目前国内外对海岸带的界定尚不存在统一说法,虽然海岸带向海范围的界定相对一致,但海岸带向陆范围差异较大。而海岸带向陆范围的界定是海岸带空间合理规划、海岸带区域综合承载力准确评估的重要保证,对海岸带的相关研究起着重要的作用。此外,传统的海岸带界定方法均没有考虑海岸带的动态性及空间差异性,因此,基于Bass扩散模型原理,构建了“湖泊效应”模型,提出了等辐射力曲线的概念,设计了可行的海岸带陆地范围量化方法。以辽宁省为例,结合2001~2012年人口与经济的面板数据,通过GIS与1stOpt软件平台,测度了辽宁省6个沿海城市的海岸带陆地范围,并对其进行了时空差异分析。运用Gompertz模型,预测了辽宁省2013~2020年的海岸带范围,分析了其空间差异趋势。结果表明：① 海洋的辐射带动力持续增长,辽宁省海岸带范围随着时间在稳步向内陆扩张;② 区域经济较发达的地区,海岸带范围也较广;③ 大连市和营口市是辽宁省海岸带的增长极;④ 辽宁省未来8 a海岸带范围将继续向内陆扩张而空间差异将逐步缩小。
There is no unified view about the delimitation of coastal zone at home and abroad currently. Though the range of the coastal zone to the sea is relatively the same, the range of the coastal zone to the land differs enormously. The delimitation of coastal zone’s range to the land is an important assurance to rationally plan the expanse of coastal zone and to accurately evaluate the carrying capacity of the zone, which plays a vital role in relative study of coastal zone. Meanwhile, traditional methods about the delimitation of coastal zone ignored the time dynamics and space variability of coastal zone. And there are obvious deficiencies of traditional methods about the delimitation of coastal zone. Thus, on the basis of the principle of Bass new product diffusion model, this thesis creates the “Lake effect” model, and designs a doable method to measure the range of coastal zone to the land, overcomes the shortcomings of existing coastal zone theories. And this thesis puts forward the concept of the radiation force curve, summarizes three basic characteristics of the radiation force curve. Taking Liaoning Province as an example, used GIS to do the multiple ring buffer and overlaid with the Liaoning provincial administrative area, combined with panel data of population and economy from 2001 to 2012, this thesis has applied 1stOpt software platform to measure the coastal zone’s land range of the six coastal cities of Liaoning Province and did analysis of spatial and temporal difference of them. The Gompertz model was used to predict the coastal zone in Liaoning Province from 2013 to 2020 and to analyse the spatial differences in trend. Research results show that: 1) Bohai’s radiation driving force continues to grow and the coastal zone in Liaoning Province is expanding steadily to inland over time; 2) The regions with more developed economy have a wider range of coastal zone;3) Dalian and Yingkou City are the growth pole of coastal zone in Liaoning Province;4) In next eight years, the coastal zone in Liaoning Province will continue to have inland expansion and the spatial difference will be gradually shrink.
From the traditional geography to the computational geography, then to the socially aware computing now, the research of tourism geography changes revolutionarily. In the information society where the concept of big data arises at a historic moment, tourists’ behavior research has changed in such aspects as the data acquisition and calculation, the result feedback and so on. In the Big Data era, it is a tendency that human life is becoming more and more digital and networked by using sensor technology and situation aware technology to perceive human social behavior. Under this background, through a stepwise analysis of the development and connotation of socially aware computing, the tourism socially aware computing and its characteristics are confirmed. Based on predecessors' research, this paper analyzed the relationship between socially aware computing, tourists’ behavior research and the geographic world, and put forward the concept model of socially aware computing of tourists’ behavior by thoroughly analyzing the relationship among tourism management, sensing equipment, tourist activity and inference engine. Besides, this article also put forward socially aware computation analysis model and the study process of tourists’ spatio-temporal behavior. And taking the domestic tourists in Xi’an as a case, we discussed tourists’ spatio-temporal co-occurrence and tourists’ flow spatial structure in Xi’an, and studied the mutual relationship between tourists and their spatial behavior and the characteristics of network based on socially aware computation model. The result shows that the relationship between tourists is relatively weak, which is different from the resident, because sample data in this article are limited and the relationship of tourists is loose. In addition, by measuring district correlation, district transfer correlation and transfer tendency, the research also presents that there are very stable directed tourist flow transfer phenomena existing in the Bell Tower District, Qujiang District and Lintong District, so they can form an "iron triangle" of tourism development in Xi’an. The data were obtained from the travel notes and photos which tourists published in Sina Weibo. We are looking forward to providing a train of thought and reference for related research. Under the background of Big Data, the research of tourism is in the preliminary stage, so its correlation studies are limited. From other research fields, we can find that the researches of socially aware computing are concentrated on socially aware modeling, social data awareness, social interaction and rule analysis, intelligent and ancillary support and application. We anticipated the research direction of tourists socially aware computing in the future based on the current research progress of socially aware computing. In the future, this field will focus on the socially aware modeling of tourists’ behavior, the real time awareness and the tourists’ behavior data mining, tourists’ behavior rule analysis, the study under the intelligent and ancillary support, the application of “Smarter Tourism” and the moving socially aware computation.
