental assessment is a useful tool for environmental planning and decision-making. Up to now, many studies have been carried out and several index models have been developed for assessing groundwater vulnerability worldwide. Because of the complicated characteristics of groundwater environmental system, however, there still has no a satisfactory methodology for the comprehensive assessment of groundwater environmental risk. In this paper, an index system, with multi-level structure, was first established for groundwater environmental risk assessment, by using twenty-two qualitative and quantitative indictors chosen from such fields as geology, hydrological geology, landform, pollution qualities, types of land use and social values of groundwater, etc. Meanwhile, the groundwater environmental risk was defined as a multiplication between grade of risk and importance of risk, and the classification standards for grade of risk and importance of risk were also primarily established, individually. On the bases, a fuzzy multi-attribute decision-making model was proposed for the assessment of groundwater environmental risk. As a case, above index system and model were utilized to evaluate the groundwater environmental risk of three cities, located in the north of Anhui Province. Study result showed that the index system and multi-attribute decision-making model established above were reasonable and effective for groundwater environmental risk assessment.
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    第四纪江汉-洞庭盆地东部中段构造-沉积地貌类型划分及特征
    柏道远, 李建清, 马铁球, 王先辉, 彭云益, 李纲, 周柯军
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 236-241.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.236
    摘要   PDF (572KB)
    以第四纪构造活动、沉积作用以及现今地势高低和地貌形态特征为主要依据,对江汉-洞庭盆地东部中段及其东缘(1:25万岳阳市幅)进行构造-沉积地貌类型的划分与编图。研究区共厘定出9种构造-沉积地貌类型,各地貌类型的地表高程、第四纪地壳升降特征、风化剥蚀和沉积作用等各具特征。构造-沉积地貌类型的划分及其地貌图的编制,既反映出地表地理环境暨地貌特征,又提供直观表达不同地区第四纪地层、构造特征及其反映的地质与环境演化过程的有效途径,有助于促进和深化江汉-洞庭盆地第四纪地质与环境研究。
    Tectonic-sedimentary landforms classification and mapping of the middle segment and eastern areas of east Quaternary Jianghan-Dongting basin (1:250000 Yueyang sheet)were conducted according to Quaternary tectonic activity, sediment and present elevation and topographic characteristics. Nine types of tectonic-sedimentary landforms were defined, and every type of landforms possess special characteristics of elevation, quaternary rising-falling activity, weathering and erosion and sedimentation. Tectonic-sedimentary landforms classification and geomorphologic map not only show geographic environments, but also provide a effective mean to deliver directly Quaternary stratum, tectonic features and geological and environmental evolution, and will promote and deepen studies on the Quaternary Geology and environment of Jianghan-Dongting basin.
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    伏牛山北坡森林景观变化的地形梯度特征分析
    梁国付, 韩艳, 丁圣彦
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 242-247.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.242
    摘要   PDF (849KB)
    运用景观生态学基本原理,借助地理信息系统技术,利用地形位指数,分析伏牛山北坡森林景观动态变化的地形梯度特征。结果显示:森林景观动态变化与地形梯度有密切关系,1986和2003年,森林景观在地形梯度上的优势分布区间(Pie>1)分别为9~30和10~30,即在的中高地形梯度上,且有向高地形位略为移动的趋势。森林景观类型保持不变部分、森林景观转化为非森林景观类型部分和非森林景观转化为森林景观类型部分所对应的在地形梯度上的优势分布区间(Pie>1)分别为10~30,5~12和4~10、18~24。分析森林景观动态变化与地形位指数的相互关系,表明森林景观动态变化与地形位指数有显著相关关系。
    The paper investigated the forest landscape dynamics in the north of the Funiu Mountain, where considerable attention has been drawn in issues of slowing down the agricultural expansion into the remaining natural forests. Based on the theory of landscape ecology, the terrain gradient of forest landscape dynamics were examined by using geographic information system. The results showed that terrain niche index was valuable in describing the forest landscape dynamics in the north of the Funiu Mountain. In 1986 and 2003, the predominant ranges of forest landscape change on terrain niche index were 9-30 and 10-30 respectively and there was a slight trend of up slide. From 1986 to 2003, the three predominant ranges of forest landscape change on terrain niche index in the areas of the forest landscape unchanged, the forest landscape converted to non-forest landscape, and the non-forest landscape converted to forest landscape were 10-30,5-12 and 4-10,18-24 respectively. In addition, by using spatial analysis in Arc/GIS 9.2 and Spss 10.0, the correlation of forest landscape change and the terrain gradient were analyzed. It indicated that there were notable correlations between them, especially in predominant ranges of terrain gradient.
