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    10 April 2021, Volume 41 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Estimating and Interpreting China’s Hukou Migration Under the Strategy of New-type Urbanization
    Liu Tao, Liu Jiajie, Cao Guangzhong
    2021, 41 (4):  553-561.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.001
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    Migration in China is a process that involves not only floating to destinations but also settling down there by gaining local Hukou. The second step, in particular, has become the primary concern of the recent new-type urbanization. But, important as it is, our knowledge about this particular step is severely restricted due largely to data limitation, and this article tries to overcome the restriction. In the article, we first estimate the number of Hukou migration at the 277 prefecture level cities (not including Sanya, Danzhou, Haidong, Hulunbuir, Bayannur, Wuhu, Bengbu, Zhengzhou, Pingdingshan, Nanyang, Huangshi and cities of Xinjiang, Xizang, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan) between 2011 and 2017; We then compare its spatiotemporal patterns with those of floating population over the period, and we further evaluate the impact of New-type Urbanization Plan on its patterns. Results show that Hukou migration has become increasingly active in recent years, and its spatial patterns are highly similar to those of the floating population. Popular destinations are primarily situated in the three coastal regions, whereas the geographic distribution of origin is much less clustered, with the highest out-Hukou-migration being found in the middle Yangtze River and Northeast China. Mega-cities are where the local Hukou is most pursed, first-tier cities maintain a persistent attraction for Hukou migration; and the emerging second-tier cities have seen a rapid increase in the intake of this migration. Small and median-sized cities, by contrast, are very uncompetitive, despite that all the restrictions on Hukou transfer have been removed there. These cities have even seen an increasing out-migration of their Hukou-holders. The results revealed here are the basis on which our advice for policy makers are made. The advice is not simply on the issue of Hukou reforms, but also touches the topics of balanced regional development and reduced urban inequality. The results also highlight the exciting research prospect of both Hukou migration and new-type urbanization, a prospect that requires both creative imaginations and vigorous investigations of China’s prospect of both Hukou migration and new-type urbanization, a prospect that requires both creative imaginations and vigorous investigations of China’s migration.

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    Influencing Factors and Disequilibrium of Urban Municipal Infrastructure in China: Analysis Framework Based on City Classification
    Lin Jianpeng, Cao Xianqiang, Zhang Yinghui
    2021, 41 (4):  562-570.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.002
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    The research on the evaluation of municipal infrastructure is of great significance for building a solid foundation for urban development, promoting the new business forms of urban development, and promoting the coordinated development of urban economic growth, social development and ecological environment protection. In order to correctly understand the development status of China’s municipal infrastructure level, factor analysis, spatial statistical analysis, overall difference index and decomposition methods were used to analyze the evolution of municipal infrastructure factors, disequilibrium and the relationship with economic development level in 36 key cities, 253 ordinary prefecture-level cities and 338 county-level cities in 2006, 2011 and 2016. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The factors, non-equilibrium, spatial distribution, and evolution of municipal infrastructure in different levels of cities have both commonalities and differences. 2) Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, the focus of urban municipal infrastructure investment has changed, with more emphasis on people-centered urbanization. The correlation between the level of municipal infrastructure and the level of urban economic development has weakened between 2012 and 2016, and infrastructure investment has begun to pay more attention to people’s livelihood. 3) On the whole, the spatial distribution of urban municipal infrastructure level is characterized by higher in the east, central in the middle part, and lower in the northeast and west of China. At the same time, it has a positive spatial autocorrelation. 4) The overall, regional and inter-regional non-equilibrium of municipal infrastructure in key cities are higher than those of ordinary prefecture-level cities and county-level cities. 5) The inequality between regions is the dominant source of the current non-equilibrium problem of China’s municipal infrastructure. 6) The non-equilibrium between the level of municipal infrastructure and urban economic development is not a simple linear correlation.