利用中、美、日、韩四国一级行政区划近20 a的人口普查数据,进行人口老龄化区域类型的划分,总结这4个国家人口老龄化区域演变特征,并借助所构建地分析框架,进行人口老龄化区域演变实证分析。以人口老龄化的程度与速度作为划分其区域类别的主要依据,将人口老龄化划分成8个区域类型。通过人口老龄化区域类型的划分发现,日本已处于超老龄社会阶段,美国则一直在老龄社会阶段初期徘徊,而中韩刚进入浅度人口老龄化阶段。在实证分析与理论分析基础上,归纳总结发现：① 人口老龄化区域演变的影响因素大致分成4类：区位效应、社会保障、经济发展和人口惯性;② 经济差异直接导致区域人口老龄化的两极分化;③ 社会保障差异引导人口老龄化区域演变的方向。
As one of an important development trend and social problem in the first half of 21 century, population aging not only affects each regional sustainable development, but also changes global economic growth pattern. With provincial-level administrative units' census data of China, the United States, Japan and R O Korea for nearly 20 years, this article makes a division on population aging regional types, sums up the characteristics of population aging regional evolution, and constructs a theoretical framework of population aging regional evolution to do the related empirical analysis. In this article, with the extent and speed of population aging as the main basis for dividing its regional categories, population aging is divided into 8 regional types. By division of population aging regional types, this article finds: the differences of population aging regional evolution in 4 countries are very obvious. These countries are at different stages of population aging, namely, Japan has been in the stage of super-aging society, the United States has been hovering in the early stage of aging society, while China and R O Korea have just entered in the early stage of population aging. Based on the empirical and theoretical analysis, this article arrive the following three conclusions: 1) The factors of population aging regional evolution are roughly divided into 4 categories, namely, location effect, social security, economic development and population inertia. Among them, location effect is essentially the same, while population inertia remains demographic transition. Economic development is the dominant factor of population aging in junior stage, while social security is the dominant factor of population aging in the late stage. 2) Regional economic development differences directly results in the regional polarization of population aging. In the different stages of population aging, the regional polarization of population aging is significantly different, like the regional spatial structure of population aging as Japan and China. 3) The differences of social security guide the direction of population aging regional evolution. The geographical equalization extent of social security directly affects the regional distribution of aging population. This phenomenon is mainly obvious in Japan and the United States.
选择现代物流业相对发达的西部地区的中心城市—重庆主城区为典型案例,通过对物流园区实地调研与管理部门的访谈获取论证数据展开案例实证。重庆市主城区的物流园区的案例研究发现：① 物流园区的空间布局具有两大特征：一是围绕城市中心区外围布局,二是沿交通干线或重要交通设施布局;② 物流园区的自身建设是城市开发的重要组成部分,其空间布局对城市空间结构的影响一方面促进和引导城市建成区的向外扩张,另一方面体现在物流园区通过自身建设和对周边地区的带动改变城市的用地结构和内部用地功能。最后分析总结了物流园区对城市空间结构影响的4种机制：垄断机制、配套机制、地价机制和聚集机制。
The Chinese cities are experiencing the process of rapid globalization and urbanization, which makes the process of urban structure transforming more complicated. The relationship between the spatial layout of logistics and urban structure is meaningful to the urban theory and urban planning but less discussed. This article takes Chongqing’s urban area as a case, one of biggest cities and logistics center in western China, to analyze the influence of logistics parks to urban structure. We collected data by field work in all the logistics parks, especially by deeply interviewed with the managers of logistics parks and the officers from government. Firstly, we reviewed the development process of logistics parks in Chongqing City. Although it developed later, it has been experiencing a rapid industrialization process with a fast speed. Secondly, two location preferences of the logisitcs parks were found: one is near main road or main transportation terminal; the other is far from the urban center area; Thirdly, we argued that logistics parks have close relationship with the urban spatial structure. On the one hand, logistics parks locating outside of the urban area had led the sprawl of urban area through the transportation oriented development; on the other hand, they brought changes to the urban internal structure and function by guaranteeing the logistics land space and promoting the development of surrounded area. Fourthly, an interaction mechanism framework was conducted with urban governance factors and economical impacts. Finally, this article suggests that the direct and indirect interaction between the logistics park and urban structure should have different performance with different logistics parks. The future direction of research should be more cases study about the logistics parks and urban structure.
