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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第6期 刊出日期:2011-06-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    中国东北地区典型流域水文变化特性及其对气候变化的响应
    王国庆, 王兴泽, 张建云, 金君良, 刘翠善, 严小林
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 641-646.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.641
    摘要   PDF (593KB)
    以辽河的主要水源区太子河流域为对象,分析近50 a来流域的降水径流变化特性,采用水文模拟方法,研究了河川径流量及土壤含水量对气候变化的响应。结果表明:近50 a来实测径流量总体呈现减少趋势;20世纪80年代以来,气候因素对河川径流量的绝对影响量呈现增加趋势;降水增加比减少对河川径流量的影响明显,土壤含水量对降水减少的响应更加敏感,气候暖干化趋势将非常不利于东北地区的水资源利用和农业生产。
    Global warming caused by increasing concentration of carbon dioxide and other trace gases in atmosphere has become evident. It has concluded that the earth surface air temperature increased by about 0.74℃ during 1905-2005. Surface air temperature change in China keeps well agreement with that of globe, which has risen by about 0.5-0.8℃ during the last 100 years, particularly, rising rate in the latest 50 years slightly exceeds the corresponding value of globe. Water resource in China is scarce, especially in the northeastern part of China, where is the main food source area of China as well. With the rapid development of agriculture and industry, as well as population growth, China has been undergoing increasingly stress of water resources. During the last two decades, recorded runoffs in the major rivers, which are located in the northern China, have been dramatically decreasing. As a result, conflict between water supply and demand in these areas has been becoming more significant, which has attracted great attention from both the relevant authorities and the general public. Global warming is likely to change precipitation patterns and raise the frequency of extreme events; in further, will affect many sectors of natural environment and human endeavor. Water is considered to be the most critical sector associated with climate change impacts. Climate change is estimated to alter timing and magnitude of runoff, consequently, which has significant implication for the existing water resources system as well as for future water resources planning and management. Climate change may bring adverse effect on food security of China through aggravating the severe situation of shortage in water resources of the northeastern China. Quantitative estimates for hydrological effects of climate change are essential. Taking Taizihe River basin as a case, which is main water source of Liaohe River, its variation characteristics of runoff and precipitation in the past 50 years were analyzed. Based on naturalization of runoff adopting a snowmelt-based water balance model (SWBM model), hydrological responses to climate change were studied. The results indicate that recorded runoff at Xiaolinzi hydrometric station has been decreasing during 1954-2005. Since the 1980s, climate-induced runoff reduction presents increase trend. The increase in precipitation could exert higher effect on stream flow than decrease in precipitation does, while soil moisture is more sensitive to rainfall reduction. Climatic aridification will extremely be not conducive to sustainable utilization of water resources and agricultural production for the northeastern China.
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    基于DEM的平原区人工微地貌数字提取方法探讨
    肖飞, 杜耘, Parrot J F, 王学雷, 严翼
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 647-653.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.647
    摘要   PDF (1249KB)
    针对江汉平原区堤垸人工微地貌,综合局部地形分析、水流模拟分析以及GIS空间分析和地统计分析方法,利用SRTM DEM数据进行微地貌自动提取研究。根据人工微地貌特点,构建一种局部地形形态分析方法来对结构线位置进行标示,并提出一种流域合并的方法来进行微地貌结构线提取;进而综合上述两种方法的计算结果,提出平原区人工微地貌的组合提取方法。研究结果表明该方法可较好实现平原区垸堤人工微地貌结构线提取。
    This paper presented a numerical methodology for recognition and extraction of artificial micro-geomorphology in the Jianghan Plain. In the different spatial scales of geomorphologic types, micro-geomorphology is the smallest spatial pattern and thus is more easily influenced by human activities. In this sense, artificial micro-geomorphology would show more potential in understanding the interactions between natural environment and human activities. Due to the continuous land utilization and rearrangement from historical period in the Jianghan Plain, a kind of artificial micro-geomorphology characterized by enclosed embankments on the low-lying land was formed. For decades, it played a very important role in the spatial distributions of some disasters such as flood and waterlogging. Compared with the automated extraction of drainage network and catchments boundaries from nature valleys, automated recognition of artificial micro-geomorphology skeleton lines has distinctive difficulties because of its tiny size, greater susceptibility to data error, and the different spatial structures with nature geomorphology. Despite of the progress in the automatic extraction of terrain skeleton lines, there is no auto-extracting method of artificial micro-geomorphology availablility yet, and it still dependes on the manual way to extract the skeleton lines of artificial geomorphology from the remotely sensed images and topographic maps. In this paper, a digital method for extracting the skeleton line of artificial micro-geomorphology was developed through the combination of the local topography analysis and the overland flow simulation. According to the specific artificial geomorphology features in the Jianghan Plain, a method was brought forward to identify the potential positions of the topographic skeleton lines, which is based on the evaluation of difference between the local elevations and the average elevations within moving windows. Then, an algorithm of watershed-merging based on flow simulation was developed to extract the potential skeleton lines of enclosed embankments. The algorithm can reduce the influence of the spurious pits in DEM, and generate the possible skeleton lines in a continuous way. Afterwards, based on the calculation results from the local topography analysis and the flow simulation, a new method was proposed to extract the skeleton lines of artificial micro-geomorphology by using the GIS techniques of spatial analysis and geo-statistics. The potential skeleton lines extracted from watershed-merging process were divided into segments by intersection points, and then transformed to raster format. Afterwards, raster segments of skeleton lines belonging to the proper skeleton lines of artificial micro-geomorphology were judged and fixed by using the position information calculated from local topography analysis according to their superposition degree. For the disconnected places of the extracted skeleton lines, a method was designed which could automatically extend and join the arcs on direction of the catchments borderlines through a kind of path determination algorithm. At last, the complete and closed borderlines of all the artificial geomorphologic patterns were formed through the above steps. The result shows that the aforementioned methodology is an effective attempt for the digital extraction of artificial micro-geomorphology structures, and would be helpful for the estimation of the interactions among spatial patterns of disaster, human activities and natural environment.