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    Spatial-temporal Coupling Relationship Between Basic Public Service Efficiency and Urbanization Quality in China
    Yin Peng, Wang Fuxi, Duan Peili
    2021, 41 (4):  571-579.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.003
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    Taking 31 provinces (not including Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan) in China in 2007-2017 as the research object, on the basis of clarifying the coupling mechanism of basic public service efficiency and urbanization quality, this article constructs the evaluation index system of basic public service efficiency and urbanization quality. The data envelopment analysis model and entropy method are used to measure the basic public service efficiency and the urbanization quality. The coupling coordination degree model and the obstacle degree model are used to analyze the spatial-temporal characteristics and main obstacle factors of the coupling coordination. The results show that: 1) The basic public service efficiency presents a relatively fluctuating dynamic process, and the fluctuation range of comprehensive efficiency is the largest, the change range of pure technical efficiency is the smallest and the level is the highest, the change trend of scale efficiency is consistent with the comprehensive efficiency, and the level is the lowest. The spatial differentiation characteristics are not obvious in China. The urbanization quality increases year by year, but the growth rate slows down. The size of the subsystem is population urbanization, economic urbanization, ecological urbanization and space urbanization in turn. The urbanization quality of Guangdong Province is the highest, and that of Qinghai Province is the lowest. 2) The coupling degree between basic public service efficiency and urbanization quality in China is mainly in the antagonistic coupling stage, and the coordination degree is mainly in the reluctant coordination type, showing obvious non synchronous development characteristics. Guangdong has the highest coupling coordination and Qinghai has the lowest coupling coordination. 3) The first five obstacle indicators affecting the coupling coordination between basic public service efficiency and urbanization quality are harmless treatment rate of domestic waste>green coverage rate of built-up area>proportion of urban population>per capita social security expenditure>per capita social fixed asset investment. The barrier degree of basic public service efficiency is obviously higher than that of urbanization quality. Finally, the corresponding policy recommendations are put forward from three aspects.

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    Spatial Network Structure and Influence Mechanism of Green Development Efficiency of Chinese Cultural Industry
    Zhang Tao, Wu Jinshuang
    2021, 41 (4):  580-587.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.004
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    Improving the green development efficiency of cultural industry is an important engine for the transformation of old and new energy. It is of great significance to grasp the spatial relationship of green efficiency of regional cultural industry for the coordinated development of national cultural industry. First of all, we use SBM model to measure the green development efficiency of the cultural industry in 30 provinces of China, and find that the average value of green development efficiency of cultural industry in eastern, central and western regions of China is gradually decreasing, and the central and western regions are lower than the national average. Secondly, based on the green development efficiency value of cultural industry, the spatial correlation model is constructed. The results show that: 1) The spatial correlation of green development efficiency of cultural industry in China has broken the geographical position limit, but the overall network density is still low; 2) Henan and Shandong play a central role in the spatial network, which is different from the commonly known view that developed provinces are located in the network center, which may be related to the current classification of cultural industry; According to the block model analysis, the main performance is that there is a significant spillover effect within the block; 3) The differences in human input, economic development level and space distance in the cultural industry have a significant impact on the spatial correlation of green efficiency of the cultural industry, in which the difference in human input is a positive impact and the other factors are negative.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution and Export Growth and Decline Mechanism of Export-oriented Foreign-invested Enterprises in China
    Xia Xinming, He Canfei
    2021, 41 (4):  588-597.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.005
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    Since the 1990s, China has shifted to an export-led economic growth model, with imports and exports playing an important role in economic growth. The research object of this article focuses on export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises, which are foreign-invested enterprises mainly engaged in export trade. This article describes the evolution of the geographical pattern of export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises in China by using the export data of China Customs Trade Database from 2000 to 2013. In general, since joining the WTO, China’s export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises have shown a growing trend, and the change trend of their export trade volume is also basically consistent with the change trend of China’s overall export trade. The export products are mainly capital-intensive and technology-intensive products, while these two types of products are the most affected by the financial crisis, which to a certain extent reflects the process of China’s deepening openness. The distribution of export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises in China exhibits an uneven distribution, mainly concentrated in large cities. Spatially, Chinese export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises are concentrated in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, Shandong Peninsula and Liaoning Province. There exists a gradual diffusion from coastal areas to central and western regions and from core cities to surrounding cities. From the perspective of export markets, Chinese export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises are exporting to more diversified destinations, and the export value has increased massively. In this article, an export city-destination country panel model is developed to explore the growth and decline factors of export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises. The results show that export growth and export recession of export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises are the result of the interaction of various factors, which embodies the theory of evolutionary economic geography, agglomeration externality and the eclectic theory of international production. And three hypotheses are verified. Firstly, there is a significant contribution of spillover effects from path dependence to export growth and a certain degree of hindrance to export recession. Secondly, local conditions play an important role in the location selection of export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises. Thirdly, policies have an impact on the development of export-oriented foreign-invested enterprises, and government decision-making plays a complementary role in the development of market economy.