Nature resource was dominantly understood in physical terms previously. When nature resource was not considered abundant and freely available anymore, the ‘management’ of non-human natures became important with the capitalization and marketization of nature resources. Resource, therefore, is political as a specific outcome of competing claims over access to, controling over, and definition of nature. This process of social negotiation is highly relevant with the regulation concept. Adopting the above understanding of the nature resource and using the methods of field survey, document analysis and in-depth interviews, this article examines the power and social process of the regulation on one of the hot spring destinations in Guangdong Province. The results show that the central government, the local government, the developer and the local communities are all play significant roles on the regulation process. Following the market path regulated by the central government, the private developer gradually takes the place of the central government and becomes the influential actor by allying with the local government. To some extent, the alliance between the private developer and the local government dominates the regulation process of the hot spring destination, and even transgresses the market law. During this process, the property rights of the local communities are displaced or even deprived without the support of legal authorities. In order to achieve the goal of a sustainable and healthy development of the hot spring destination, the rights of the local communities should be considered and the more standardized market-oriented mechanisms should be formulated in practice. The concept of resource regulation describes the processes by which the inherent tensions over resource definition, resource access and resource use are managed and contained. Different from that of much geographical literature on resources which circumscribes resource regulation as resource management enacted by an administrative state, we argue that the equation of resource regulation with state-based institutions of resource management is anachronistic and unsatisfactory because this understanding ignores the role of non-state actors and local communities play on regulation process. It is not a way of ensuring inputs from nature or controlling pollution to flow to nature, but the negotiation of a dynamic landscape that is neither fully natural nor fully social. This managerial approach to resource relaxes the absolute view of physical scarcity by recognizing how society can produce or historically has produced supply shortages. Therefore, the study of resource regulations is significant in practice.
With the rapid economic development, social progress, and land use change in rural regions, rural territorial function and development orientation show more significant spatial differentiation and diversification. Taking the well-developed Jiangsu Province as a case, this article identified 4 rural territorial functions, i.e., ecological conservation, agricultural production, industrial development and social security, and calculated their values at county level in the years of 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010, quantitatively. The temporal evolution and spatial differentiation of rural territorial functions were studied, and the influencing factors were also analyzed. The main results were presented: 1) the values of rural territorial function increased fast since 1990, and the value in 2010 was about 23 times as much as that in 1990; 2) although the multifunctional feature of rural territorial function was evident, the function of industrial development was always of significant dominance and increased faster than the other functions; 3) the spatial agglomeration degrees of four rural territorial functions were low with variant agglomerative areas, that was, ecological conservation function mainly distributed at northern and southern parts, industrial development function was mainly distributed at the southern part, agricultural production and social security functions were mainly distributed at northern part; 4) the gravity centers of rural territorial function moved in pendulum style at the southeast direction of the geographic center, and the gravity centers of 4 kind of sub-functions were at different directions of the gravity centers of rural territorial function; and 5) the regional policies, natural geographical characteristics, spatial location and economic development were the main influencing factors of the temporal evolution and spatial differentiation of rural territorial functions. This article could provide a scientific reference for identifying the rural development orientation, promoting the differential development, enhancing the characteristics and competitiveness of different counties.
在城市区域化下,基本农田保护区（农保）成为都市区生态保育的重要空间载体及划定城市增长边界依据。以广州市白云区为例,以镇和行政村为基本空间单元,研究了1997年以来基本农田保护区空间演变过程,并构建指标体系,建立不同产权主体农保转用的数理模型,揭示农保政策对不同主体管制的差异及其影响因素。研究发现：① 广州都市边缘区农保被大量转用,并以转为集体建设用地为主;② 农保政策对不同主体的空间管制效果差异较大,可分为管制有效型、集体转用失效型、国有转用失效型三种类型;③ 国有转用主要位于镇区周边,是城镇化所需代价,集体转用主要分布于靠近城市中心而远离镇区的村庄;④ 区位及村庄对非农经济收入的追求是农地集体转用的主要原因,而社会变迁因素影响并不显著。总之,基本农田制度对政府的管制有效,对集体则失效,说明了对基本农田的保护不仅需要划定刚性的物理边界,还需协调集体产权所有者的利益。
In the context of rapid urbanization in China, the basic farmland conservation area,set as the main space control policy tool to constrict agricultural land converted to construction land since 1997, has become an important space carrier of ecological conservation and the foundation to delimitate the urban growth boundary in metropolitan area. Although some scholars hold their reservation of opinions to its real effect, the systematic empirical study about effect to different property right owners is not in-depth enough. 118 administrative villages in four towns were set as the basic spatial example units in north of Baiyun District,Guangzhou City, to study the spatial evolution process of the basic farmland conservation area from 1997 to 2012, based on the ArcGIS platform.Then the model was established to measure the effect of the basic farmland conservation area policy with three indexes, they are the proportions of basic farmland conservation area accounting for each villages, the ratios of agricultural land in 1997 converted to state-owned and collective owned construction land in 2012 respectively, for the sake to reveal the space control policy’s effects to different property right owners. Thirdly,the factors of the location, non-agricultural economic income and social change with 17 indicators, were imported to build the mathematical model to explore the space control policy’ effects to different property rights owners’behaviors and its influence.The study found that: 1) A large number of agricultural land was converted to non-agricultural use in the fringe of Guangzhou City. Most of them were converted to the collective construction land for non-agricultural industries development,giving priority to collective industrial land.Collective residential land is complementary, though it is forbidden by government. 2) The effects of space control policy of basic farmland conservation area are different between stated-owned and collective owned holders. These effects can be divided into three main types: the successful controlling, the failure controlling that leaded by collective behavior and the failure controlling that leaded by state behavior. 3) The failure controlling that leaded by state behavior is mainly located in the township around.This is the cost of urbanization through land requisition. The failure controllingthat leaded by collective behavior is mainly located in the villages close to the downtown and away from the township, with the aim to obtain city rent bonus while avoiding supervision from town government. 4) The location and pursuit of non-agricultural income from village collectiveby illegally converting agricultural land to non-agriculture use are the two main factors, which lead to policy control failure.But the social change factor is not significant. In short, the basic farmland conservation area policy has restricted the conversion behavior from government effectively.But it is failure to control collective action. It suggests that the physical boundary of basic farmland conservation area is not only the strict delineation, the interests of collective property rights owners need to be considered also.