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    水沙过程变异下洞庭湖系统功能的连锁响应
    欧朝敏, 李景保, 余果, 杨燕, 邓楚雄, 张磊
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 654-660.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.654
    摘要   PDF (426KB)
    从作用于洞庭湖系统功能的水沙过程入手,探讨水沙过程变异下湖泊系统功能的连锁响应认为:① 洞庭湖是一个由其形态系统功能﹑生态系统功能和服务系统功能共同维系的巨系统;② 水沙条件变化导致湖盆结构变形﹑湖面湖容缩小﹑生物多样性不稳定﹑航运里程缩短﹑水环境净化能力减弱﹑东方田鼠与钉螺极度膨胀﹑鱼类捕捞产量和水资源量减少等响应现象;③ 水沙过程变化与湖泊系统各项功能之间始终保持着短期与长期﹑局部和整体等不同层次﹑不同时空的耦合关系,因而表现出层次关联性﹑时空差异性﹑对应因果性和相互依存性等特性。
    Response of Dongting lake system function was discussed under water and silt process change and the following viewpoints were derived. First of all, Dongting Lake is a macro-system composed of morphological system, ecological system and service system. Secondly, water and silt changes resulted in several responses phenomenon such as the deformation of lake basin framework, shrinkage of lake area and volumes, instability of biodiversity, shorter shipping mileage, decrescence of water environment purification capability, weakening of microtus fortis and Oncomelania, and decreasing in fishing output and water resource. Finally, there existed a coupling relationship between the change of water and silk process and various lake system functions at different levels and in different space (the whole and the parts) and time (short-term and long-term). Some characteristics about hierarchy relevance, spatio-temporal difference, corresponding causality and mutual interdependency were shown.
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    基于HJ卫星IRS遥感数据的农作物秸秆火点提取模式研究
    王玲, 田庆久, 包颖
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 661-667.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.661
    摘要   PDF (884KB)
    根据农作物收割前后的HJ-1B 卫星红外相机(IRS)遥感数据特征,提出农作物秸秆焚烧火点提取模式:利用IRS波段3(3.78 μm)与波段4(11.36 μm)结合两种经典火点探测算法首先提取出所有类型的地面火点;再利用收割前后的IRS波段2(1.72 μm)与波段1(0.9 μm)建立农作物秸秆地判定依据,从而从所有类型的地面火点中识别出秸秆火点。结合10月6日、10月21日的HJ-1B IRS影像,对10月21日江苏省农作物收割时期的秸秆火点进行提取实验,并与对应的MODIS探测结果进行相关分析,相关系数R2为0.685,验证了研究方法的合理性。
    Gas and particulate matter which resulted from straw burning can seriously pollute the atmospheric environment and threaten human health and traffic safety. Based on the HJ-1B IRS data acquired in the non-harvest period and the harvest period, a straw-burning fire detection mode has been established. All types of fire spots during the harvest period were identified using a modified classic fire-detection algorithm and the IRS channel 3 and channel 4 measurements, and then a straw field identification criteria were established based on the channel 2 and channel 1 DN difference (B2-B1) using the two IRS data, in order to identify the straw-burning fires from the fires of all types. On the basis of the two HJ-1B IRS images acquired on Oct. 6 and Oct. 21, 2009, a straw-burning detection experiment in Jiangsu Province on Oct. 21, 2009, when the crops have entered into the harvest period, was carried out here. Finally, the straw-burning fires detected by IRS were compared with that detected by MODIS, we found that their correlation coefficient R2 is 0.685 2, which validated the rationality and feasibility of the method in this study.
