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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      2011年, 第31卷, 第8期 刊出日期:1997-08-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    CA-Markov模型的空间尺度敏感性研究
    赵冠伟, 陈颖彪, 陈健飞, 李江涛
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 897-902.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.897
    摘要   PDF (398KB)
    以广州市花都区为研究区,研究利用CA-Markov模型进行土地利用变化模拟的空间尺度敏感性特征,结论如下:①元胞尺寸的选择会明显影响模拟结果,元胞尺寸越大,模拟结果精度越低。模型中存在元胞尺寸的阈值,当元胞尺寸超出该阈值时,模拟结果的精度急剧下降,因此对于元胞尺寸的选择必须要慎重。②邻域类型的选择也会对模拟结果产生影响。采用3×3冯诺依曼邻域的模拟结果会比3×3摩尔邻域和5×5摩尔邻域生成更多的斑块数量和更高的斑块密度,但是模拟结果的Kappa系数值相差不大。
    Cellular Automata (CA) model is an efficient model to simulate land use/cover change (LUCC) process. However, the majority of geographic cellular automata researches now focus more on transition rules than on spatial scale selection. As a result, the spatial scale decisions of geographic cellular automata are often made arbitrarily. When using CA model in geographic context, nontrivial questions have to be answered about the choice of spatial scale and neighborhood configuration. This article takes Huadu district,Guangzhou City as the study area, to investigate the effect of changing spatial scale and neighborhood configuration on the result prediction accuracy of the CA-Markov model and the morphology of land use change simulation result. The result shows that (1)the spatial scale has great impact on the simulation results of CA-Markov model. Coarse cell size will reduce the result prediction accuracy of the model. There is a threshold of cell size in the model. When the cell size exceeds this threshold, the result prediction accuracy dropped rapidly. (2) Neighborhood configuration also has impact on the simulation results of CA-Markov model. The patch number and patch density of simulation result using 3?3 Von Neumann neighborhood are higher than simulation result using 3?3 and 5?5 Moore neighborhood, but there is little difference of Kappa coefficients of the simulation results.
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    基于Logistic-CA-Markov的土地利用景观格局变化——以京津冀都市圈为例
    何丹, 金凤君, 周璟
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 903-910.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.903
    摘要   PDF (657KB)
    以京津冀都市圈为例,运用马尔科夫转移矩阵、景观格局指数和Logistic-CA-Markov耦合模型等,对各地类转移情况、景观格局特征、影响因子和未来变化趋势进行分析和多情景模拟。结果表明:①景观水平上,总体景观破碎化程度加大。类型水平上,耕地、草地和林地是主导优势地类。②1985~2000年之间,耕地主要流向城乡居民点及工矿用地、水域和林地;城乡居民点及工矿用地的增加主要来自于耕地、草地、林地。③各个地类的分布均与原有地类的距离密切相关。④对土地利用变化设置三个模拟情景,按情景1,1985~2030年耕地、林地、草地、未利用地均不同程度减少;城乡居民点及工矿用地、水域明显增加,表明这期间城市化进程明显加快,建设用地不断占用周围的耕地。
    Taking the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan region as an example, firstly, the best analysis grid size which is 100m is determined. Secondly, using the methods such as Markov transition matrix and landscape pattern indices and so on, land use change, land type transformation, landscape patterns characteristics and land use impact factors are analyzed in the study area. Then, Logistic-CA-Markov coupled model is applied to the quantitative prediction and spatial simulation on the trend of land use change under three different scenarios. The results showed that, ① On the landscape level, the overall degree of landscape fragmentation in the study area is increasing, which is exacerbated by human activities. On the patch type level, urban areas are continuous expanding, and farmland, grassland and woodland are dominant types in the study area, and the degree of fragmentation of cultivated land and water are significantly increased. ② During 1985 to 2000, the cultivated land is the main source of land transfer, which is mainly converted to the residents and urban land, mining land, water and forest. In addition, residents and urban land and mining land mainly come from the cultivated land, grassland and woodland. ③ The distribution of each land type is related to many factors, moreover, the common one is the distance to the original land use type. ④ According to the scenario 1 of land use changes simulating, the cultivated land, woodland, grassland and unused land reduce in varying degrees from 1985 to 2030; on the contrary, urban and residential land and mining land and water increase significantly, which indicate that significantly speeding up of the urbanization process. The construction land is constantly expanding around the original one, and taking up a lot of farmland and other non-agricultural construction.