选取上海市区7家三级甲等综合性医院,运用特征价格模型和多元回归分析方法,实证分析它们对周边住宅价格的空间影响效应。研究结果显示：① 总体上,相比其他环境区位因素,三甲医院对周边住宅价格的影响程度较小,而建筑面积、物业管理费、学区房、轨道交通、建筑楼高、至 CBD 的距离等因素的影响程度较大。② 三甲综合医院对周边住宅价格产生负面影响。在相同情况下,住宅离医院距离越近,则价格越低。住宅与医院的距离每缩短50 m,住宅价格平均下浮0.602%。③ 由于三甲综合医院区位各不相同,距离CBD远近不一,对住宅价格的影响也存在空间差异。一般来说,距离CBD越近,住宅价格受医院的负面影响也越小。
How to evaluate the impacts of urban public resources and facilities on the price of real estates has been the research topic in academic circles for a long time. Relative to the other urban public facilities such as subway stations or rail transit, large-scale parks and greenbelt, landscape water, universities or key primary and middle schools and so on, the relationship between hospital and housing prices has not caused enough attention. In this article 7 Class 3A comprehensive hospitals in Shanghai urban central areas were selected, using the Hedonic price model and multiple regression analysis method, to conduct an empirical analysis of the spatial effect of these hospitals on residential property prices. The results show as follows: 1) Generally speaking, compared to other environmental factors, the less impacts of Class 3A comprehensive hospitals were corducted on the surrounding residential property prices, and the factors such as building area, property management fees, school-nearby houses, rail transit, height of buildings, the distance to the CBD have greater influence on housing prices. 2) Class 3A comprehensive hospitals have a negative impact on the surrounding residential property prices. And in the same circumstances, as shortening the distance of houses to the hospital each 50 m, the average housing price fell 0.602%. 3) Because of the different location and distance to the CBD of Class 3A comprehensive hospitals, there is a spatial differencine in their impact on housing prices. In general, the closer distance to CBD is, the less negative influence housing price is affected by the hospital.
Timely and precisely monitoring of ecological responses to urban′s fast expansion has become a very important issue for regional decision-makers. To meet this requirement, this article utilized a recently developed, remote sensing based ecological index (RSEI) to assess the urban ecological quality change in Xiamen, an island city located in Fujian Province, southeastern China, during the past two decades. The RSEI was constructed by integrating four important ecological indicators including greenness, wetness, dryness and heat.It can be represented respectively by four remote sensing indices or components, i.e., normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), index-based built-up index (IBI), wetness component of the tasseled cap transformation (Wet), and land surface temperature (LST). The principal component analysis (PCA) was utilized to compress the four indicators into four PC components. Instead of using a simple, traditional weighted addition algorithm, the first component (PC1) was used to construct the RSEI because the PC1 is the best one among the PC components to represent the four indicators. Time-series Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images of 1993 and 2009 of Xiamen scenes, both acquired in summer season, were employed to compute RSEI and evaluate the ecological quality of the island. The successful application of the RSEI in Xiamen has reveled that, in spite of a fast urban expansion in the island during the study period from 1993 to 2009, the ecological quality of the island has not degraded substantially, because the RSEI value only declined slightly from 0.558 in 2003 to 0.534 in 2009. This is mainly owing to a scientific urban planning for the island city, which kept sufficient green spaces for the city and hence resulted in a much higher ratio of urban green spaces in 2009 than that in 2003. Nevertheless, low-grade ecological conditions have also been detected by the leveled RSEI map in the newly developed northwestern part of the island city, where the Xiamen Airport is located. The area, therefore, should be improved for the ecological quality in the near future. The RSEI-revealed results have also been compared with those using the index generated with a simple weighted addition algorithm. The result shows that the RSEI can explain the island city′s ecological status more reasonably than the latter.