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    天水及其南北地区地热水水化学特征及起源
    温煜华, 王乃昂, 朱锡芬, 张华安, 马宏伟, 陈立
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 668-673.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.668
    摘要   PDF (700KB)
    运用水化学和同位素示踪的原理追溯地热水的水岩相互作用和起源,得出武山和天水地热水为pH较高(7.94~9.06)的低TDS(226~255 mg/L)HCO3型水,通渭和清水地热水为pH较低(7.1~8.07)的较高TDS(915~1 793 mg/L)SO4型水,地热水的水化学特征主要受不同的围岩及与围岩相互作用的程度所控制。地热水的δD和δ18O值说明地热水起源于大气降水,且未受水-岩同位素交换明显影响。综合应用各种地热温标,估算地热水的热储温度为70~111℃,属于中低温地热资源。对年均降雨量约500 mm的天水及其南北地区,应采取采、停交替的地热水利用方式。
    A geochemical study of geothermal water has been carried out in the Tianshui and its northern-southern area. Geothermal water of Wushan and Tianshui is bicarbonate water of low salinity characterized by pH in 7.94-9.06 and low total dissolved solids (TDS) (226-255 mg/L), which were probably formed by water-rock interaction between meteoric rain, biotite plagioclase gneiss rock and carbonate sediment in reservior. While geothermal water of Tongwei and Qingshui is sulfate water with characteristics of pH in 7.1-8.07 and high total dissolved solids (TDS) (915-1 793 mg/L), which may arised from water-rock interaction between meteoric rain, variscan granite and sinian amphogneiss. The isotopic data show that the origin of thermal water is meteoric water and not severely affected by water-rock isotope exchange. Assessments of various chemical geothermometer applied on the geothermal waters suggested the probable existence of a deep geothermal reservoir of middle-low enthalpy (70-111癈) in the Tianshui and its northern- southern area. The sustainable utilization of the thermal water will be maintained if the total withdrawal rate is relatively small, and an alternative pumping and non-pumping pattern is used in Tianshui and its northern-southern area with mean yearly rainfall of near 500 mm.
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    川渝地区气候与物候的变化特征分析
    王炳赟, 范广洲, 董一平, 华维, 周定文, 朱丽华, 张琪
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 674-681.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.674
    摘要   PDF (1430KB)
    利用川渝地区44个气象台站的气象资料和2个物候观测站的物候资料分析了该地区的气候与物候变化特征:最近10 a年均温度比前30多a高0.68℃,年均降水量基本无变化。低温主要分布在川西高原,低温天数、低温积温绝对值都在减少。日均最高温度在高原南部、西南山地减少,其它地区都增加;日均最低温度都在增暖。降水在四川盆地下降,在重庆西部、川西高原增加。降水日数在高原西部增加,其它地区都下降。春始期仁寿略微推迟,北碚微弱提前;秋始期都推迟。展叶期的杏树、刺槐、水杉、紫荆、梧桐推迟,紫藤、毛桃提前。落叶期仁寿刺槐提前,北碚的植物全部推迟。
    According to the daily temperature and precipitation data of 44 stations in 1961-2007 and part of the woody plant data of Beibei observation stations and Renshou observation stations in 1963-1988, the Chinese Academy of phenological observation network in Sichuan-Chongqing, temperature, precipitation, season, woody plant phenology variation were analyzed. The results showed that mean annual temperature of the last 10 years were 0.68 ℃ higher than the previous 37 years, and mean annual precipitation basically unchanged. Low temperature is mainly distributed in the western Sichuan Plateau, and the number of low temperature days and accumulated low temperature decreased. Mean daily maximum temperature in the southern region of the western Sichuan Plateau tended to decrease, while that in other regions increased. Mean daily minimum temperature was confirmed to have warming trends, and that in the southwestern Sichuan and the northern Sichuan Plateau grew faster. Precipitation in the central and southern of Sichuan Basin declined, southwest of Chongqing and western Sichuan plateau tended to increase. Precipitation days in the western Sichuan Plateau demonstrated an increasing trend, that in other regions tended to decrease, especially, those decreased rapidly in the east of Sichuan and Chongqing. According to Zhang Baokun Designate Temperature Method to define seasons, spring starting time delayed in Renshou, advanced in Beibei, and autumn starting time delayed in those two stations. In the leaf expansion phase, apricot and black locust of Renshou, and black locust, Metasequoia, Bauhinia, Indus of Beibei delayed, wisteria, peaches of Beibei advanced. In the leaf defoliation stage, black locust of Renshou advanced, but all plants of Beibei delayed.
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    天目山阔叶林的TM影像及其地形的分维相关分析
    单勇兵, 于法展, 李先华
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 682-687.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.682
    摘要   PDF (595KB)
    在RS、GIS技术支持下,对天目山地区的TM影像进行处理与分类,得到研究区的阔叶林空间分布图。运用GIS空间分析与SPSS统计功能,对阔叶林的TM影像及其所处的地形进行分维估算,研究其分维的空间分布规律。阔叶林的TM影像分维在高程、坡度和坡向3个方面有分布规律:随海拔的升高、坡度的增加, TM影像分维呈增加的趋势;阳坡、半阴半阳坡比阴坡的影像分维大。阔叶林的地形分维在高程和坡向2个方面有分布规律:随海拔的升高,地形分维呈减小的趋势;阴坡比阳坡、半阴半阳坡的分维大;地形分维与坡度没有关系。阔叶林TM影像与其地形的分维之间存在正相关。
    Broadleaved forest spatial distribution map in Tianmu Mountain has been obtained by classifying TM image on 11 October, 2000 ,with combining supervised and unsupervised technique method in the paper. A digital elevation model (DEM) was established from the vector contours in ArcGIS environment, which was derived slope and aspect. This paper describes quantitatively fractal dimensions of both TM images and terrain of broadleaved forest using the triangular prism surface area method (TPSAM), explores the distribution of fractal dimensions of them, and makes a correlate analysis between them using ArcGIS spatial analysis and statistic function of SPSS. The results indicate that: (1) The distribution of TM image fractal dimension of broadleaved forest is orderly. Fractal dimension of TM image shows an increasing trend with the increase of elevation and slope gradient. Fractal dimension of TM image on sunny, half-shady and half-sunny slope is larger than that on the shady slope. The distribution of TM image fractal dimension is closely related with the slope gradient. (2) The distribution of terrain fractal dimension is orderly on elevation and aspect. There is a decreasing trend of fractal dimension as elevation increases. Fractal dimension of shady slope is larger than that on sunny, half-sunny and half-shady slope, while the distribution of terrain fractal dimension on the slope is disorderly. The distribution of terrain fractal dimension is closely related with the elevation. (3) The study further shows that there is a positive correlation between the fractal dimension of TM image and terrain of broadleaved forest, and the distribution was physically explained.