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    Spatio-temporal Evolution of Geopolitical Relations in China, the United States and China’s Neighboring Maritime Countries
    Peng Fei, Song Xueke, Zhang Qiqi, Yang Xin
    2021, 41 (4):  598-605.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.006
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    Use social network analysis for visual analysis, analyze the network characteristics of geopolitical relations among China, the United States and China’s neighboring maritime countries at different stages and highlight hotspot countries through a variety of community exploration features. Finally, based on the change of the United States regime, the main reasons for the changes in geopolitical relations among countries in the region are explained. The results show that: 1) The evolution of geopolitical relations among China, the United states and China’s neighboring maritime countries from 1991 to 2018 was divided into two stages, the first stage was a period of steady development from 1991 to 2007, and the second stage was a period of ups and downs from 2008 to 2018. The total level of interest and the influence of events among China, the United States and China’s neighboring maritime countries have increased year by year, and the degree of mutual influence between countries has also deepened. It can be seen that the geopolitical relationships among China, the United States and China’s neighboring maritime countries has become increasingly complex, and the interaction between countries has become increasingly fierce. 2) There are certain spatial characteristics of the geopolitical relationship network at this stage, which are mainly reflected by the change in the scope of influence between China and the United States. At the same time, prominent hotspot countries in the region have also changed. The hotspots of China, the United States, Japan, R O Korea and D P R Korea . It has gradually evolved into China and the United States. The increasing influence of China and the United States in the region has directly affected the trend of geopolitical relations between China, the United States and China’s neighboring maritime countries. 3) The United States is the first country to influence geopolitical relations between China and neighboring maritime countries. The government’s use of previous foreign policies has had different impacts on regional geopolitical relations and is consistent with the development of geopolitical relations in China and neighboring maritime countries.

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    Research Prospect and Progress of Port Geography in China
    Deng Zhao, Li Zhenfu, Guo Jianke, Zhou Yutao
    2021, 41 (4):  606-614.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.007
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    Based on the bibliometric tool—CiteSpace, this article analyzed the research institutions, research teams, research hotspots and research stages of Chinese Port Geography, and summarized the general characteristics of Chinese Port Geography research. The study found that Chinese Port Geography has achieved a rapid development and the research methods and contents of Chinese Port Geography are diversified increasingly, some of the emerging research perspectives such as shipping companies and shipping networks, green low-carbon ports etc, are starting to rise, and become an important research direction of Port Geography gradually, besides that there is a lack of close cooperation and high academic consensus between research institutions in Chinese port geography. Finally, focusing on the discipline development of Port Geography and the needs of national strategy, we discussed the future development trend of Chinese Port Geography from the following 5 aspects: to improve the concept and basic category of port geography; to expand the theoretical innovation research in a global perspective; to strengthen the mechanism exploration based on microscopic perspective; to discuss the practical and theoretical exploration of disciplinary integration and to intensify a policy and practical exploration for national strategy.