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    影响中国东北地区气候的关键区、关键时段和关键因子
    孙凤华, 李丽光, 张耀存
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 911-916.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.911
    摘要   PDF (964KB)
    使用东北地区近50多a(1956~2007年)气温和降水数据及相关研究成果,研究和总结并分析影响中国东北地区夏季气温、夏季降水、冬季气温的关键区、关键时段和关键因子。东北夏季较多降水主要发生在极涡偏心、东亚高纬阻塞高压盛行、副热带高压偏西偏北、青藏高原上空西风急流中心强度偏强的环流系统配置下;东北夏季低温主要出现于伊朗高压和南亚高压区域高度场为负距平、上一年10月极涡中心强度正常或偏强、夏季副热带高压强度偏弱位置偏东、偏南时;西伯利亚高压和阿留申低压均偏强(偏弱)、前期北大西洋海温偏低(偏高)对应东北地区的冷(暖)冬年。
    Based on air temperature and precipitation data in Northeast China during 1956 to 2007 as well as the related literatures at home and abroad, the key zone, key period and key factor influencing summer and winter air temperature and summer precipitation were analyzed and summarized. Summer precipitation often occurs in Northeast China under some circumfluence conditions, such as the polar vortex oscillation, the prevailing East Asia blocking high, the westward or northward subtropical high, the strong westerly jet center over Tibetan Plateau. On the other hand, low temperature in summer often appears in Northeast China when height field is negative anomaly over Iran high and South Asia high regions, polar vortex center intensity of last October is normal and strong, subtropical high intensity was weak and its location was eastward or southward in summer. Colder/warmer winter in Northeast China is related with the strong/weak Siberian high and Aleutian low, low/high prophase sea surface temperature of North Atlantic.
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    基于形态重建的高分辨率遥感影像城市道路提取
    杨先武, 韦春桃, 李彩露, 吴平
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 917-921.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.917
    摘要   PDF (571KB)
    高分辨率遥感影像中,城市道路表现为局部灰度近似、宽度变化缓慢的狭长区域。根据城市道路这些形态特性,提出基于形态重建的道路提取方法。先对原始遥感影像作增强处理,突出影像边缘信息,用Otsu自动阈值分割法对增强处理后的图像进行初步分割;再根据图像中各要素的形态特征构建不同的标记图像,分别对原图像进行形态重构,将道路和建筑物等分别生成新的图像模块;对形态重构生成的道路模块进行轮廓提取和细化,提取出道路轮廓和中心线。实验结果表明,该方法能有效地从高分辨率遥感影像中提取出城市道路网。
    In the high resolution remote sensing images, urban roads are the narrow areas that have the performance of local gray approximation and the width with slow change. The method of road extraction is proposed based on morphological reconstruction because of these morphological characteristics. Firstly, enhancing the original remote sensing image to highlight the image edge information, and making the enhanced image initial segmentation by the Otsu threshold segmentation method. Secondly, the original image is morphological reconstructed respectively by the different constructed markers according to the morphological characteristics of image elements, and the roads and buildings become the new image module. Lastly, the reconstructed road modules are contour extracted and refined for the road profile and centerline. Experimental results show that the method can effectively extract the urban road network from the high resolution remote sensing images.
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    豫西渑池盆地湖泊沉积特征与古环境
    翟秋敏, 郭志永, 沈娟
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 922-928.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.922
    摘要   PDF (618KB)
    对渑池盆地池底村古湖泊沉积剖面进行连续采样,在粒度组成和有机碳含量分析的基础上,结合14C年代测定(校正为日历年龄),重建了盆地区末次冰盛期以来的气候环境演化进程:19543~9240cal.aB.P.,气候比较干燥,古湖泊尚未形成;9240~8039cal.aB.P.,气候由干冷向暖湿化方向转变,古湖泊开始形成;8039~3473cal.aB.P.期间,气候温暖湿润,湖泊水位最高;3439~2931cal.aB.P.期间,气候波动剧烈,总体上气候较前一段干旱,湖泊水位下降;2931~2423cal.aB.P.期间,气候干旱,古湖泊干涸。盆地区的人类文化演进对气候环境变化的响应十分明显,二者之间存在一定的耦合关系。
    In this paper, continuous sampling, grain size and total organic content(TOC) analysis have been done with the paleolacustrine sediment profile in Chidi Village, Mianchi Basin, combining with 14C dating and calibrating, the paleoenvironment in Mianchi Basin since the Last Glacial Maximum was reconstructed as follow: (1) During 19 543-9 240 cal. a B.P., the climate was dry and the lake was not formed; (2) During 9 240- 8 039 cal.a B.P., the climate turned to be warmer and humid, paleolake started to form;(3) During 8 039- 3 473 cal.aB.P., it was warm and humid in Lake Basin, and water level of the paleolake was the highest;(4) During 3 439-2 931 cal.a B.P., the climate change violently, in the whole period it was less warm and humid than before, water level of the paleolake decreased.(5) During 2 931-2 423 cal.a B.P., it was a dry and cold period with lower temperature and less precipitation, the paleolake gradually dried up. The evolution of human cultural in Mianchi Basin responded to climate change obviously, and was in correlation with the environment change.