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    基于MODIS的土地覆盖遥感分类特征的评价与比较
    张景, 姚凤梅, 徐永明, 张佳华
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 248-253.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.248
    摘要   PDF (961KB)
    选取华北地区为研究区,利用MODIS遥感数据多光谱、多时相优势进行分类特征提取,依据土地覆盖分类特征如地表反射率、植被指数、纹理特征等,并对这些分类特征分别从光谱维、时间维、空间维三个角度进行阐述,结合DEM数据,使用最大似然法进行土地覆盖遥感分类特征的评价与比较。结果表明,不同分类特征对分类精度影响不同,将多种分类特征结合能够有效提高区域尺度土地覆盖分类精度,但分类特征的加入不一定能提高某些类别的分类精度。
    This paper briefly introduced the application of some classification features, based on the current research status of the regional land cover classification. Classification features play a chief and basic role in the research of land cover, and it is significant for the classification accuracy to select the features. Due to the advantages of integration of multi-temporal and multi-spectral MODIS data in regional land cover, this paper presented the research on land cover classification in area of North China, selected the features such as surface reflectance (MODIS 7-band reflectance), vegetation index (MODIS-NDVI, MODIS-EVI), two characters of texture (homogeneity, entropy), and DEM to classify by the method of MLC, finally compared and evaluated the classification accuracy by using different features. The result indicates that it has higher overall classification accuracy using MODIS 7-band reflectance data than using vegetation index. And combining the two features above, the classification accuracy of cropland and grassland can be improved obviously. The result also shows the classification accuracy varies with the different features. It can increase the overall classification accuracy to integrate MODIS 7-band reflectance data with some other features, which contain vegetation index, texture and DEM. However, classification accuracy of some types can not be always enhanced by the combination of the above classification characters.
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    土壤有效态Cd、Cu、Pb的分布特征及影响因素研究
    钟晓兰, 周生路, 李江涛, 赵其国
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 254-260.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.254
    摘要   PDF (767KB)
    采集126个表层土壤样品分析了江苏省昆山市土壤有效态Cd、Cu、Pb的分布特征,并采用相关系数、通径系数和决策系数综合研究重金属有效态的含量影响因素。研究结果表明,昆山市土壤受有效态Cd、Cu和Pb的风险较大,生物有效性系数分别达63.75%,19.17%和13.51%。不同土地利用方式中交通用地的生物有效性显著高于其它各土地利用类型。随着剖面层次的下降,重金属有效态含量和生物有效性逐渐减小。土壤重金属总量对有效态均具有最大的正向影响作用,有机质对有效态含量均为较大的正向作用,FeOx含量通过吸附固持重金属离子对有效态含量也有较大负作用。
    A total of 126 soil samples were collected to analyze soil available Cd, Cu, Pb distribution characteristic in Kunshan City of Jiangsu Province, and its influencing factors were studied by correlation coefficient, path coefficient and decision parameters. The results showed that Cd, Cu and Pb bioavailability reached up to 63.75%, 19.17% and 13.51%, respectively. Significant differences were observed in Cd, Cu, Pb bioavailability between different soil land use types, and available Cd, Cu, Pb were the highest in the traffic land. It was also found that the bioavailability and contents of available Cd, Cu, Pb declined with the depth in soil profile. The availability concentration of Cd, Cu, Pb were influenced by the total concentration, soil pH, content of organic matter, clay, silt, sand, CEC, FeOx and MnOx, and there were the greatest positive effect for the total concentration to the availability concentration, and also organic matter had greater positive effect, while FeOx had negative effect by adsorbing ions of heavy metals.