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    基于遥感影像的于田绿洲空间热环境分布特征
    张飞, 塔西甫拉提·特依拜, 田源, 丁建丽, 买买提·沙吾提
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 688-694.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.688
    摘要   PDF (1582KB)
    以新疆于田绿洲为例,以Landsat TM/ETM+为基础数据源,利用空间分析方法、3S技术方法等定量分析于田绿洲平均温度的分布特征,得出地表温度受下垫面类型的影响比较明显,地表土地类型的分布基本决定地温的总体分布;通过对温度相异图的研究,发现温度的分布同时也受到不同土地利用类型空间分布的影响;对克里雅河下游河段进行温度变化的趋势分析,得出在南北方向上,没有温度变化趋势,而在东西方向上,温度变化比较明显。同时也说明克里雅河对其河道两边的影响范围十分有限。
    Oasis is a unique geographical system in the arid area, which is stricted by the material and energy flow of the Mountain-Oasis-Desertification system. So, it should focus on the study of the interaction process between the Mountain-Oasis-Desertification system, including the flow of energy among the oasis, desert and the mountains. This paper takes Yutian Oasis as an example, using Landsat TM/ETM+ as the data source and the temperature as an index to study the interaction process of the Mountain-Oasis-Desertification system. The article analyzed the oasis average temperature distribution, and the result showed that the surface temperature is determined obviously by underlying surface type and surface land type distribution influences the overall distribution of land temperature. Through the different temperature chart, it is found that the distribution of temperature is impacted by the spatial distribution of different land use types. The temperature trend analysis on Keriya River downstream obtained the result that in the north-south direction, there is no temperature change, and in east-west direction, the temperature changes obviously. Meanwhile, the influence range to both channel of Keriya River is limited.
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    光释光测年和孢粉分析揭示的晚冰期以来科尔沁沙地演化过程
    杨林海, 赖忠平, 周杰, 隆浩, 张静然
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 695-701.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.695
    摘要   PDF (1228KB)
    利用光释光测年技术对科尔沁沙地的7个风成砂-砂质古土壤剖面进行年代测试,结合地层和孢粉分析得到晚冰期以来科尔沁沙地的演化过程如下:16~10 ka B.P.,风成砂出现,沙地活化;10~3 ka B.P.,砂质古土壤发育,沙地固定;约3 ka B.P.前后,风成砂出现,沙地活化;3 ka B.P.至今,多层弱发育砂质古土壤和风成砂的交替出现,指示晚全新世科尔沁沙地的多次固定与活化;从约4~2 ka B.P.,沙地环境由草甸草原逐渐退化为典型草原。分析表明,3 ka B.P.以前科尔沁沙地的演化完全受气候变化的控制,之后(尤其是辽代以后)人类活动的影响日益增强。
    The Horqin dunefield is located in the northern frontier of East Asian Monsoon (EAM) zone, and its activation and stabilization is sensitive to the ebb and flow of the EAM. However, the activity of dunes in the Horqin dunefield is still poorly understood due to the limited numerical dating. The purpose of the present study is to explore the dune evolution using luminescence dating and pollen analysis in order to understand the relative role of climate and human activity. In the present study, 21 samples collected from seven sections in the Horqin dunefield were dated using quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating method. Combined with the stratigraphy, pollen materials and the OSL chronology, the dune avolution in the Horqin dunefield since the late glacial period can be summarized that before 16-10 ka B.P., aeolian sand dunes were mobilized; during 10-3 ka B.P., dunes were stabilized, with dark sandy soil development; at around 3 ka B.P., dunes were mobilized again abruptly; since 3 ka B.P., there were multiple phases of dune stabilization/mobilization. Between 4 and 2 ka B.P., the vegetation of Horqin dunefield degenerated gradually from the meadow steppe to steppe. Dune activity was dominated by climate before 3 ka B.P. However, since 3 ka B.P., both climate variability and human impact have influenced dune evolution in the Horqin dunefield.