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    The Rank-size Distribution of Civil Airport System and Its Mechanism in the Yangtze River Delta
    Jiang Haining, Cai Shiyao, Li Bo
    2021, 41 (4):  615-624.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.008
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    The rank-size rule was adopted in this paper to analyze rank-size distribution characteristics of the civil airports in the Yangtze River Delta based on the data of passenger and cargo throughput during 1990-2019, and then combining with the kernel density method, its mechanism of rank-size distribution characteristics of the civil airports in the Yangtze River Delta. The results indicate that: The civil airport system at the Yangtze Delta region shows characteristics of rank-size distribution, with significant differentiation in terms of the rank-size distribution of ports and scales. Then, the number of scale-free areas increases at first and then decreases based on the rank-size distribution of passengers throughput of civil airports. The civil airport system has gone through four stages: highly centralized distribution, emerging airport development, differentiated development of large, medium and small airports and integrated development of airports, while the change trajectory of the rank-size distribution based on cargo throughput has gone through four stages: dominance of large airports, slow development of new small airports, self-breakthrough of small and medium-sized airports and differential development of small and medium-sized airports. Then there are four characteristics of the civil airport system rank-size evolution in the Yangtze Delta region, that is, the level of economic development is the fundamental driving force of airport expansion; government policy is the considerable support for the construction and development of airport; the improvement of comprehensive traffic brings impact on the development of small airports; the difference between aviation business of air passengers and cargos results in internal competition and integration within airport system.

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    Spatial Distribution and Driving Factors of Ancient Village and Town Fairs in Guangdong in the 1930s
    Chen Gangqiang, Liu Peilin, Wu Zhuangyi, Liu Juan
    2021, 41 (4):  625-633.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.009
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    By combing and confirming the historical map data and relevant historical materials, using the spatial analysis methods such as GIS spatial analysis technology and geographical weight regression model, this paper discussed the spatial distribution and driving factors’ spatial spillover effects of ancient village and town fairs in Guangdong in the 1930s. The results show that the spatial structure of ancient village and town fairs in Guangdong takes the Pearl River Delta as the core, which is a circle structure with tree- linear distribution characteristics. The spatial difference of the average trade radius, the hierarchical structure of distribution and the hierarchical characteristics of functions are the deepening and embodiment of core-periphery structure. The source power is the water post system, and it will be to reduce the average trade radius of ancient village and town fairs in each county. Land transportation promotes the transformation of the spatial distribution structure of ancient villages and town fairs. Especially in the main land transportation lines, the distribution of towns is obviously more intensive. However, under the condition of underdeveloped land transportation, the spatial spillover effect of land transportation is not fully manifested. Population concentration provides the basic conditions for the formation and evolution of the spatial distribution of ancient village and town fairs. It has a significant spatial spillover effect on the change of the average trade radius. Based on the population concentration, Social and economic development and regional internal and external relations are the internal forces of the formation and development of the spatial structure. Its driving role is mainly reflected in promoting quality transformation in relatively developed regions and quantity growth in relatively underdeveloped regions. But the above driving factors are also restricted by the unstable political system environment. The large-scale emigration of local residents has greatly affected the number and scale growth of ancient village and town fairs, and the contribution of overseas Chinese immigrants to the local social and economic development also has an important impact on the distribution of ancient village and town fairs.

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    Spatial Pattern Evolution of Cluster and the Impacts of Firms’ Location Choices of Marine Fisheries Sector in Dalian
    Han Zenglin, Hu Ying
    2021, 41 (4):  634-644.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.010
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    It is the era of the marine economy. Marine fisheries sector is an important sector of the marine economy. This paper uses Dalian as a typical example, and takes marine fisheries firms’ as the research object to establish a database of marine fisheries firms. It uses Kernel density estimation to analyze the evolution of the spatial pattern of marine fisheries firms in Dalian. Then, it focuses on influencing factors in the location choices of seafood processing firms through regression models from 2011 to 2018. The results show that: 1) In terms of spatial pattern evolution, the firms in different links of the value chain had different spatial evolution rules. The marine aquaculture firms gradually concentrated in Changhai County; the gathering center of marine fishing firms was gradually shifting from the southern islands to the eastern islands; the center of seafood processing firms was changing from single center to multiple centers; the distribution pattern of wholesale and retail firms was relatively stable. 2) The factors of location selection of aquaculture firms had changed from natural resources to social factors. The location of fishing firms was greatly affected by resources and policies. The location of marine wholesale and retail firms was affected by market and policy. In the study period, urbanization economy, localization economy, land cost, transportation conditions have a significant influence on the location choices of the seafood processing firms. Different types of firms have different choices. Common firms prefer location with higher degree of localization economy, less population and better transportation conditions, while individual businesses pay more attention to localization economy.