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    基于高分辨率DEM的黄土地貌正负地形自动分割技术研究
    周毅, 汤国安, 王春, 肖晨超, 董有福, 孙京禄
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 261-266.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.261
    摘要   PDF (1213KB)
    黄土地貌正负地形自动分割是构建地表空间分布式机理-过程模型的基础。在分析黄土高原地区典型地貌坡面形态及汇流过程特征的基础上,提出了基于5m分辨率栅格DEM自动分割黄土正、负地形的技术方案。该方案首先利用坡面上下游栅格点的坡度对比识别沟沿线点,然后利用汇水模型提取沟沿线点约束的上游汇水区域,从而实现正、负地形的自动分割。在黄土塬区及丘陵沟壑区的实验结果表明,该方法的优点是提取精度高,人工干预少,在不同地貌类型区域内有很好的应用适宜性。
    China Loess Plateau is world-wide famous for its peculiar and unique landscape, in which the loess shoulder-lines zigzag on the surface making a distinct separation between loess positive terrain and the negative one. The automatic segmentation of loess positive and negative terrains (P-N terrains)with precise location and high efficiency, which is a crucial technique in constructing the mechanism-process models of loess landform drainage systems, is still need to be further improved. Nowadays, with the increasing availability of digital topographic data, the Digital Elevation Model (DEM)can now be applied to better description of natural topography, and it is also regarded as the most proper data source for automatic extraction of loess positive and negative terrains. In this paper, the conformation and flow confluence characteristic of the hill-slope in representative loess landforms is discussed. Based on this, an auto-segmentation method of P-N terrains from 5 m resolution DEMs is proposed. There are three key procedures in the operation. The first step is the identification of grid points on the shoulder-line position by considering the slope difference up and down. Slope gradient 30°,25°and 20°are used as the thresholds in loess platform area, loess ridge-hill area and loess hill area respectively in the extraction model. The second stage is to expand shoulder-lines’candidate cells directionally by considering the spatial direction of the local hill slope aspect and the trend of the shoulder-lines. This step is helpful for deriving more consecutive and detailed shoulder-lines on DEMs. The third step is the generation of positive terrain which can be regarded as the extraction of the upstream area of the shoulder-line points by using the hydrologic analysis model. All the shoulder-lines’cells derived above are imported into the model as the pour point data. This is an alternative method for evading the difficulty of converting shoulder-line grid cells into consecutive vector lines. Validation tests are took out by contrasting the auto-extraction results from DEMs and the delineating results from 1 m resolution DOMs in six drainages. Results show that maximum area difference between the positive terrain area derived above and actural area is 1.15 km2, and the percentage of the cells distance offset values less than 10 m exceed 95%. So the main advantages of this approach are high accuracy, lower demands on manual intervention and ready availability of required data for many regions on the Loess Plateau. The morphology of the earth surface is the interactional production of the hydrosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere and the biosphere, thus the morphology is the external representation, and the interaction process is the inner dynamical force. The extraction of the topographic feature lines not only need considering the characteristic of the terrain morphology, but also need considering the inner mechanism of land surface process.
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    伊犁盆地黄土分布与组成特征
    宋友桂, 史正涛
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 267-272.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.267
    摘要   PDF (1437KB)
    在研究伊犁盆地黄土分布特征的基础上,分析了伊犁黄土的粒度、矿物和地球化学组成特征。粒度分析表明伊犁黄土以粉砂为主,含有一定量的细砂,粒径比黄土高原粗,分选性比黄土高原黄土差。在矿物组成上以石英、长石和碳酸盐类矿物为主,含一定量的绿泥石和云母。地球化学元素分析表明伊犁黄土以SiO2、Al2O3、CaO为主,比黄土高原黄土富Na2O和CaO,反映伊犁盆地黄土形成于较干冷、化学风化弱的环境。
    The loess record of Central Asia provides an important archive of regional climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the intensively investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, Central Asian loess sediments are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Based on satellite and topography, coupling with previous literature and field investigation, the authors investigate the distribution of loess sediments in the Yili Basin, central Asia. In order to identify the physical, chemical and mineral compositions, the authors carried out grain-size, geochemical and mineralogical analyses on collected surface soil and loess samples. Grain size measurements reveal that the loess in Yili Basin is dominated by silt and have minor sand, which is coarser than that of the Chinese Loess Plateau, indicating a close source. The mineral components of loess in this region are dominated by quartz, feldspar and carbonate with minor chlorite and muscovite. Geochemistry of loess in the Yili Basin are characterized by high contents of SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO, and by minor Fe2O3, MgO, K2O and Na2O. In contrast to the Chinese Loess Plateau, the loess in Yili Basin is rich Na2O and CaO, which indicates that loess in Yili Basin originated from a relative dry-clod and weak chemical weathering environment.