With the progress of urbanization accelerating, urban construction land expansion has been an important problem which man-earth relationship and sustainable development have to be confronting with. All social circles also pay more and more attentions to these situations. This article takes the center city of Changchun as the research object, using the statistics data from 1800 to 1995, remote sensing map and planning statistics of 1995,2000,2005 and 2010, to extract the information of urban construction land scale, forms, increasing ranges, mean center by GIS, establish a simple way to identify the urban construction land expansion from 1995 to 2010 effectively, calculating the spatial characteristic quantity such as speed, strength, form compact degree and fractal dimension of urban construction land expansion, so as to generalize its situations and characteristics of Changchun along with urbanization since 1995. Combining with the economic social statistical data and region analysis method, to analysis the relationship between the urban construction land expansion and its various driving factors. The results show that urban construction land expansion and morphological evolution in Changchun possess its general law and specificity, construction land increasing, Industry-pull strength, fast sprawl, high strength, spatial imbalance, the similar direction between city expansion and construction land expansion. The major factor of the situations and characteristics is high density developing of opened traffic system under the atmosphere of rapid urbanization.
China’s megalopolises are in the stage of industrial space suburbanization, and the structure of urban functional space is showing rapid transition state. Based on the dynamic changes of urban functional space, using land-use map of 1995, 2003, 2011 and remote sensing image of 2011, taking ArcGIS as an analysis tool, the article analyzed coupling degree and coupling characteristics between industrial space and residential space, service space, transportation space, explored coupling mechanism between industrial space and the other three spaces. The study has shown that the differentiation of functional space was increasingly clear, industrial space was diverting out rapidly, the transfer of residential space and service space was seriously lagging behind, forming a pattern of large-scale urban functional zoning and bringing more serious problem of urban traffic congestion. The growth of each urban functional space and changes in the degree of coupling showed obvious geographic differentiation, which would cause differentiation of urban functional space to further increase and strengthen the overall zoning pattern of urban functional space. Industrial space and transportation space showed coupling features of approaching layout and hand coordination, but "close to nature" began to decrease, which is the reason that near field rigid expansion was still the main growth pattern of urban space, land development was primarily oriented urban spatial expansion, and traffic-oriented urban spatial expansion was not very clear. The article considered that the establishment of large industrial projects and development zones, compensation for the use of land and housing allocation system reform, motorization and the improvement transport facilities, technological innovation and social progress were the basic driving forces of coupling between industrial space and urban internal space. This study will provide empirical research for the study of mutual relationship between industrial space and other urban functional spaces in megalopolises, and provide theoretical guidance for formulating strategy of coordinated development of urban functional spaces.
以铁西老工业区为例,通过2000年、2005年和2010年的航片及遥感影像数据,结合300 m×300 m网格的5 206栋建筑单体的人工调查,基于GIS及制度理论,从空间重构视角揭示了微观尺度人地系统演化特征,阐明了人地结构变化的动力机制。铁西老工业区空间重构主要表现为级差地租支撑下的企业搬迁：1938~2000年呈南北格局,2000年后快速转化为东西格局。以政府、企业和公众为主要分析对象构建空间重构动力分析模型,结果表明：政策条件对人地系统演化具有直接影响,其作用效力依赖于产业结构类型及其与周边区域经济活动的关联性。
Understanding human-land relationships is essential for optimizing human activities in order to achieve local and global sustainability. China’s rapid urbanization is attracting much global attention; however, one of the challenges to achieve sustainable urbanization in China is to determine appropriate development mechanisms related to human-land relationships. As one of the typical industrial bases in China, the Tiexi District in Shenyang suffered from serious decline but now is shifting its industrial structure from heavy industries to tertiary ones, along with essential improvement of natural ecosystems and re-structuring of land use. Using Tiexi District as a case study, this article investigates the evolution of the human-land relationships in the context of urban spatial restructuring based on both qualitative and quantitative analysis of temporal and spatial elements. Following the literature review, a database was built, based on interpretations of aerial photographs of Tiexi in 2000 and of the Quickbird Images in 2005 and 2010, combined with a survey on existing buildings. Subsequently, GIS was employed to identify the evolution of both characteristics and driving forces of the human-land relationship changes at both micro and meso scales. The new economic and technical development zone provided opportunities and resources for enterprise redevelopment, especially related to four strategies: entire-move-out, partial-move-out, bankruptcy and redevelopment on original site. Structures and functions have changed markedly during 2000 to 2010. For example, industrial land use was reduced from 1 486 hm2 in 2000 to 842 hm2 in 2010 while residential land use increased from 1 077 hm2 in 2000 to 1 452 hm2 in 2010; commercial and service industries land increased from 59 hm2 in 2000 to 110 hm2 in 2010; and land use for public facilities, transport and roads and welfare remained almost the same level compared to that in 2000 and 2010. In addition, the per-capita living space of the residents has grown from 6.0 m2 in 2000 to 28.6 m2 in 2010; and, per-capita green land jumped to 4.15 m2 which was an increase of 39% compared to 2000. Finally, a total of 5206 buildings were investigated by a field-survey, and information was obtained for 3 702 of them regarding the year they were built, and of the land occupied, which was about 1 102 hm2. The results show that the land area covered by the buildings built during 2000-2010, 1980-1999 and 1949-1980 is about 743 hm2, 304 hm2 and 63 hm2, respectively. Since 2000 the land use distribution has shifted from a “South-North Pattern” to an “East-West Pattern” which confirms that the external resources and policy tools have had serious affects on the evolution of regional human-land development. Finally, government, public and private firms were identified as the 3 main agents and investigated their roles and interactions.