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    Differences in the Impact of Art Exhibition Perception and Sense of Place Among College Students from Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau: Model Analysis Based on Multi-group Structural Equation
    Wu Cai, Zhu Hong, Li Jun
    2021, 41 (4):  645-655.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.011
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    Research on tourist destinations is of great significance to enhance tourists’ sense of place. Using the tourism experience and sense of place research scale compiled by Beerli and Martin, based on the questionnaire survey data, the impact of art exhibition perception and sense of place among college students from Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau was studied by constructing a multi-group structural equation model. The results show that: 1) College students’ perception of art exhibitions and the generation of a sense of place in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau are affected by 5 variable dimensions: cognitive image, tourism involvement, social connection, place identity and place attachment; 2) College students’ perception of art exhibitions Image, tourism involvement and social connections have a significant impact on the local identity of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macau; the tourism involvement, social connections and Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao’s local identity of the art exhibition by university students and tourists also have a significant influence on the local attachment of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, and cognitive image The research hypothesis that Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao local attachment has a significant impact is not supported; 3) There are significant differences in the relationship between tourism involvement and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao local attachment, and local identity and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao local attachment between Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao and non-Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao. However, the research hypothesis that there are significant differences in the relationship between social connection and local attachment in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao has not been supported. The research results provide a theoretical basis for verifying the role of art tourism destinations in enhancing tourists’ sense of place.

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    Progress and Geographical Response on Landscape Preference
    Wu Jun, Xu Yuanyuan, Ren Jianlan, Zhang Jie, Sun Weilong, Li Mengyu, Pu Hongbo
    2021, 41 (4):  656-663.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.012
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    Landscape is a term of a comprehensive area and space that people can observe, perceive and in which nature interact with humanity. It is also the key research object of geography and other disciplines. With industrialization, urbanization and economic globalization, landscape and its pattern change rapidly, landscape preference becomes an important human dynamic mechanism of the change. This article chooses WOS (Web of Science) and China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (www.cnki.net) as the data sources, and uses CiteSpace to analyze the knowledge map. After analyzing the landscape preference research and comparing with the research progress of geography, it is found the result as follows. In recent years, the landscape preference research has been widely concerned by the academic community, developed rapidly, and achieved rich research results. It involves a wide range of disciplines, research directions and themes; internationally it gradually focuses on cultural ecosystem services, public preferences, aesthetic analysis, psychological restoration and so on. In China, the research focuses on the public landscape preferences of tourists and residents and the research of cultural ecosystem services of urban public green space. The academic community has not yet formed, the core authors are mainly environmental ecologists, and there are few geographers. The geographical response is mainly based on the application of geographic technology in the world, while that of tourism geography in China. Through the analysis, it is found that landscape preference studies the relationship, interdisciplinary and diversified between human beings and environment, focusing on the needs of “human beings” and “human vision” of small and micro scale landscape environment, not only in line with the core theme of geographical research, but also in line with the development trend of geography, especially human geography. Geography actively responds to the research of landscape preference, which can not only give full play to the disciplinary advantages, but also will provide a new research field for enriching the geospatial scale and further revealing the man-land relationship in the new era.