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    雷州半岛农作物水分供需关系与农业旱灾
    刘会平, 梁红梅, 苗会强, 范九生
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 273-277.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.273
    摘要   PDF (1110KB)
    雷州半岛是中国东部沿海农业旱灾最为严重地区之一。通过分析积分湿度指数I值变化,探讨雷州半岛农作物水分供需关系及其对农业旱灾的影响。结果表明:农作物水分供应不足是雷州半岛农业旱灾最主要原因。从时间上看,1962~2007年46a间,有31a的I值小于0.6,中旱和重旱频率高达67.4%。I值也有明显的季节差异,冬旱最为严重,46a中有44a为重旱,出现频率为95.65%。从空间上看,南部和北部农业旱灾尤为严重。徐闻和湛江中等以上农业旱灾频率达71%以上,廉江、雷州和吴川为66%左右,遂溪最低,也达57%。
    The agro-drought disaster takes place frequently and is very serious in Leizhou Peninsula. Inadequate water supply of crops is one of the most important factors. Integral humidity indexIis used to analyze crop water supply. The results reveal the agro-drought regulations of spatial and temporal distribution in the Peninsula. From 1962 to 2007, the frequency of agro-drought disasters over middle level (I< 0.6)reached 67.40% and they were particularly obvious in the northern and southern parts. The highest frequency was in Xuwen County, the lower in Zhanjiang City;it was as high as 95.65% in winter and causes very serious disaster from winter to spring.
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    武汉区域百年地表气温变化趋势研究
    任永建, 陈正洪, 肖莺, 孙杰, 孙善磊, 赖安伟
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 278-282.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.278
    摘要   PDF (908KB)
    考虑气温序列的非均一性,并对缺测数据进行合理插补,建立武汉区域1905~2005年、季3项气温序列。序列结果表明,100a来年均气温、年均最低气温均呈上升趋势,增温速率分别为0.014℃/10a和0.026℃/10a;年平均最高气温变化呈现微弱的下降趋势,变化速率为-0.003℃/10a,表明百年来武汉区域夜间增温趋势比较明显,白天气温变化不大;年平均最高气温与最低气温的变化具有不对称性。年平均气温、年平均最高气温存在两个暖期,时段为1920~1940年、1990~2005年,第一个暖期主要是夏、秋季气温偏高,冬、春季不明显,热在白天;第二个暖期则四季气温均偏高,冬、春季最明显,夏季较弱,暖在夜间。
    Taking into account the non-uniformity of the temperature sequence, the annual and seasonal temperature series over Wuhan region during 1905-2005 were established through a reasonable interpolation. The results showed that annual mean temperature and annual mean minimum temperature had showed an upward trend with rates of 0.014℃/10a and 0.026℃/10a since 1905, whereas the annual mean maximum temperature was a weak downward trend with a rate of -0.003℃/10a.All these indicated that a warming trend over Wuhan region was more visible at night, yet little during daytime, and that the annual mean maximum temperature and mean minimum temperature had showed an asymmetric trend. The annual mean temperature and the annual mean maximum temperature had two warm times, which were 1920s-1940s and 1990s up to the present. The summer and autumn temperature were higher during the first warm period, but the winter and spring were not obvious, moreover high temperature occurred in daytime. The four-season temperature was higher during the second period, the winter and spring were most obvious, but the summer was weak, moreover warm at night.
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    长江三角洲典型区工业发展影响下土壤重金属空间变异特征
    曹伟, 周生路, 王国梁, 孙波
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 283-289.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.283
    摘要   PDF (1115KB)
    以长三角江苏省宜兴市为例,研究工业发展影响下土壤重金属空间变异特征。结果表明:(1)点源周围元素富集程度较强,其中固体点源周围含量最高,液体次之,气体相对较低;富集元素种类取决于点源排放废物类型;元素含量随距离的增加呈明显下降趋势,气体点源影响范围最大,固体次之,液体相对较小。(2)与点源相比,面源排放下元素富集程度较弱,元素含量随距离的增加变化规律不明显,但影响范围大。(3)面源排放下重金属空间分布的方向性,除受盛行风向的影响,还受到工业布局的影响;由于富集元素种类复杂,加之交叉复合效应,使其空间变异更为复杂,从而加大了重金属治理的难度。
    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial variability characteristics of soil heavy metals due to industry development of Yixing, an area with intensive industrialization in the Changjiang (Yangtze)River Delta of China. To do that, concentrations of heavy metals in soils with different distances from solid-, liquid-and gas point sources and non-point sources were measured. The results show that 1)different point sources can induce the strong enrichment of different heavy metal elements in soil and the concentration around solid point source is the highest, followed by liquid, and gas is relatively low. Concentrations of heavy metals in soils are significantly decreased with distance. And affected by the prevailing wind, the influenced area due to gas point source is the largest, followed by solid, and liquid is relatively small;2)compared with point source, the enrichment of heavy metals in soils around non-point source in industrial town is relatively weak, but its element types are complex. There are no significant changes of concentrations of heavy metals in soils with distance, but the influenced area is larger;and 3)affected not only by the prevailing wind direction, but also by industry layout, concentrations of soil heavy metals due to non-point source are of difference in different directions around industrial town. Due to the complexity of the enrichment element’s types of soil heavy metals and their combined effect in non-point source, the spatial variability is more complex. It means that taking effective measures to control non-point source is especially difficult.