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    环渤海低平原微咸水区土壤盐渍化与盐分剖面特征
    周在明, 张光辉, 王金哲, 严明疆
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 929-934.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.929
    摘要   PDF (499KB)
    采用统计分析、主成分分析和聚类分析方法,结合GIS技术研究环渤海低平原微咸水区土壤盐渍化特征,并探讨盐分剖面类型和分布状况。结果表明:0~5cm表层土壤盐分属于强变异强度,5~60cm各土层盐分属于中等变异强度。土壤盐分变量的全部信息可由盐渍化、碱化、区域地下水埋深和矿化度、K+等5个主成分反映,其累计贡献率达87.88%。土壤盐分剖面分为表聚型、底聚型和中聚型,在环渤海低平原区的面积比例基本一致,约各占1/3。
    Aiming to characterize soil salinization, soil salinity profile types and distribution in the low plain around the Bohai Sea, soil samples were collected from 127 sites in the plain in this study. Soil samples in each site were taken from 0 cm to 60 cm in 5-cm or 10-cm increment, and soil salinity of each soil sample was analyzed based on the statistical method, principle component analysis method, hierarchical cluster analysis method and GIS technique. The results showed that the variations of soil salinity in the surface layer belonged to highly variation degree, soil salinity in other layers belonged to moderate variation degree in horizontal direction, while in the vertical direction, their differences are small. Soil salinity could be influenced by 5 principle components which were soil salinizaiton (principle component 1), soil alkalization (principle component 2), total regional dissolved soild, groundwater level (principle component 3, 5), source of kalium (principle component 4), and the cumulative contribution of these principle components added up to 87.88%. Hierarchical cluster analysis results indicated that salinity profile could be classified into 3 types, i.e. the top enrichment, the bottom enrichment and the middle enrichment. The percentage of each soil salinity profile type is almost equal, about 1/3. The top enrichment profile type is mostly distributed in the east coastal plain, the bottom enrichment profile type is mainly located in the inland low plain, while the middle enrichment profile type is distributed as map patches irregularly. Top enrichment profile type is the salinity accumulated state, on the contrary, the bottom enrichment profile is the desalinated state, while the middle enrichment profile type is the transitional sate between accumulation and desalination. The distributon patterns of salinity profile types reflected the effect of many factors to some extent.
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    长白山红松阔叶混交林土壤动物生态分布
    殷秀琴, 蒋云峰, 陶岩, 安静超, 辛未冬
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 935-940.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.935
    摘要   PDF (536KB)
    对长白山红松阔叶混交林分布的上缘、典型分布区和分布下缘土壤动物群落进行研究。结果表明,红松阔叶混交林三个分布区土壤动物群落组成存在差异,其中典型分布区土壤动物多样性指数较高,群落组成均匀。甲螨亚目、辐螨亚目、节跳虫科、球角跳虫科、革螨亚目和山跳虫科相关性较大,共同出现在各分布区。土壤动物垂直分布具有明显的表聚性,且红松阔叶混交林的上缘和典型分布区表聚性更为突出。通过灰色综合关联度分析表明,土壤全钾、全氮和有机质含量对土壤动物群落影响较大,而土壤全磷含量和pH对土壤动物的影响次之。
    The Changbai Mountains, located in the Northeast China (41?23'-42?36'N, 126?55'-128?8'E), are rich in natural resources and have always been concerned by scientists. Soil faunas play crucial roles in forest ecosystem processes such as litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization, and also have effects on soil formation and quality. To understand the ecogeographical distribution of soil faunal community and provide the scientific basis for the conservation of forest ecosystems in Changbai Mountains, community composition, structure and biodiversity of soil fauna were investigated in top, typical and bottom distribution areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaved forest of Changbai Mountain in July 2008. The sample area was 50 cm?50 cm for soil macrofauna and 10 cm?10 cm for soil meso-microfauna. Soil macrofauna was picked out by hands. Soil meso-microfauna was extracted by Tullgren funnel. All extracted soil samples were identified to the suborder or family level under a stereoscopic microscope. Soil pH was measured with PHS-3B acidity meter. Soil organic C was determined by K2Cr2O7 oxidation method and total N by Kjeldahl method. Total P was analyzed by using the colorimetric method with molybdenum in sulphuric acid. Total K was determined with flame photometer. A total of 39 groups, 6 124 individuals of soil fauna were obtained and fell into 3 phylum, 6 classes, 17 orders. Oribatida, Actinedida and Isotomidae were the dominant groups. There were 5 common groups, involving Hypogastruridae, Pseudachorutidae, Gamasida, Entomobryidae and Tomoceridae, and 31 rare groups in the collection. Results showed that there was significant difference in the individual numbers of soil fauna between typical and bottom (p<0.05) distribution areas, while group numbers of soil fauna were no significant difference among top, typical and bottom distribution areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaved forest. The highest community diversity and evenness of soil fauna was recorded in typical distribution area. Group and individual numbers of soil fauna decreased with the increase of soil layer depth in a vertically distribution, which was significant in top and typical distribution areas. There were greater correlation coefficient among Oribatida, Actinedida, Isotomidae, Hypogastruridae, Gamasida and Pseudachorutidae, and they were all found in three distribution areas at the same time, and individual numbers of them were also more than others. The pH,organic matter, total P, total K and total N of soil had effects on the composition of soil fauna community. The difference in total K, total N, total P and organic matter content were significant in 0-30 cm soil layers among top, typical and bottom distribution areas of Pinus koraiensis mixed broad-leaved forest (p<0.001). Grey relevant analysis showed that total K, total N and organic matter content had more effects on the composition of soil fauna than pH and total P of soil. Environment factors had different effects on the key soil fauna community.