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    Evaluation of Tourism Carrying Capacity in Dalian Based on Characteristics of Coastal Environmental Resources
    Zhu Jiawei, Sun Wenzhang, Yue Xiufeng
    2021, 41 (4):  664-673.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.013
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    The carrying capacity of tourism environment involves multi-dimensional attributes with the mutual restriction and influence on each other. By comparison, traditional methods are more dependent on the subjective perception of individuals in determining the degree of influence among attributes and the preference of tourists. It collected regional-level data from 54 coastal tourism areas in Dalian for questionnaire-investigation in 2014 and 2015, which respondents’ results of 25 indicators belonging to 6 different dimensions including natural attributes, location climate, quality of coastal resources, coastal recreations, other recreations, and management indicators. In order to avoid the subjectivity of data analysis, the Monte Carlo simulation provided triangle distribution to confirm the pair-wise comparisons of original and modified weights, and modified weights can also correct indicator ranking. Monte Carlo simulation contributes to adjust weights of 17 different indicators, indicating that relying only on the traditional questionnaire data statistics and measurement method will inevitably lead to some errors in the original weight. For example, the location-weather attribute (Sunlight C6), ranked 8th in the original weight ranking, was corrected by the Monte Carlo simulation to be ranked 12th in ranking of importance. Although there are some slight changes in the numerical value, the ranking of dimension still remains stable, the ranking of current situation is listed as follows: coastal recreation >location climate>other recreations >natural attributes>quality of coastal resources > management carrying capacity. In terms of evaluation, current situation of carrying capacity of Dalian can be judged as ‘suitable’. Dimensions of coastal recreations and location climate have relatively higher scores, the former one includes recreational activities related with coastal resources and environmental factors, such as sightseeing cruise ship and aquarium, and scores of evaluations indicates Dalian has a competitive advantage on the characteristics of coastal resources. Additionally, for those ‘basically satisfied’ dimensions, the evaluation results can lead relative departments to renovate and improve on future management and performance. At the same time, the revised result information provides some theoretical inspiration and practical reference for relevant departments to formulate the forward-looking construction planning and systematic governance mechanism of coastal tourism scenic spots.

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    Spatial Structure and Influencing Factors of Cross-border Urban Networks in the Western China
    Man Shan, Yang Yongchun, Zeng Tonggang, Liu Qing
    2021, 41 (4):  674-683.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.014
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    Based on the data of headquarters of listed companies in the western China and their overseas subsidiaries in 2010, 2014, and 2018, this study uses social network analysis and rank-size analysis methods to explore the spatial structure of cross-border urban network in the western China, and uses Dunning’s eclectic theory of international production to analyze its influencing factors. The results showed the following: 1) The western China cross-border urban network showed the characteristics of maximum connection polarization and dispersion of connection breadth, and formed a hierarchical network structure with Chengdu-Hong Kong, Chongqing-Hong Kong, Chengdu-Perth, Xi'an-Hong Kong, Chengdu-Singapore city pairs as the main contact path. 2) The number of important node cities in the network has increased and formed a polycentric network structure. The cities with strong out-degree centrality have obvious administrative center orientation, technological innovation orientation, industrial foundation orientation, resource orientation and opening up orientation, cities with strong in-degree centrality have obvious gateway orientation, technological innovation orientation, financial center orientation and strategic policy orientation. 3) The evolution of the network structure conforms to the rank-size rule. The centrality of the primate city in the network has gradually increased, and both the out-degree network and the in-degree network have experienced a development process from relative equilibrium to relative centralization, and then to centralization. 4) Ownership advantage is the basic prerequisite for cross-border investment of listed companies, which combining with location advantages affect the investment location selection of listed companies. Internalization advantage plays a role in consolidating the strength of ties between the host country and the home country. The three advantages change with time, which affected the spatial structure of the cross-border urban network in the western China.