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    基于NSGA-Ⅱ的土地利用数量结构优化研究——以舟山市定海区为例
    王世忠, 刘卫东, 曹振宇
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 290-294.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.290
    摘要   PDF (940KB)
    土地利用的数量结构优化问题是个典型的多目标优化问题。文章通过引入带精英策略的非支配排序遗传算法(NSGA-Ⅱ),构建基于NSGA-Ⅱ的土地利用数量结构优化模型。在参考Kanpur遗传算法实验室提供的NSGA-Ⅱ源代码的基础上,利用C/C++语言进行程序的二次开发,获得土地利用数量结构优化的一系列Pareto解,并组成Pareto解集。最后,通过权重来近似地表达决策意愿,通过计算综合效益,来实现各种决策意愿下的方案择优决策。研究结果表明该模型能较好地解决土地利用的数量结构优化问题。
    The optimization of land use quantitative structure is a typical problem of multi-objective optimization, and is also the main problem of land use plan. An optimization model of land use quantitative structure based on NSGA-Ⅱ was set up in this paper through the introduction of non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm with the elite strategy. On the basis of referring to NSGA-Ⅱ source code offered by the Kanpur hereditary algorithm laboratory,and carrying on the secondary development of the procedure by using C/C++ language,a series of Pareto solutions were obtained and Pareto solution set was constructed. Finally,weights were used to express decision-making wills approximately,and comprehensive benefit value was calculated to realize decision-making under all kinds of wills. The result indicates that the model can solve the problem of land use quantitative structure optimization effectively.
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    北半球过去2000年气温变化的多尺度分析
    杨周, 林振山
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 295-299.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.295
    摘要   PDF (997KB)
    对北半球过去2000a重建气温变化的多尺度分析,发现:(1)北半球过去2000a气温变化存在准6a、准11a、准21a、准43a、准86a、准247a、准914a等7个不同时间尺度的波动,并且以年际变化、年代际变化和近千年周期为主,不只是在数百年尺度上受太阳活动的驱动,在数十年尺度上也受到太阳活动的影响;(2)北半球在中世纪暖期波动幅度较小,小冰期气温振荡幅度相对较大,1400~1800A.D.这400a间是北半球最寒冷的时期;(3)在未来的几十年里,北半球气温的自然波动将极大地减低因人类活动而导致的全球气候变暖效应。
    The cyclical climate change and its relationship with solar activity are the hot spot in the international research of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in recent years. By multi-scale analysis of Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction over the past two millennia, the results were found as follows:(1)Seven different time scales of quasi cycles of 6 yr, 11 yr, 21 yr, 43 yr, 86 yr, 247 yr and 914 yr were evidently discovered. And then interannual variability. Interdecadal climate oscillation and the millennium cycles were mainly fluctuation periods. The climate changes at both the centennial scales and the decadal scales were driven by solar activity. (2)The oscillation amplitude was small in MWP of the Northern Hemisphere, but in LIA the amplitude was relatively larger. The coldest period in the Northern Hemisphere was between 1400 A.D. and 1800 A.D. (3)In the next few decades, the natural fluctuations of Northern Hemisphere temperature will greatly reduce the global warming effect caused by human activities.