Blowouts are depressions produced by wind erosion, which occur on sandy coasts or lake shores and sandy grasslands in arid and semi-arid rergions. Topographic steering changes the velocity and direction of airflow within the blowout. Then a local difference in sediment transport exists, which changes the pattern of erosion and accumulation and reforms the morphology of the blowout. Topographic changing reacts on the near-surface airflow and forms the feedback and response mechanism between morphology and dynamics. This article briefly reviews the processes of morphodynamic and evolvement of blowouts, and analyzes its study trends, hoping to provide some reference for similar researches in the future. Although lots of progresses have been made in study of dynamic and evolvement of blowout, there are still many aspects need to be improved. First of all, airflow patterns in blowout are complicated, because of the limited field data, we often get an unreal construction and a poor understanding of airflow patterns. In order to aquire more sufficient field data and precise analysis, more intense observation sites and continuous observations are needed. Secondly, temporal and spatial scales of previous researches in blowout are relatively small. Most of the research just focused on the dynamics and evolvement of individual blowout, but ignored the others’ in the same region; and limited observations to the current developmental situation, but ignored the processes or morphology in the past and future. In order to summarize a relatively complete evolutionary pattern of blowouts tentatively, the large-scale and long-term monitorings to the blowouts, which in variety of developmental phases are requisite. At last, compared with foreign researches which made certain achievements in coastal blowouts, domestic researches in evolutionary processes of inland blowouts which developed in different conditions and different genesises are deficient. Many blowouts which in various developmental phases occurred in arid and semi-arid regions in north China, evolutional laws could be summarized according to their conditions and morphological characteristics. Then make comparisons with relevant research results of coastal blowouts, and validate their applicability in terrestrial environments.
Loess Plateau is the world's most serious soil erosion region. Slope runoff erosion, as the main type of soil erosion, has been priorities and hotspots of soil and water conservation disciplinary about its relation with environmental factors. 23 soil samples under slope runoff erosion during 12 periods were collected as the objects around Wuqi County in the northern Shaanxi, China. The methods of TWINSPAN and DCCA were applied to interpret the relation between environmental factors and slope runoff-erosion-sediment. Results indicated that soil samples in same topography positions and vegetation factors gathered. Eigenvalues of all sorts axis is 0.313, accounting for 83% of environmental interpretation. The cumulative explaining amount of the first 4 axis is 57.5% for runoff erosion and 56.9% for the relationship between runoff erosion and environmental factors. Meanwhile, interpretation of the first two axis accounted for 65% of all sorts axis which indicates the first two axis reflecting the most information of runoff erosion-environment relationship. First axis reflected the influence of soil pH and slope position on runoff erosion, and second axis manifested influence of soil bulk density on runoff erosion. The third and fourth axis reflected, respectively, influences of altitude and dry root weight. Among environmental factors, correlation coefficients of slope position were -0.46, 0.61 and 0.64 to soil pH, elevation, capillary porosity respectively. The correlation coefficients were -0.63 and -0.81 between slope and soil bulk density, plant cover, and the correlation coefficients were -0.37 and -0.57 between soil bulk density and soil organic matter, root dry weight. Sediment content of runoff erosion presented as hilly top <hilly slope <gully slope <gully bottom according to the topography positions. And also presented as shrub forest<mixed wood<pure needless forest<pure broadleaf forest according to forest types, which is similar as the result of clustering analyses. Human activities including site preparation and road construction have great impact on runoff-erosion-sediment. The erosion was stronger in level-terrace than that in scale pit. And the erosion near paths was weaker than others. Sediment concentration followed by form of wave with periods and be divided into 5 periods which were from 0 minutes to 8 minutes, from 8 minutes to 13 minutes, from 13 minutes to 19 minutes, from 19 minutes to 26 minutes and from 26 minutes to 34 minutes. Although environmental factors played a minor role on Runoff-erosion-sediment process according to DCCA analysis, periods of sediment yield can be reasonably divided by DCCA which illustrate sorting method of DCCA also played an important role describing runoff erosion process.