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    Spatio-temporal Coupling Relationship Between Development Strength and Eco-environment in the Restricted Development Zone of Northeast China
    Sun Yongsheng, Tong Lianjun
    2021, 41 (4):  684-694.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.015
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    On the basis of constructing development strength and eco-environment evaluation index system, this article analyzes the spatio-temporal pattern characteristics and the influencing factors of coupling coordination between development strength and eco-environment in the Restricted Development Zone Northeast China. The results show that: 1) The interaction between the increase of land development strength and the expansion of total economic output is the main reason for the improvement of development strength comprehensive level in the Restricted Development Zone of Northeast China; The persistence of eco-environment state is not strong, and the eco-environment response is gradually becoming the main driving force to improve the regional eco-environment comprehensive level. 2) The spatial pattern of the development strength comprehensive level in the Restricted Development Zone Northeast China has been decreasing from the south to the north, and Liaoning Province is obviously higher than Jilin Province and Heilongjiang Province; the spatial pattern of the regional eco-environment comprehensive level shows typical characteristics of the north area and south area, and the agglomeration phenomenon among the similar areas’ eco-environment level is obvious. 3) Coupling coordination degree between development strength and eco-environment increased continuously, and the development lagged is obvious; During the study period, the barely coordinated-development lagged (Ⅲ) and the moderately coordinated-development lagged (Ⅵ) are main types of coupling coordinated development. 4) The influencing factors of coupling coordination relationship between development strength and eco-environment in the Restricted Development Zone Northeast China include urbanization level, economic development and government regulation, while the function of industrial structure and foreign investment were not obvious.

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    Spatial Accessibility of Urban Green Space in Central Area of Changchun: An Analysis Based on the Multi-trip Model
    Hao Feilong, Zhang Haoran, Wang Shijun
    2021, 41 (4):  695-704.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.016
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    An efficient and fair allocation of urban green space is of great significance to urban planning and construction. Based on the path planning API in Baidu Map, and Easygo big data, the gravity model and bivariate spatial autocorrelation analysis were used to analyze the spatial equity of urban green space in Changchun from the perspective of the balance between supply and demand. Results show that: 1) The accessibility of urban green space in the central urban area of Changchun changed with travel modes and the time thresholds. The accessibility level of each community is different with each other. The areas with higher accessibility were mainly located in the nearby regions of urban parks, rivers and rail transit lines. The communities with a low accessibility are mainly located in the northeast and southwest periphery of Changchun. 2) The accessibility landscapes varied by trip modes, the accessibility level under driving is significantly higher than that of walking and public transportation, which showed that time threshold has less influence on driving, but the accessibility level under driving is also higher than that of public transportation and walking. With the increase of time, the accessibility maps under different trip modes showed significant differences. 3) The spatial distribution of demand for urban green space generally presented a “center-periphery” pattern. From the perspective of a balanced distribution between supply and demand, the supply and demand of urban green space in the second ring and the third ring are relatively balanced. The areas with an imbalance distribution between supply and demand were mainly concentrated in the core area within the first ring and most of the urban peripheries. The core area showed low supply but high demand for urban green space, on the contrary, most of the urban peripheries showed high supply but low demand for urban green space.

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    High Temperature Heat Waves in the Huaihe River Basin and Relation to the Madden-Julian Oscillation: Spatio-temporal Properties and Causes
    Bu Fanrui, Sun Peng, Yao Rui, Zhang Qiang, Wen Qingzhi, Hu Yuqian, Feng Anlan
    2021, 41 (4):  705-716.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.017
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    To evaluate the spatial change of high temperature heat wave events in the Huaihe River Basin (HRB) and its mechanism, characteristics of high temperature heat waves in the summer were analyzed based on pacific climate factors and NECP/NCAR reanalysis data in the 39 meteorological stations. Four sub-regions were divides via Ward-like hierarchical clustering analysis. Meanwhile, correlation between high temperature heat wave events and atmospheric circulation in the HRB was investigated and the evolution mechanism of high temperature heat wave events explained via EOF analysis and atmospheric circulation teleconnection in the HRB. The study shows that: 1) There are obvious interannual changes in summer temperature that the warm phase changed to the cold phase in the 1980s and the cold phase changed to the warm phase after 2010. The trend of the high temperature heat wave event start time and duration is consistent with that of the summer high temperature time. 2) There are obvious differences in the onset time of high temperature heat wave events in four regions. The onset time of the high temperature heat wave events in subregion 1 is the earliest (May 28), followed by subregion 3 (June 1), and subregion 2 (June 5) and subregion 4 (June 10) the hottest heat wave started at the latest; 3) The frequency of mild high temperature heat waves in the HRB is 1.24, and the frequency of moderate heat waves was the second with an average of 0.37. Severe heat waves have the lowest frequency with an average of 0.04. Moreover, the high temperature heat wave events in the HRB are coincided with the change of warming (El Niño) or cooling (La Niña) in the eastern Pacific Ocean. 4) The weakening of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Inner Mongolia led to heat wave high temperature events increase in the HRB. The heat waves mainly occurred in June and September in subregion 4 and subregion 1, and that in subregion 2 and subregion 3 occurred mainly in July and August. There is significantly correlation between subregion 1, subregion 4 with Pacific North American Index, PDO (North Pacific Ocean Temperature Anomaly), and MEI (Multivariable ENSO Index). However, subregion 2 and subregion 4 have significant correlation with Niño3.4 and Pacific North American Index.