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    宋代妈祖信仰传播的地理过程及其推力分析
    郑衡泌
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 300-305.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.300
    摘要   PDF (1001KB)
    对宋代妈祖信仰传播的地理空间分布及扩散态势与不同信仰人群间的关联进行分析,认为民间信仰的一种传播和扩散途径是从较低的社会阶层开始,逐步向较高的社会阶层扩散,并随着不同信仰人群的不同行为方式和活动空间特征,向着不同的传播路径进行传播,并形成不同的地理空间分布特征。宋代是妈祖信仰发展的初期,渔民、海员海商和地方士绅官员这些不同的信仰群体在妈祖信仰传播地域扩大过程中先后加入,逐步实现信仰的等级扩散。不同信仰群体对其地域扩散推动方式不同:渔民群体以短距离传染性扩展扩散为主,海员海商群体以长距离迁移扩散为主,士绅官宦群体二者兼而有之。不同信仰群体对信仰地域传播形成的地理分布态势不同。渔民群体产生沿海岸小范围密集型分布,海员海商产生港口集镇分布特征,士绅官宦推动信仰向着政治中心传播。这些不同的传播类型和分布态势与各人群活动地域和行为方式密切相关。
    The relationship between the geo-spatial distribution and diffusion of Matsu belief and the people who belong to different faith groups in Song Dynasty was analyzed in the paper and the view was pointed out that one path of belief’s spread was beginning from lower rank, then diffusing to higher ones and belif spread in different ways based on diverse behaviors and multiple activity spaces of those belonging to various faith groups and finally formed different geographical spatial distribution. Song Dynasty was the early stagement of the Matsu belief’s development. Several different groups, fisherman, seafarer and local official, joined one after another in the process of Matsu belief’s geographical expansion, which made the belief spread among ranks little by little. Different faith groups caused the geographical spread in different ways. For example, fishermen made Mutsu belief expand in an short-distance and maritime seafarers brought a long-distance migrating spread while local officials influence the spread of belief both in the way of fishermen and maritime seafarers.Different faith groups formed different geographical distribution situation. Fishermen resulted in the small-scale belief distribution along coast and the seamen formed market towns and maritime ports belief distribution mode, while local officials promoted the belief to spread towards the political center. Those different spreading modes and distribution were closely related with different groups’activities and their geographical situations. Geographic units and dialects were the most two important barriers to the belif’s distribution scale and space.Furthermore, belief also spread among people with different ranks from the fishmen to rich seafarers, even to the higher political status such as gentry and courtiers class. Geographical space spread with different ranks simultaneously. The claim of the gentry and official for the social and political status turned the geographic characters of spread of Matsu belief to political center. After the deification of Matsu by government, the spread mode had changed fundamentally. The power of empire promoted the belief to diffuse to the districts which have more diversit in culture. The proliferation in geographical space and social rank interacted each other.As a particular culture phenomenon, the formation and development of Matsu belief is the result of the interaction by the concrete social situation (the condition and criteria of belief in the mainstream), geography situation (geographic environment and relationship between environment and people)and community (faith groups that had the same or similar spirit requirement ). Foundation of Matsu belief is the particular spirits (such as sail protection of Matsu)and Matsu belief connects the faith groups which have the same needs of belief, such as the fisher, sailing, trader in sea, gentleman nearby sea, (they lived by sea and all wanted food, wealth from the sea, prayed safety from Matsu), and local officials who use the belief to achieve their political goals. Matsu belief occupies the geographical space by those faith groups and fits the need of society, which forms a complete historic culture and geography process.