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    不同时期古黄河三角洲土壤剖面盐渍化特征
    胥勤勉, 袁桂邦, 孙云霞, 胡云壮, 张玉发
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 941-946.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.941
    摘要   PDF (505KB)
    在渤海湾西岸选取8个不同地貌单元、不同土地利用方式的土壤剖面,分别在土壤返盐和淋溶最强的季节,按0~20、20~40、40~60和60~90cm采集土壤盐渍化样品,分析土壤剖面盐渍化特征。古河道带地势较高,为轻度盐化土壤,以硫酸盐型和氯化物-硫酸盐型盐渍化类型为主。河间洼地多为中度盐化土壤,为硫酸盐-氯化物型盐渍化类型。潮上带土壤的盐分含量达7~11g/kg,为盐土,为氯化物型盐渍化类型。土壤的蒸发、淋溶作用跟地貌、沉积等密切相关。同一地貌类型上,距海较远土壤剖面HCO3-含量高,Cl-含量低,全盐含量低,盐化程度低。
    On the west coast of Bohai Bay, eight soil profiles have been selected in different geomorphologic units and land use, and the samples of salinized soil at 0-20, 20-40, 40-60 and 60-90 cm under the ground were collected. The soil salinized slightly in paleo-river highland, belonged to sulphate type and chloride-sulphate type of soil saline. The soil salinized moderately in influve, and been belonged to sulphate-chloride type of soil saline. The soil of super-intertidal flat is saltierra, and its salinity reach 0.7-1.1 (g/kg), and belonged to chloride type soil saline. Evaporation and eluviation of soil have been closely related with geomorphologic units and sedimentary frame. The soil of far away the sea has higher content of HCO3-, and lower content of Cl- and salinity in the same geomorphologic units.
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    黄河小北干流洪水倒灌渭河风险评估及其影响
    李景宜
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 947-951.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.947
    摘要   PDF (531KB)
    黄河洪水倒灌渭河的风险评估是渭河下游防洪工作的基础。通过历史资料对比和遥感影像分析,对渭河下游洪水倒灌风险度进行差值计算并划分风险等级,得到结论:①黄河洪水越大则倒灌并溯源淤积渭河的范围越大;②高风险区集中于大荔县东部和潼关、华阴、华县、渭南及临潼的渭河沿岸区域,较高风险区位于大荔县东北部和渭南、临潼交界处的渭河北岸区域;③河口西进与洪水倒灌互为因果,加剧"小流量、高水位、大灾情";④降低倒灌风险必须实现全流域综合规划、协调降低潼关高程。
    Risk evaluation of flowing backward from the main stream in Xiaobei of the Huanghe (Yellow) River to the lower reacher of the Weihe River has become the significant work of flood prevention because of the dangerous situation of the flowing backwark. Based on the contrast of historical observed data and remote sensing images, using the inserting value calculation method, risk degree of flowing backward was evaluated and zoned. The results are as follows: 1) It is obvious that the larger the flood of the Huanghe River, the larger the area of inversely flow deposition, and the more the water level in the reaches of the Weihe River, vice versa. 2) The highest risk regions usually located in the eastness of Dali near by the main stream in Xiaobei of the Huang River and the riverside regions of Tongguan, Huayin, Huaxian, Weinan and Lintong. The higher risk regions are located in the northeastern part of Dali and the common boundary of Weinan and Lintong on the southness shore of mainstream watershed of the Weihe River. Then, the remainder is lower risk regions. 3) Westward moving of the estuary of the Weihe River to the Huang River and flowing backward are the cause-and-effect, which not only resultd in shrinking of the riverbed at the lower reaches of the Weihe River, but also reducing the ability of flood transflux. So there is a complexion of small flux, high water level and big disaster. 4) In order to reduce the risk degree of flowing backward, as the given result, the district regionalism and local protection must be broken to implement the integrated program of the watershed and to decline the Tongguan stage to stabilize the physiognomy at the estuary of the Weihe River to the Huang River.
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    三江平原挠力河上游径流演变趋势及其驱动因素
    刘贵花, 栾兆擎, 阎百兴, 高常军
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 952-957.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.952
    摘要   PDF (453KB)
    利用Mann-Kendall检验法分析三江平原挠力河上游径流在1956~2002年间的演变趋势,结果表明,径流在1966年发生突变,将流域径流分为1956~1966年和1967~2002年两个阶段。应用统计方法分析气候要素和人类活动对径流减少的影响并借助IHACRES模型将影响量化,研究结果表明,在第一阶段,气候要素是导致径流减少的主要原因;在第二阶段,人类活动为主要原因,并且31%的年份径流较基准期减少50%以上,25%的年份径流较基准期减少30%~50%,25%的年份径流较基准期减少10%~30%。
    In this paper, the non-parametric Mann-Kendall test was used to analyze the tendency of runoff changes for upper stream of Naoli River in the Sanjiang Plain in 1956-2002, the abrupt change of runoff occurred in 1966 and the watershed runoff was divided the into two stages, that is, 1956-1966 and 1967-2002. The coefficient of variation was applied to testing the effect of the climatic element on the runoff reduction. The conclusions are arrived that the climatic factor is the main reason causing the reduction of runoff in the first stage while the human activities made the runoff decrease abruptly in the second stage. The IHACRES model was used to simulate the runoff in 1967-2002 and calculate the runoff reduced by human events. The results show that 11 years of the gauged annual runoff reduced more than 50% compared with the reference annual runoff in the second stage, and of which 10 years reduced from 30% to 50% and 11 years reduced from 10% to 30%, respectively.