通在黄河三门峡水文站进行1 a的连续采样分析和调水调沙期间的密集采样分析,揭示了三门峡水库水沙调控对黄河有机碳输送过程的影响。结果表明,在水库调水调沙期间,三门峡站POC含量与TSS含量同步增加,而DOC含量变化趋势不明显;在1 a内,DOC和POC含量均有明显的季节变化。三门峡站POC年通量为124.8万t,其中调水调沙期间POC输送量约占POC年通量的38%,水库敞泄期间（8~9月）的POC输送量约占POC年通量的60%;三门峡站DOC年通量为7.6万t,其中7~9月DOC输送量约占DOC年通量的52%。
The Sanmenxia Reservoir, controlling 89% of the water and nearly 100% of the sediment, is an important hydro-junction in the middle reaches of the Huanghe River. By sampling within a complete hydrologic year at the Sanmenxia Station and intensive investigation during water-sediment regulation period, combining with the hydrological data over the same period, impacts of the Sanmenxia Reservoir on organic carbon transport processes was revealed by the operation mode. Water storage, sediment interception (water and sediment regulation), and open discharge were well studied. Results indicated that the particulate organic carbon (POC) rise simultaneously with the sharp increasing of total suspended particle (TSS) contents, whereas the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content showed no significant change during the water-sediment regulation of the Sanmenxia Reservoir. Over the whole year, DOC content implied significant seasonal change, which was higher in January-February and July-September, lower in other months; POC content showed higher from July-September but lower in the other months. At the Sanmenxia Station, annual POC flux was 1.248 million t, of which POC transport in July accounted for about 38% of the total, and POC during August-September occupied 60% of the total. Annual DOC flux was 76,000 t, the part during July-September was 52% of the annual total. Under the influence of the reservoir, organic carbon transport was dominated by POC during the flood season, while mainly controlled by DOC during the dry season. On the whole year, the organic carbon transport was firstly affected by POC, which was about 16.5 times of DOC. Influence of Sanmenxia Reservoir on organic carbon transport in the Huanghe River was significantly different from other reservoirs, by not only intercepting POC in the dry season, but also discharging a large number of intercepted POC during the flood season. Moreover, organic carbon could transports directly from the upstream to the downstream during discharge period from August to September
Understanding past climatic impact on agrarian social and economic processes and how human beings responded and adapted to climate change in cultivation behavior can provide good lessons for the adaptation for global change in current and future. China has an overwhelming advantage in using historical document to study past climate change and its impacts on agricultural and social development. First of all, this article compiled records related to crop structure in Urumqi from the memorial compilation of the Qing Dynasty and poems written by Ji Xiao-lan. Based on the records of different periods, the temporal patterns such as the trends of crop structures were analyzed combined with the sequence of climate change which was reconstructed from tree ring in the northern Xinjiang during the Qing Dynasty. We finally obtained the following conclusions. 1) Crop structure changes during 1732-1860 displayed a consistent response to climate change. In three cold stages, which were 1732-1744, 1776-1796, and 1828-1848, respectively, chimonophilous crops such as highland barley, corn millet, and wheat accounted for a significant proportion. Records like "frequent frost disasters and water shortages resulted in huge reduction in grain yield" were frequently presented. 2) In three warm stages, which were 1745-1775, 1797-1827, and 1849-1860, respectively, crops such as peas, wheat, and millet that adapted to warm climate conditions were planted successfully and their planting area increased gradually. In addition, this period witnessed a higher production under conditions of warm climate, enough water supply and less meteorological disasters. In order to obtain more benefits, farmers began to reclaim land and change the planting structure, such as expanding the planting area of peas and wheat, and stopping growing highland barley. More and more food production led to a drop in food prices, which can be verified by the corresponding records from the ancient Chinese poems written by Ji Xiao-lan. 3) The overall trend of crop structure shows that cold crops coincided well with cold climate before 1785, whereas warm crops coincided well with warm climate appearing since 1785. After 1785, some crops like cotton and winter wheat that had not been able to be planted before 1785 then could be cultivated along with higher temperature. The records in 1826 showed that winter wheat grew well and its planting area expanded. Agricultural planting structure change as a response to climate change in the northern Xinjiang is a demonstration of human response to climate change. The practical significance is very obvious. People can adjust positively the agricultural sector to obtain a more reasonable agricultural production. Moreover, we should take adaptive measures in time to adapt to the impact of global warming, make full use of agricultural resources, and draw on advantages of climate change and avoid disadvantages.