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    新疆表土孢粉的植被定量重建
    冯晓华, 阎顺, 倪健
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 702-707.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.702
    摘要   PDF (588KB)
    利用一种新的全球植物功能型分类系统(PFTs)和标准的孢粉生物群区化定量技术(Biomisation),共36个表土孢粉采样点(200个表土孢粉样品)参与重建新疆植被的模拟。包括建立孢粉数据库、设计植物功能型、设计生物群区、利用Biomisation方法重建表土植被和古植被以及制图等主要内容。利用表土孢粉样品在垂直海拔上重建的生物群区与现代自然植被表现出较好的一致性,在水平地带分布上也获得理想结果,证明该模型可用于重建新疆过去地质历史时期古生物群区,并进行动态定量分析。
    A total of 200 pollen samples of surface soil and 685 pollen records were used to reconstruct vegetation patterns in Xinjiang, based on a new global classification system of plant functional types (PFTs) and a standard numerical technique for biome assignment (Biomisation). The work processes include the establishment of pollen database, the design of plant function types, the design of biomes, reconstruction of modern vegetation and palaeovegetation patterns using the Biomisation method and the palaeovegetation mapping. It has got better uniformity between the reconstructed biome using the pollen sample of surface soil and the modern natural vegetation in the vertical distribution, and it is also ideal in the horizontal distribution. It proved this model can use in reconstructing the palaeobiome during the geologic history and can do some dynamic and quota analyses in Xinjiang.
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    陇中和鲁西南乡村居民对当地气候变化感知研究
    常跟应, 李曼, 黄夫朋
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 708-714.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.708
    摘要   PDF (344KB)
    基于问卷调查、气温和降水资料等气象资料以及农业灾害资料,分析甘肃省会宁县和山东省单县乡村居民对当地气候变化感知情况,探讨影响感知的因素。研究发现,绝大部分受访者在大部分情况下正确感知到气候变化,但感知及其影响因素较复杂。气候变化及其产生的影响是制约人们感知的最重要的要素,决定了感知的总体特征;感知也受相较调查时间而言较为显著的气候变化情况发生时间远近、极端天气事件和更长时间尺度的变化趋势等因素影响,这些因素虽然是非主流的,但其影响也可能是决定性的。
    Based on questionnaire survey, climate data and agricultural disaster data, this paper concerned about how the rural residents in Huining County of Gansu Province and in Shanxian of Shandong Province perceived local climate change in the past 20 years and which factors influenced their perceptions. It is found that at the most cases, the majority of respondents could perceive the trend of local climate change correctly. It is argued that perception of respondents of local climate change is decided basically by the trend of climate changes and its effects on their production and daily life, but other factors, such as obvious climate change occurred recently and extreme weather conditions, play a decisive role in some cases as well.
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    广东省干旱趋势变化和空间分布特征
    郑彬, 林爱兰
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 715-720.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.715
    摘要   PDF (661KB)
    利用广东省86个地面站的降水和气温资料,定义广东省月干湿气候指数。定义的干湿气候指数可以明显地区分广东省干湿季,而且对春季粤南偏旱、秋季粤北偏旱也有反映,体现指数定义的合理性。趋势分析表明:全省2~3月、7~8月和12月明显变湿,而10~11月显著变干,其余月份趋势不明显。趋势分析结果指出,广东省未来的秋季旱情可能有加重的趋势,而冬春季旱情会有所缓解。各月趋势的空间分布有很大差异,分析结果指出,其年际变率的主要影响因子可能为海-气相互作用过程和陆-气相互作用过程。
    Although there is an annual mean precipitation about 1 700 mm in Guangdong Province, it greatly varies with season and region. Flood season (April-September) includes above 80% rainfall of a year, and meanwhile the rainfall has a significant intra-seasonal variability. On the other hand, large evaporation due to high average air temperature also balances some part of the great precipitation in Guangdong. An index to reflect the drought is defined using rainfall and temperature observations of 86 surface stations in Guangdong. The index distinguishes the dry and wet season in Guangdong and reflects the fact that there is a dryer climate in the south than elsewhere of Guangdong in spring and a wetter climate in the north in fall, which indicates the index is reasonable. The trend analyses give an understanding of the linear humidity change. For the whole province of Guangdong, the climates from February to March, from July to August and December tend to be wetter than before, and dryer from October to November and few changes in months else. The results show that the autumn drought would be more severe in the future and the winter-spring drought would be lighter. The spatial distribution of the linear trends has a great difference and its interannual variability is affected by air-sea and air-land interactions.
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    泾河流域近50年来的径流时空变化与驱动力分析
    张淑兰, 王彦辉, 于澎涛, 张海军, 刘革非, 屠新武
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 721-727.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.721
    摘要   PDF (538KB)
    利用近50 a的实测数据,分析了泾河流域的径流时空变化规律和主要驱动因子。研究表明:年降水量和径流深的空间分布均呈现从南到北的明显减少趋势,并在上游山区出现高值区。流域径流总量自20世纪60年代到21世纪初显著减少,由50.1 mm减到22.3 mm,但各区域的变化很不均匀,其中西部、西南和东南的子流域径流大量减少,可达17.5 mm/10 a;北部和东北则减少不明显,最大减少率仅为1.3 mm/10 a。降水量变化曾是径流减少的重要原因,但20世纪90年代后实施的退耕还林等生态工程在2000年后已经成为引起径流减少的最主要原因。
    The spatio-temporal variation of annual runoff in the Jinghe River Basin of Northwest China and its main driving forces were studied based on the meteorological and hydrological data over 50 years in this paper. It showed that the precipitation and runoff presented an obvious decreasing trend from south to north in the Jinghe River Basin, the high value areas of both precipitation and runoff existed in the upstream mountainous parts. While the averaged temperature in the basin increased significantly in last 50 years since the 1960s, the pan evaporation decreased slightly and the precipitation decreased insignificantly, the annual runoff of the whole Jinghe Basin decreased significantly from 50.1 mm in the 1960s to 22.3 mm at the beginning of the 21st century. However, the runoff reduction among subbasins differed significant, which manifested the highest runoff decrease in the west, southwest and southeast parts of Jinghe River Basin, with a reduction rate up to 17.5 mm/10a; while the runoff reduction in the north and northwest parts of Jinghe River Basin presented an unobvious runoff reduction, with a maximum reduction rate of 1.3 mm/10a. The change of annual precipitation is an important cause for the runoff reduction, but the change of soil surface characteristics due to human activities became more profound cause for the runoff reduction since the 1990s, including the increasing terrace field and forest/vegetation coverage resulted from a series of ecological restoration projects, such as grain for green and nature forest protection.