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    雅鲁藏布江米林宽谷段新月形沙丘粒度分异研究
    周娜, 张春来, 刘永刚
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 958-963.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.958
    摘要   PDF (563KB)
    雅鲁藏布江中游米林宽谷段阶地面上广泛发育带状延伸,由上段风蚀槽、中段过渡区和下段堆积区组成的风沙活动带。风沙活动带各段新月形沙丘表面沉积物粒度分析表明,沙丘表面沉积物总体为细沙、中等分选、极细偏、多峰,表面粒度分布模式多属丘顶最粗型。受沙源和分选距离的影响,沙丘沙粒度特征在风沙活动带内表现出一定的空间差异性,上段风蚀槽内发育的沙丘规模小,粒径细,分选差,极细偏,多峰;中段和下段沙丘表面沉积物粒径变粗,分选变好,正偏转向近对称,多峰转为单峰。
    The aeolian sand belts are distributed extensively in Mainling great valley section of the Yarlung Zangbo River. Each belt can be divided into eroded area, erosion and deposition transition area, and deposition area by distinct aeolian sand activities. The two belts with aeolian sand activity were studied. The results show that sediments of the dune are mainly composed of fine sands with moderate sorting, fine skewness, and muti-modal grain size distribution. Grain size distribution on the surface of barchans can be attributed to the 'dune crest coarser’pattern as a whole with limited exception where grain size distribution shows a "finer crest" pattern. Spatial variations of grain size distribution among the barchans within the same aeolian sand belt were shown. Small barchans developed in the eroded area exhibit finer grain size, poor sorting, very fine skewness and multi-mode. In the erosion and deposition transition area and downwind deposition area, dune grain size becomes coarser with sorting better, fine skewness converting to nearly symmetry, and muti-mode grain size distribution pattern turning to be uni-mode.
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    嶂石岩地貌的演化特点与地貌年龄
    陈利江, 徐全洪, 赵燕霞, 李庆辰, 张景芳
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 964-968.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.964
    摘要   PDF (273KB)
    受地层产状、岩性和节理构造的控制,以丹崖长墙为标志的嶂石岩地貌在演化过程中,存在垂沟在崖面横向侧切发育巷谷,水平掏蚀在崖脚形成岩廊,并引起崖面崩塌卸荷平行后退两种坡面发育机制。巷谷、岩廊、Ω型套谷等在平面格局、空间形态和时代序列上都存在明显的自相似特征,符合曼德布罗特分形理论中的自相似体系。嶂石岩地貌演化周期为294.7×104a,分为幼年期、青年期、壮年期和老年期4个阶段,分别历时8.3×104a、83.2×104a、115.2×104a和88.0×104a。嶂石岩地区的嶂石岩地貌具有明显的分层性,其分异由长城系砂岩、寒武系灰岩的软硬岩层互层引起,并非不同时代发育的嶂石岩地貌。
    Under the control of stratigraphic trend, structure and lithology, there are two slope development modes during the development progress of Zhangshiyan Landform marked with the long red cliff, which are the wedge-shaped lateral cutting mode with cutting the cliff to form lane valley, and the horizontal digging mode with digging horizontally at the foot of the cliff to form rock porch leading to the cliff collapse back. The lane valley, rock porch and the Ω-shaped valley have the respective self-similarity features in different location or scale. The cycle of Zhangshiyan Landform development is 294.7×104a. It can be divided four stages: infancy stage lasted for as long as 8.3×104a, young stage 83.2×104a, robust stage 115.2×104a and old stage 88×104a. In Zhangshiyan region, Zhangshiyan landform is layered clearly, caused by hard stratum alternating with soft stratum but not the different stages of Zhangshiyan landform.