利用1972年MSS,1990、1999年TM和2013年ETM+遥感影像资料作为数据源,通过目视解译结合GIS技术,提取博格达峰地区4期冰川边界,同时对研究区周边气温降水进行趋势分析和周期分析,研究其与冰川的响应关系。结果表明：① 1972~2013年冰川面积退缩了23.79%（占1972年）,退缩速率为0.58%/a。1972~1990年冰川退缩较慢,为0.38%/a,近20 a来冰川退缩加剧,达到0.74%/a;② 冰川规模越小,退缩越快;③ 东南坡退缩最快,东坡次之,北坡最慢;④ 冰川退缩比率随坡度的变化呈正态分布;⑤ 研究区处于气温偏高期,降水偏少期,气候变暖是冰川退缩的主要原因;⑥ 对比发现该地区与天山其他区域冰川退缩速率相吻合。
Mountain glaciers are important fresh water resources in the arid region and they are also one of potential climate indicators because of their sensibility to climate changes. With the background of Global Warming since the 20th century, the widespread retreats of mountain glaciers in China have had a profound impact on local people's lives, the environment and socio-economic survival, under this condition, we can not only understand the characteristics and trends of glacier change, but also understand the relationship of glacier response to climate change, and thus likely to predict future changes in glacier. Research on glacier change has been limited in Chinese Tien Shan Mountains, despite the fact that the number of glaciers in the Tien Shan Mountains is the largest among all mountain ranges in China, and the glaciers in this region provide very important water resources for local economic development and drinking water for man use. The Bogda Peak regions belong to Tien Shan. Therefore, monitoring Bogda Peak region the changes of glaciers is essential. Moreover, the melt water in Bogda Peak region is a reliable supply of water for Aries River Basin, the Turpan-Hami basin and basin Chaiwopu, so the scientific value is a lot. Based on the Landsat 1972 MSS, 1990 TM, 1999 TM and 2013 ETM+ remote sensing image datum, the glacier information of four periods in the study area was extracted by using visual interpretation and GIS. Meanwhile, the surrounding climate datum were also analyzed in this paper. The results showed that: 1) During 1972-2013, glacier areas in study region decreased by 23.79% of 1972, the average annual withdrawal rate was 0.58%. In1972-1990, the glaciers retreated slowly, with an average annual withdrawal rate of 0.38%, glaciers retreat increased in the last 20 years, an annual retreat rate of 0.74%; 2) The smaller glaciers displayed a higher shrinkage rate than the larger glaciers; 3) The southeastern slope of study area retreated fastest, following east slope, northern slope was the slowest; 4) The retreat ratios of glaciers in the study area showed normal distribution trends with slope changes; 5) Glaciers of the study area were mainly distributed at the altitude ranging from 3 600 to 4 200 m, there was a clear increasing trend, especially in low altitude; 6) In the region, warming trend was obvious, while precipitation changed little, Rising temperature was the main reasons for the study area glacial retreat; 7) Compared with other regions in Tien Shan of China, this region glaciers retreat was consistent with other Tien Shan regions; 8) It is difficult to analysis glacier changes for our study in the long run for lacking of Multi-temporal remote sensing records. There are also many errors in the process of extracting glaciers because its surroundings about the spectral characteristic are close. As a result,it affects the accuracy of the monitoring of glacier changes.
The coastline is interaction zone between land and sea. It is an important ecotone for global ecosystem conservation. The coastline classification is organization of varied coastline into classified types according difference rules. It is the foundation for coastline protection, use and marine resources integrated management, however, the coastline classification has stillnot been addressed systematically even nowadays. Aimed to clarify the coastline classification system, this article discuss the coastline classification system according to natural attribute and spatial pattern, exploitation, functional use, temporal scale, management requirement, ect of coastline. First, the coastline can be divided into natural coastline and man-made coastline. The natural coastline is result of natural interaction between sea and land, while the man made coastline is sea-land demarcation line which forms by cofferdam or dyke by human sea exploitation activities. Then the coastline is divided into rocky coastline, sandy coastline, silt coastline, biological coastline and estuary coastline according to geological characteristics in intertidal zone and coastline spatial pattern. The rocky coastline is comprised by rock in the intertidal zone and the contour of the coastline is very irregular. The sandy coastline is made up by sand and gravel in the intertidal zone and its contour is straight. The silt coastline is made up by silt in the intertidal zone and distributes near the estuaries. The biological coastline is formed by biological function, such as mangrove coastline and coral reef coastline. While the estuary coastline is surface demarcation between river and sea in estuary region. Third, the coastline can be divided into fish coastline, port coastline, industry coastline, tourism and leisure coastline, urban coastline, mineral and energy coastline, protection coastline, special purpose coastline and unused coastline. The fish coastline is used for fishing and fish resource conservation. The port coastline locates in the port area and connect with deep water region. The industry coastline is connect with industrial park or industrial region. The tourism and leisure coastline is locate in tourism region, which include coast landscape coastline, bathing coastline and amusement coastline. The urban coastline distributes near the urban,where the public can touch freedom. The mineral and energy coastline is use for sea salt production, oil-gas field and other mineral production. The protection coastline is locate in marine protected areas or coastline which need protected. The special purpose coastline include tide prevent coastline, education and research coastline and others. In addition, the coastline can be divided intohistorical coastline, current coastline and future coastline in temporal scale. And it is also can be divided into management coastline and actual coastline, the mainland coastline and the island coastline, erosion coastline and stable coastline, ect. Then some questions about coastline classification is discussed to distinguish the typical coastline, finally.