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    Multiscale Analysis of Wind Speed and Its Influencing Factors in Liaoning Province From 1964 to 2019
    Fan Shuaibang, Xiao Chunliu, Cao Yongqiang, Gao Lu
    2021, 41 (4):  717-727.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.018
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    The degree and strength of the wind will cause changes in many meteorological elements. Exploring the temporal and spatial distribution of the wind field and its historical changes can provide important references for climate forecast and scientific utilization of wind energy. Based on the daily monitoring data of wind speed and other meteorological factors data of 23 meteorological stations in Liaoning Province from 1964 to 2019, this paper analyzed the spatial and temporal variation of the wind field and wind speed in Liaoning Province by multi-scale analysis using Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF), Morlet wavelet analysis and Mann-Kendall non-parametric test. The results show that: 1) During 1964-2019, the average wind speed in Liaoning Province presented a significant decrease with a rate of 0.13 m/(s·10a). Further, this paper indicated that the bimodal distribution is a characteristic of intra-year trend analysis. The four seasons in a year were listed in the sequence as follows based on descending order of the decreasing rate value: spring, winter, autumn and summer. However, no abrupt changes were evident at all scales. 2) The spatial distribution of the average wind speed showed an evolutionary pattern centered on the central region and gradually decreased from east to west on both interannual and interdecadal scales, but the high-value area of the latter gradually changed from strip to point-like distribution. 3) The increase in average temperature and decrease in sunshine hours contributed more to the weakening of the average wind speed in Liaoning Province in the past 56 years. The results of the study provide a theoretical basis for the prevention and mitigation of wind disasters and the scientific utilization of wind energy in the region.

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    Transboundary River Water Resource Allocation Based on Weighted Bankruptcy Game Model
    Li Fang, Wu Fengping, Chen Liuxin, Xu Xia, Zhao Yue
    2021, 41 (4):  728-736.  doi: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2021.04.019
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    Based on the perspective of fair and reasonable utilization, this article combined the multi-criterion decision model and bankruptcy theory to discuss the allocation of transboundary river water resources. Through sorting out international water laws, considering the geographical location, population, substitution cost and other related factors of the basin country comprehensively, we designed the index system of fair and reasonable allocation of transboundary river water resources. The projection method is adopted to solve this multi-criterion decision-making problem, and then we obtained the weighted demand of each basin country. Based on the weighted adjustment of water demand and the consideration of bargaining power, we discussed the allocation of transboundary river water resources based on the bankruptcy game model, and we obtained the optimal allocation scheme according to the national utility function of each basin country, so as to improve the fairness, rationality and acceptability of the allocation scheme. Finally, taking the Lancang-Mekong River Basin as an example, we obtained the water resources allocation scheme of the Lancang-Mekong River Basin in the dry season, and analyzed the influence of demand weighted adjustment coefficient on the water resources allocation of each basin country, which further verifies the reliability of the allocation model. This article provides a feasible allocation model for making a fair, reasonable, and acceptable allocation scheme of transboundary river water resources, which is helpful to reduce water resource conflicts and promote water resource benefit-sharing in transboundary river basins. This article provides a feasible allocation model for making a fair, reasonable, and acceptable allocation scheme of transboundary river water resources, which is helpful to reduce water resource conflicts and promote water resource benefit-sharing in transboundary river basins.

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