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    塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地大气气溶胶中游离氧化铁的测定
    陆辉, 魏文寿, 刘明哲, 吴新萍, 牟书勇, 韩茜
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 969-975.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.969
    摘要   PDF (643KB)
    大气沙尘气溶胶中铁氧化物含量的测定对研究气溶胶吸收特性有重要的研究意义。采用柠檬酸盐-重碳酸盐-连二亚硫酸盐(CBD)和漫反射光谱法(DRS)对塔克拉玛干沙漠腹地塔中站2006年4月9~11日沙尘暴天气过程前后TSP沙尘样品中的游离氧化铁进行定量和半定量研究,研究得出,塔中游离氧化铁占全铁含量的变化范围在4.55%~8.16%之间(平均值6.36%),全铁占样品总量的5.16%,游离氧化铁占样品总量的0.32%;反射光谱一阶导数曲线峰值在435和560nm对针铁矿和赤铁矿具有识别指示意义。
    By scattering and absorbing solar and telluric radiation, dust aerosol has a direct impact on the Earth’s radiative balance. Their quantification is of utmost importance to assess the desert dust optical properties. Iron oxides minerals (especially hematite and goethite) contents are very low in aerosol particles, which are strong absorbers at ultra-violet and visible wavelengths. CBD method and diffuse reflectance are adapted to quantify and semi-quantify the free-iron oxides contents in the aerosols collected at Tazhong on 9-11 April, 2006 in the Hinterland of Taklimakan Desert. For these samples, the percentage of free-iron relative to the total estimated aerosol mass increased from 4.55% to 8.16% with an average of 6.36%. Total-iron content, free-iron content and free-to-total iron ratio are 5.16%, and 0.32%, respectively. The first derivatives of the reflectance spectra are consistent with signals from two iron-oxide minerals, hematite and goethite, at wavelengths of 560 nm and 435 nm, respectively.
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    基于遥感的渭干河-库车河三角洲绿洲土地盐渍化监测及成因分析
    买买提·沙吾提, 塔西甫拉提·特依拜, 丁建丽, 鹿島薫
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 976-981.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.976
    摘要   PDF (537KB)
    选用高分辩率ALOS遥感影像,在实地调查基础上,分析研究区域盐渍地现状及成因。结果表明,该方法对盐渍地的提取精度达到91.356%;盐渍地主要分布在渭干河和库车河的下游,塔里木河北部,渭干河-库车河绿洲西南、南、东和东南部地区;渭库绿洲的盐渍面积较大,其中库车县最多,其次为沙雅县,新和县最小;干旱的气候,丰富的盐分来源,水化学环境变化,相对封闭的自然地理环境以及人类不合理活动是引起该区域土壤盐盐渍化最主要原因。
    In this paper, the Decision Tree method was used to classification of salt affected soil in Weigan-kuqa river delta oasis with the integration of high spatial resolution ALOS image and the ancillary data such as geologic maps, soil maps, groundwater table and quality data, based on their characteristic.The amount, spatial distribution, extent and center of salt affected soils in the study area was indicated, and the causal analysis of the salinization was discussed. The result showed that the total accuracy of Decision Tree classification is 91.3569%, testifying it is a very useful method for monitoring soil salinization in the arid area. The salt affected soils are mostly distributed the lower reaches of Weigan river and Kuqa river d, the north of the Tarim river and the southeast, south, east and southeast of the Weigan-Kuqa river oasis. The proportion of the salt affected soils in the study area is very high, among them Kuqa County is severely salinized, Shaya County is moderately salinized, Xinhe County is slightely salinized. The salinization in the study area was mainly due to the drought climatic conditions, rich salt origins, enclosed basin, fragile water cycle system and unreasonable human activities.
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    黑河中游不同土地利用类型下土壤碳储量及其空间变化
    张俊华, 李国栋, 南忠仁, 肖洪浪, 赵自胜
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 982-988.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.982
    摘要   PDF (603KB)
    通过黑河中游不同土地利用类型下土壤碳密度、碳储量的研究表明:总有机碳(TOC)、活性有机碳(AOC)、非活性有机碳(NOC)碳密度、碳储量从小到大呈不同的变化趋势。其中,NOC与TOC碳密度从大到小的空间分布基本一致,而AOC与NOC、TOC的分布存在差异,说明土地利用类型变化对三类有机碳的影响不同。经计算得到,1m深度TOC、AOC、DOC碳库总量分别为94.72、45.12、49.60Tg,DOC碳库占TOC碳库的比例略高于AOC占TOC碳库的比例。分析发现,引入AOC和NOC指标,更能真实反映出有机碳与影响因素间关系。
    Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon density, storage and its change are researched under different land uses in the middle of Heihe River, based on the multi-methods of gathering field samples, laboratory analysis, GIS spatial analysis model and remote sensing. The results show that obvious spatial otherness of total soil carbon (TOC), active organic carbon (AOC), nonactive organic carbon (NOC) exist under different land uses. NOC density is consistent with TOC, but density of AOC is different. It indicates that impacts of land use changes on TOC, AOC and NOC are different. According to the calculation result, storage of TOC, AOC and NOC is 94.72 Tg, 45.12 Tg and 49.60 Tg in 1m depths, respectively. AOC account is for 47.63% and NOC is 52.36%. It’s found that the relationship between SOC and influencing factors is more authentic if AOC and NOC are introduced.