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    新疆塔里木河三源流径流量变化趋势分析
    凌红波, 徐海量, 张青青, 史薇
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 728-733.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.728
    摘要   PDF (851KB)
    运用非参数检验、R/S分析和小波分析等方法对塔里木河三源流的年径流序列进行了分析。结果表明:阿克苏河与叶儿羌河的突变点在1993年,而和田河在1978年;阿克苏河径流呈显著增加趋势而叶儿羌河增加不显著,结合其Hurst指数可知,在未来阿克苏河仍将保持增加走势而叶尔羌河将转变为减少;和田河径流呈轻微的减少趋势,其Hurst指数接近于0.5,具有随机性,不可做长程预测;阿克苏河在6、18、22 a周期性明显,和田河主周期为9和17 a,而叶尔羌河在3、9、13和17 a处周期性明显。
    Based on the observed annual runoff data of 5 hydrological stations in Tarim River headstreams areas from 1957 to 2008, the paper studied the annual trend, abrupt change, periodicity and the coming period trends by use of the nonparametric test, R/S analysis and wavelet analysis and so on. The results showed that: (1) Both Aksu river and Yarkand river of which the jump points happened at 1993 hold significant step change, but Hetian river expressed a slightly decreasing step trend and is not significant;(2)Aksu river holds a significant increasing trend but Yarkand river the trend is not, and based on the Hurst exponents(Aksu:0.777>0.5,Yarkand:0.485 7<0.5) of two the streams, the annual runoff of Aksu river will keep an increasing trend and Yarkand river will be in reverse in the coming period; Hetian river has a slightly decreasing trend and the Hurst exponent is 0.501 4, which equals 0.5 approximately and indicates that the annual runoff process is in chaos, then it can not be taken a long-term predict .(3) The primary periods of Aksu river and Hetian river are 6a, 18a, 22a and 9a, 17a respectively, otherwise, Yarkant river is at 3a,9a,13a and 17a.
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    玉龙雪山周边典型河流雨季水化学特征分析
    蒲焘, 何元庆, 朱国锋, 辛惠娟, 杜建括, 王淑新, 王世金
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 734-740.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.734
    摘要   PDF (610KB)
    2009 年5~10 月在玉龙雪山周边典型小流域白水河、三束河、哥吉河采集河水样品,水化学分析结果表明,三条河流河水均呈现弱碱性,主要离子组成表现为富集Ca2++Mg2+和HCO3-+SO42-,且以Ca2+和HCO3-为主,各类离子存在显著季节变化。离子来源分析表明,玉龙雪山周边小流域河水雨季主要受降水和岩石风化影响,大气降水对河水主要常规离子Na+、K+、Ca2+、Mg2+、SO42-的贡献率为分别为23.44%,9.66%,3.10%,17.81%,10.48%。研究区碳酸盐岩的风化产物是河水离子组成的主要控制因素。
    In order to study the characteristics of hydrochemical composition in rivers, water samples were collected in Baishui, Sanshu and Geji hydrological stations around Yulong Mountain. The results indicated that water of the three rivers is mildly alkaline with rich with Ca2+ and HCO3-. Obvious variations have been perceived during the rainy season. According to sources study of major ions, water of the three rivers were mainly influenced by precipitation and rock weathering function. The proportions of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and SO42- from precipitation in water are 23.44%, 9.66%, 3.10%, 17.81%, and 10.48%, respectively. In addition, the ion characteristics of river water were mainly influenced by carbonating weather. The human activities should not be ignored though its influence was little.