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    珠海旅游用地演变分析
    赵莹雪
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 306-312.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.306
    摘要   PDF (1103KB)
    运用ArcGIS技术、动态度模型和马尔科夫模型,定量分析了1996~2007年珠海旅游用地数量、来源、类型与结构以及空间分布的演变特点、原因及其变化趋势。研究发现,数量变化方面,规模增长迅速;自然生态类旅游用地增长率和动态度最大;各类型旅游用地增长量由自然生态、度假村、主题公园、文化景观到园林游憩依次递减;香洲区旅游用地规模增长最显著,金湾区旅游用地总体动态度最大。来源方面,林地是珠海市旅游用地增长的主要来源;来源于耕地的概率较小;各区旅游用地来源的地类与其所处的自然条件和经济发展状况紧密相关;度假村主要来源于林地和建设用地,文化景观类和主题公园类旅游用地主要来源于建设用地,自然生态类旅游用地主要来源于林地。空间分布演变方面,在积极发展生态休闲度假旅游的背景下,呈现出“十”字形扩展特征,主要集中在东部山地和岛屿;各类旅游用地因资源与客源市场的吸引力不同而呈现不同的演变形态。类型与结构演变方面,以林地变化最突出。珠海旅游用地变化趋势表现为:面积增加,自然生态类旅游用地仍将是规模增长最大的类型,香洲区增长将最为显著;未来旅游用地来源主要为万山群岛的灌木林地和裸地。空间分布主要向“两区一带”(东部海岛生态旅游区、西部休闲旅游区、北部绿地与湿地生态旅游带)演变;受人类影响低的土地利用类型将向受人类影响高的类型转变,旅游设施建设用地比重将不断增加。研究对珠海市旅游用地变化调控和管理都有着重要的理论和借鉴意义。
    ArcGIS technology was used to obtain the distribution map of land for tourism in Zhuhai in 1996 and 2007. Dynamic degree model and Markov model were applied to quantitatively analyze the quantity, origin, type, structure and spatial distribution evolution characteristics, as well as the reason and change tendency of the Zhuhai's land for tourism from 1996 to 2007. Conclusion was drawn as follows:①Under the theme of ecological and leisure tourism development in recent years, the scale of the Zhuhai's landuse for tourism grew rapidly in quantity;the rate of increment and the dynamic degree of the type of eco-tourism land were the biggest, which was far bigger than other types;the growth of land types for tourism decreased progressively in turn from the eco-tourism land, the resort, the theme park, the cultural landscape to the recreational garden . The scale of each land type for tourism in Xiangzhou district grew obviously, the overall dynamic degree in Jingwan district was the biggest. ②The forest land was the important source of the Zhuhai's land growth for tourism.The probability of originating from the farmland to tourism land of each district was small.The origin types of tourism land in various districts was closely related with their natural conditions and economic development. The resort transformed from forest land and construction land primarily. The cultural landscape and the theme park transformed from construction land . The eco-tourism land transformed mainly from forest land. ③ The main type of the increasing tourism land in Zhuhai was eco-park. The space shape evolution of tourism land presented the "十" shape, and mainly concentrated in the eastern mountains and islands of Zhuhai. Because of different resources condition and tourists market's attraction, each type of tourism land evolution shape was different from each other:the space evolution of the resort type was "U"-shape expansion along the west coast;the space evolution of the theme park and entertainment land presented the "L" -shape expansion. Because cultural landscape of Zhuhai lacked attraction, this kind of tourism land increased few and the shape showed scattered punctuate. As the tourist destination of garden recreational are mainly the local tourist, there was no increase in recent 11 years. ④Because the eco-tourism land of the forest park increased most obviously, the type and structure change of the forest land was most prominent. Land-use change trends of tourism land in Zhuhai were as follows:land for tourism area will increase, the growth scale of eco-tourism land will still be the biggest, the growth of tourism land in Xiangzhou district will be the most obvious, the tourism land origin in the future is mainly from Wanshan islands' shrub land and bare land, tourism land will be mainly extended to "two areas and a belt":eastern island of eco-tourism area, western leisure and tourism area, north of greenland and wetland ecotourism belt. The proportion of tourist facilities will continue to increase.
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    旅游购物者分类研究——以黄山市国内旅游者为例
    王蕊, 苏勤
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 313-319.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.313
    摘要   PDF (1172KB)
    以黄山市国内旅游购物者为例,根据旅游购物者的商品属性偏好和购物介入的不同,采用因子分析和分层聚类法等数学方法,将旅游购物者划分为追求实际的购物爱好者,追求消闲的购物热衷者,追求文化享受的购物冷漠者3类,并对比分析了不同类型旅游购物者的具体购物行为特征。
    Tourism shoppers’preferences, involvement and segmentation were investigated based on the results of a questionnaire survey in Huangshan. Some mathematic methods, including principal component analysis and cluster analysis, were used in the research. The tourism shoppers were segmented into three distinctive types of "shopping enthusiast pursuing practical items", "shopping lover pursuing relaxation" and "indifferent shopper enjoying culture feature" according to their preferences for commodity characters and involvement levels. Furthermore, different features of shopping behavior were compared among these groups. And a Chi-square analysis was conducted to make sure that whether there are significant discrepancies among the three types in their demographic characters.
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    书评
    评李小建教授新著《农户地理论》
    王恩涌
    地理科学. 2010, 30 (2): 320-320.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2010.02.320
    摘要   PDF (152KB)
    最近看到李小建教授新著农户地理论,感到十分重要,同时也想到他在10多年前所著的公司地理论。
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