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    黄土高原陆地表层作物生长季最大可能蒸散量的变化特征
    姚玉璧, 王润元, 杨金虎, 陆登荣, 肖国举, 王洋, 刘林春
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 989-995.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.989
    摘要   PDF (728KB)
    基于黄土高原1961~2008年气候资料,应用修订的Penman-Monteith(P-M)模型计算作物生长季最大可能蒸散量,分析其时空分布、异常分布特征和次区域时间演变特征。结果表明:一致性异常分布是黄土高原作物生长季最大可能蒸散量的最主要空间模态。高原西北部区域作物生长季最大可能蒸散量呈显著增加趋势,且发生突变现象;高原东北部区域和高原东南部区域作物生长季最大可能蒸散量呈显著下降的趋势,也发生突变;黄土高原作物生长季最大可能蒸散量的3个空间分区中,3~4a的周期振荡表现得比较显著。
    Based on climatological data in Loess plateau from 1961 to 2008, the potential evapotranspiration of the growth period was computed by using revised Penman-Monteith Model. The spatial-temporal distribution, anomaly distribution and sub-regional temporal variations of the potential evapotranspiration in the growth period were analyzed at the same time. The results showed that the main spatial model of annual potential evapotranspiration of the growth period in Loess plateau is consistent anomaly distribution. In northwest regions of Loess plateau, the potential evapotranspiration of the growth period displayed a significant ascending trend and showed an abrupt change; in northeast and southeast regions of Loess plateau, the potential evapotranspiration of the growth period displayed a significant descending trend and showed an abrupt change too. In all these three regions, the potential evapotranspiration of the growth period shows an obvious fluctuating period of 3-4years.
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    丹霞地貌的国内外研究对比
    欧阳杰, 朱诚, 彭华
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 996-1000.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.996
    摘要   PDF (316KB)
    丹霞地貌是中国地质学家命名的一种地貌类型,国内研究主要在丹霞地貌的理论方面、宏观的空间分布上、以及定性的分类描述上。此外,在丹霞地貌的定量研究、实验研究和可视化研究等方面也有所突破。目前,国外还没有统一使用丹霞地貌这个名词,但在砂岩、砾岩以及红层的微观、实验和定量等方面的研究成果丰富。通过国内外研究的对比,可以使丹霞地貌的研究朝着宏观与微观、定性与定量、理论与实践相结合的方向发展,有利于"丹霞地貌"尽快成为国际认可并接受的地貌名词。
    The term "Danxia Landform" was first identified and coined in China. Danxia Landform research in China is focused on primary theoretical research, scientific discussions of macro spatial distribution and qualitative description of the classification. New studies have recently been concerning quantitative,visualization and experimental research for Danxia Landform. Other countries do not currently refer to Danxia Landform as a reference for this unique type of landform very frequently, but foreign scholars have abundant research in sandstones, conglomerates, and red beds in micro, experiments, and quantitative areas. For comparisons with national and international research, Danxia Landforms should be applied as a primary example of macro and micro, qualitative and quantitative, theoretical and practical descriptions and analysis. It is instructive to use the term "Danxia Landform" as an acceptable international term when comparing and contrasting with other like landforms around the world.
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    基于地统计学的北运河下游土壤养分空间分布
    李建辉, 李晓秀, 张汪寿, 王晓燕
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 1001-1006.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.1001
    摘要   PDF (661KB)
    通过对北运河下游土壤的取样,采用地统计的方法分析北运河流域农田土壤pH、碱解氮、有效磷、速效钾和有机质五种养分的空间分布规律,结合武清区土壤类型和其他的相关资料的数据进行分析,结果表明:土壤类型对土壤pH、有效磷分布有影响,对土壤pH影响尤为明显;北运河流域的水系对碱解氮、有机质空间分布影响较大,水系发达的区域含量明显高于水系不发达的区域;速效钾多是由其他因素引起。
    In this paper, based on samples from the downstream district along the Beiyunhe River, the soil nutrients such as pH, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium, and organic matters were analyzed by the geostatistical method. Combined with the basic data of Wuqing’s soil type, the relationship of the different nutrients’spatial distribution was found that the spatial distributions of the pH and available phosphorus are similar to the soil type more or less, and the reason is that soil pH and available phosphorus are influenced by the soil type, and the effect on soil pH is significant; Beiyunhe river system has a great influence to the spatial distribution of available nitrogen and organic matters, the contents of which in high-density river system regions were significantly higher than those in lower-density river system regions. Available K mostly caused by other factors.