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    格陵兰海近海海域夏季海水水质特征分析
    宋天泽
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 741-746.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.741
    摘要   PDF (493KB)
    2010年7月,在北京青少年科技俱乐部组织的北极科学考察活动过程中,对斯瓦尔巴德群岛、格陵兰岛以及冰岛的近海海域进行表层海水水样、冰样及陆地径流的采集。对采集样品的9项指标分析结果表明,海水样品中未检到F-和NO3-;其他离子含量的排序依次为:Cl-,Na+,SO42-,Mg2+,K+,Ca2+,与自然海水常规离子含量的排序基本一致;各离子含量与氯度的比值与恒比定律中给出的值基本一致,证明了北极海水主要受到陆地降水直接补给。近岸海水的离子含量远远低于远岸海水的原因是由于冰川融化,通过地表径流的方式补给表层海水有关。斯瓦尔巴德群岛的地表径流中存在有NO3-,但对所采海水样品的检验中,未检测到NO3-,说明地表径流中的NO3-在海水的对流等作用下得以充分稀释。
    Sampling of surface seawater, ice and runoff were carried out during the Arctic scientific expeditions in July in 2010, which was organized by Beijing Teenager Science and Technology Club. The study area was coastal waters of Greenland, Svalbard and Iceland. The water quality analysis results showed that F- and NO3- were not detected. Concentrations of macro-components in seawater were sequenced as Cl- > Na+ > SO42- > Mg2+ > K+ > Ca2+, which was accordant with general seawater. The ratio between concentration of all ions and chlorinity followed the Marcet-Dittmar Constant Ratios Law which testified that Greenland Sea was mainly recharged by precipitation and runoff from mainland. Ion concentrations in seawater of inshore were much lower compared with that of offshore because surface seawater was recharged by runoff resulted from glacier melting. Despite NO3- was detected in runoff at Svalbard, the coastal seawater samples were determined without NO3-, which indicated that the NO3- in runoff was sufficiently diluted under the effect of ocean current.
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    地磁Ap指数与太阳黑子数的交叉小波分析及R/S分析
    王亚敏, 张勃, 郭玲霞, 戴声佩, 王兴梅
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 747-752.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.747
    摘要   PDF (754KB)
    利用1932~2009年间的地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数资料,用交叉小波方法和R/S方法分析了地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数的关系。分析结果表明,① 地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数在高频段上显著带的形状有一定程度的相似性, 具有显著和稳定的8.02~11.35 a的振荡周期;在低频部分, 地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数4~6月的周期变化不连续,仅在部分年份通过了95%的红噪声检验。② 地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数在8.02~11.35 a的频段上具有显著的共振周期, 且在此频段上地磁Ap指数落后太阳黑子数1.5 a左右稳定的相位变化。地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数在低频部分存在4~6月共振周期, 但二者的位相关系不稳定。③ 地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数时间序列的Hurst指数分别为0.79和0.81,表明地磁Ap指数和太阳黑子数都是持续的时间序列,且未来的变化将持续过去的变化趋势,具有长期记忆性和混沌特征。
    Two of the most widely used indices in geophysical research are the sunspot number as a measure of solar activity and the index Ap representing geomagnetic activity in the sub-auroral region. The sunspot number is a significant index of the solar activity because of its availability and reliability. Studies in solar terrestrial relationships have consistently shown the close and occasionally elusive link between the evolution of activity of the Sun and geomagnetic manifestations on the surface and in the magnetosphere. We use R/S assessing statistical singnificance and wavelet methods to assess statistical significance and confidence intervals of cross-wavelet phase and wavelet coherence. The Continuous Wavelet Transform is a common tool for analyzing localized intermittent oscillations in a time series. It is very often desirable to examine two time series together that may be expected to be linked in some ways. In particular, to examine whether regions in time-frequency space with large common power have a consistent phase relationship, causality between the time series is suggestive. Many geophysical time series are not normally distributed and we employed the Continuous Wavelet Transform. From two Continuous Wavelet Transforms we constructed the Cross Wavelet Transform which will expose their common power and relative phase in time-frequency space. We will further define a measure of Wavelet Coherence between two Continuous Wavelet Transform, which can find a significant coherence even though the common power is low, and show how confidence levels against red noise backgrounds are calculated. The rescaled range analysis (R/S) is proposed as a method to detect the correlations in pseudorandom number generators used in Monte Carlo simulations. In an extensive test, it is demonstrated that the R/S analysis provides a very sensitive method to reveal the hidden long-run and short-run correlations. Several widely used pseudorandom number generators are subjected to this test. In many generators, correlations are detected and quantified. In this paper, we used data of the Geomagnetic Ap index and the sunspot number from 1932 to 2009 to analyze the relationship between the Geomagnetic Ap index and the sunspot number by cross-wavelet method and the rescaled range analysis method. The results show that, 1) The Geomagnetic Ap index and the sunspot number have the similarity shape in the significant degree band with high frequency, and have a significant and steady oscillation period from 8.02 to 11.35 a; in the low frequency band, Geomagnetic Ap index and sunspot number have an uncontinuous oscillation period from 2 to 6 months, which is only a part of the year within the 95% of the red noise test. 2) There is significant in-phase resonance oscillation between the Geomagnetic Ap index and sunspot number in 8.02–11.35 a, in which the variation of the Geomagnetic Ap index occurs about 1.5 a after that of the sunspot number, and their phase relationship is steady. The Geomagnetic Ap index and the sunspot number also have relatively intermittent resonance periodicity from 4 to 6 months in the low frequency, but their phase relationship was not steady. 3) The Hurst index of the Geomagnetic Ap index and the sunspot number were 0.7923 and 0.8141, respectively. It indicated that the Geomagnetic Ap index and the sunspot number were continuous time series, and there existed a long persistence and chaoticity in the Geomagnetic Ap index and the sunspot number.
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    耕作方式对西南地区紫色水稻土全氮及碱解氮的影响
    祝滔, 郝庆菊, 江长胜, 袁雪
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 753-757.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.753
    摘要   PDF (341KB)
    以位于西南大学试验农场的紫色土长期免耕试验田为研究对象,探讨了不同耕作方式-冬水田平作(DP)、水旱轮作(SH)、垄作免耕(LM)、厢作免耕(XM)和垄作翻耕(LF)对紫色水稻土全氮及碱解氮的影响。结果表明,在0~60 cm的土壤深度内,不同耕作方式下土壤全氮的含量为LM (1.53 g/kg)>DP (1.50 g/kg)>XM (1.32 g/kg)>LF (1.31 g/kg)>SH (1.16 g/kg),碱解氮为DP (111.48 mg/kg)>LM (105.20 mg/kg)>SH (101.97 mg/kg)>LF (97.26 mg/kg)>XM (95.19 mg/kg),长期垄作免耕有利于土壤中全氮的提高。不同耕作处理下土壤C/N在7.96~16.56之间,免耕农作更有利于有机质矿化过程中养分的释放。
    Soil total nitrogen and alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen based on a long-term experiment with various tillage systems were studied in a purple paddy soil at the farm of Southwest University, Chongqing, China. The experiment included five tillage treatments: conventional tillage with rice only system (DP), conventional tillage with rotation of rice and rape system (SH), no-till and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (LM), no-till and plain culture with rotation of rice and rape system (XM), and tillage and ridge culture with rotation of rice and rape system (LF). The content of soil total nitrogen in the 0-60 cm soil layers under different tillage systems was LM (1.53 g/kg)>DP (1.50 g/kg)>XM (1.32 g/kg)>LF (1.31 g/kg)>SH (1.16 g/kg), the content of alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen was DP (111.48 mg/kg)>LM (105.20 mg/kg)>SH (101.97 mg/kg)>LF (97.26 mg/kg)>XM (95.19 mg/kg). Long-term LM treatment significantly increased soil total nitrogen content. The C/N ratio was LM (14.94)>XM (10.49)>SH (10.38)>LF (10.20)>DP (10.18) which indicated that an easier nutrients release to soil during the process of organic matter decomposition under no-till systems.
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    典型喀斯特石漠化地区表土孢粉与现代植被关系
    郝秀东, 欧阳绪红, 谢世友, 石胜强, 李林立, 罗伦德
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 758-763.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.758
    摘要   PDF (936KB)
    喀斯特石漠化地区6个不同植被类型的25个表土和苔藓样品的孢粉分析表明:(1)研究区植物孢粉共由47科属组成,以草本和蕨类植物占据优势,含量为23.62%~76.47%,其次是乔木[主要为马尾松(Pinus masso-niana)],含量为17.73%~74.05%,灌木植物花粉含量最低,为0~12.50%,显示该区植被退化严重;(2)研究区不同植被类型的表土孢粉组合差别明显,与其相应的实际植被情况大致相同,基本反映了石漠化地区现代植被的基本状况,表明孢粉可以为该区恢复和重建自然生态环境提供参考性依据。
    The pollen analysis of 25 topsoil and mosses samples under six typical types of vegetations in the Karst rocky desertification area showed that: (1) 47 pollen taxes are recorded totally, among which, herbs and ferns are dominate with 23.62%-76.47%,then the trees (mainly Pinus massoniana) with 17.73%-74.05%, and the shrub pollen is only about 0-12.50%, indicating the character of a serious degradation of local vegetation; (2) Pollen assemblages are obvious differentiation under different vegetations, which corresponding to the actual vegetation and reflecting the present conditions of the modern vegetation in the rocky desertification area, indicating pollen analysis can give a reference to the rehabilitation and reconstruction of natural environment in the study area.
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    中国沿海地区近20年台风灾害风险评价
    牛海燕, 刘敏, 陆敏, 权瑞松, 张丽佳, 王静静
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (6): 764-768.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.06.764
    摘要   PDF (571KB)
    依据自然灾害系统理论,综合考虑致灾因子和承灾体特征,提出台风灾害风险评价方法。在GIS环境下对中国沿海地区台风灾害危险性、脆弱性和风险进行分析评价。评价结果显示:海南省、上海市和广东省、福建省、浙江省的沿海区域台风灾害危险性较高;北京市、天津市、上海市和江苏省、山东省的大部分地区及广东省、福建省、浙江省、河北省的沿海区域承灾体脆弱性较高;海南省、上海市和广东省、福建省、浙江省的沿海区域台风灾害风险较高;而北京市、天津市以及河北省、辽宁省和山东省的大部分区域台风灾害风险较低。
    The risk assessment method of typhoon disasters was proposed according to the nature disaster system theory and considering the characteristics of hazard factor and bearing body. And in the GIS environment the hazard, vulnerability and risk of typhoon disasters in China coastal area were assessed. The assessment result showed that the hazard of typhoon disaster is higher in Hainan Province, Shanghai and the coastal areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang provinces. The vulnerability of bearing body is higher in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, the most parts of Jiangsu, Shandong provinces, and the coastal areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang, Hebei Provinces. The risk of typhoon disaster is higher in Hainan Province, Shanghai and the coastal areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Zhejiang provinces, while in Beijing, Tianjin and the the most parts of Hebei, Liaoning, Shandong provinces, it is lower the risk.
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