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    秦岭南北年极端气温的时空变化趋势研究
    张立伟, 宋春英, 延军平
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 1007-1011.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.1007
    摘要   PDF (687KB)
    依据1960~2009年秦岭南北地区60个气象站数据,主要应用M-K突变检验、kriging插值法对秦岭南北地区近50a来年平均气温,年极端最高、最低气温的时空变化特征进行了分析。结果显示:①年均气温和极端最高、最低气温的气候倾向率关系为陕南<关中<全国、关中<全国<陕南、陕南≈关中<全国。②秦岭南北地区年均气温突变年份均为1997年,晚于全国;年极端最高温度突变都不显著,年极端最低气温的突变年份都为1978年。③年均气温和极端最低气温的空间分布为南高北低,沿纬向分布;极端最高气温为东高西低,呈经向分布。
    With global climate warming, the research on regional extreme climate change has remarkable significance. This paper, based on the meterological data of the 60 stations in Qinling Mountains, analyzed the spatio-temporal characteristics of average, extreme high and low temperature in northern and southern Qinling Mountains, using Mann-Kendall mutation test and Kriging interpolation. The results showed that the order of climate trend rate of average annual temperature is that the southern part of Shaanxi < Guanzhong < other regions of China;the relationship of climate trend rate of annual high temperature is that: Guanzhong < other regions of China < the southern part of Shaanxi. The order of climate of extreme low temperature is that the southern part of Shaanxi ≈Guanzhong < other regions of China. The mutation year of average annual temperature in the two areas was 1997, which is later than the other regions of China. But, extreme high temperature fluctuation is not significant. At the same time, the mutation year of extreme low temperature in the two areas was 1978. Qinling Mountains have the important geographical feature dividing line effect. The spatial distributions of average and extreme low temperature in the areas of Qinling Mountains display that the high temperature is in the southern area, but the slow temperature in the northern area, which are distributed along the latitudinal. Contrarily, the spatial distribution of extreme high temperature shows that it is high in the eastern area, but low one in the western area, which are distributed through the longitude.
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    BIO-NORM与EO耕地质量评价方法对比研究
    张广星, 于东升, 张忠启, 王兴祥, 史学正
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 1012-1018.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.1012
    摘要   PDF (537KB)
    以江西省余江县为研究区域,利用专家经验法(expert opinion,EO)和新建的Bio-Norm法,分别确定耕地质量评价指标、指标权重和隶属度函数,对研究区水田耕地质量进行评价。两种评价方法的对比分析表明,采用EO法时不同专家组选取的参评指标不尽相同,评价结果具有不稳定性。Bio-Norm法得出的指标权重及确定的隶属度函数临界值,比起EO法更能反映水稻生长的实际要求;耕地质量综合指数(IFI值)与水稻产量回归方程的决定系数(R2)高于EO法,且IFI值与水稻产量各等级区域分布特征更吻合。采用Bio-Norm法评价耕地质量更为科学合理。
    Quality evaluation of cultivated land is important in the guidance of agricultural production. Whether the evalution method is appropriate or not directly affects the scientificity of evaluation results. Through practical investigation, sample collection, and analysis, a total of 249 surficial paddy soil property data and 95 rice production data were collected in the study area of Yujiang County, Jiangxi Province. Expert opinion and the newly established Bio-Norm method were used to determine indicators, indicators’weight, and their relationship functions respectively, and then to evaluate the quality of paddy field land of the study area. The comparison between Bio-Norm method and EO showed that EO method was unstable, and the indicators selected by Bio-Norm method were more representative than that of EO method. The weights obtained from Bio-Norm method could better accurately reflect the importance of indicators. The relationship functions of Bio-Norm method could better reflect the actual requirements of rice growth. Evaluation results showed that regression coefficient of determination (R2) between cultivated land quality index (IIFI value) obtained from Bio-Norm method and rice yield was far higher than that of EO method, and the distribution of IIFI value obtained from Bio-Norm method and rice yield was more consistent in the region than that of EO method. Therefore, the Bio-Norm method is more scientific and reasonable than the EO method in evaluating the quality of cultivated land.
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    连江流域近18年来植被覆盖度变化分析
    甘春英, 王兮之, 李保生, 梁钊雄, 李志文, 温小浩
    地理科学. 2011, 31 (8): 1019-1024.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2011.08.1019
    摘要   PDF (692KB)
    以TM影像为数据源,运用基于NDVI的像元二分模型,计算和分析连江流域1988和2006年植被演变特点及空间分布特征,并将两期影像的植被覆盖度图与连江流域分岩溶区地质图进行叠加,进而分析地质构造对植被覆盖度的影响。结果表明:①受气候及与人文因素的影响,1988~2006年连江流域植被覆盖度有所增加。表现为较高和高植被覆盖区面积增加,低、较低和中度植被覆盖区面积减少。②受地质构造影响,非岩溶区的植被质量优于岩溶区。③在空间分布上,近18a来连江流域植被覆盖度的变化较显著。
    With TM images as a data source, this paper calculates and analyses the characteristics of change and spatial distribution about the vegetation in Lianjiang watershed in 1988-2006 by using the dimidiate pixel model based on NDVI. Overlaying the vegetation coverage map and the sub-karst geological map, the impact on vegetation coverage exerted by geological structure is analyze. The results can be described in the following three aspects. 1) Because of the effect of climate and human activities, the vegetation coverage in Lianjiang River watershed got a rise in 1988-2006. The area of higher and high vegetation coverage districts increased, while that of low, lower and middle vegetation coverage districts decreased. 2) The quality of vegetation in non-karst district was better than that in karst district due to the influence of geological formation. 3) The change of vegetation coverage’s spatial distribution was significant in Lianjiang River watershed during the recent 18 years.
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