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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1983年, 第3卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1983-01-20 上一期    下一期
    选择: 合并摘要 显示图片
    论文
    东亚的季节
    李麦村, 徐国昌
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 1-10.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.1
    摘要   PDF (2680KB)
    五十年代末到六十年代初许多气象工作者从环流的季节变化来研究我国的季节。高由禧等在研究东亚季风的基础上,对东亚季节划分作了比较系统的研究,揭示了东亚天气气候的许多重要规律。六十年代和七十年代以来,积累了许多对流层上层天气系统的研究资料,并开展了对青藏高原的作用,尤其是热力作用的系统研究,同时对我国雨带和雨季的特征也作了许多新的工作。因此有必要对东亚季节的划分问题重新进行分析。分析季节的变化是认识长期天气过程的基础,我们希望这项工作对认识东亚的天气气候规律有所裨益。
    In this paper,based on variation of atmospheric activity center in troposphereof East Asia and variation of the resultant wind fields of relative layers inperiods of deca-day,together with author’s recent analytic work about theinfluence of the ocean,continent and plateau to the temperature fields in EastAsia and the seasonal variation of the rain belts in China,we redivided thesynoptic climate seasons in East Asia as follows:Spring,from early of April to end of May or early of June;Summer,fromend of May or early of June to early of September;Autumn.from early of September to middle of October;Winter,from middle of October to early of April.And Summer was divided into five sections,as follows:1.End of May or early of June to first half of June;2.Second half of June to first deca-day of July;3.End of first deea-day of July to early of last deca-day of July;4.End of last deca-day of July to first half of August;5.Second half of August to early of September.
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    地区经济发展不平衡与生产力合理布局
    黄荣生
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 11-16.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.11
    摘要   PDF (2623KB)
    建国前,我国生产力地区布局极不合理,77%的工业偏集于国土面积不到12%的东部沿海地区,其中重工业主要集中在东北,轻工业主要集中在上海、天津、广州等少数城市。广大内地特别是边疆少数民族地区几乎没有什么近代工业,面积占国土45%的西北和内蒙地区,工业产值仅占全国3%;面积占国土23%的云、贵、川三省与西藏地区,工业产值仅占全国的6%。这种分布状况,一方面使工业生产与原料、燃料产地和消费区严重脱节,造成原料、燃料和成品的远距离运输;另一方面又使广大内地的丰富资源得不到充分的开发利用,经济发展长期停滞在落后状态,也不利于战略后方基地的建立和巩固。
    Before the founding of the People’s Republic of China,our regional distri-bution of productivity was quite unbalanced.At that time,heavy industry wasmainly centralized in the northeast,while light industry in such cities asShanghai,Tianjing,Guangzhou and so on.Over 30 years since liberation,ourcountry invested over half of her capital outlay in inland to accelerate theeconomic development of inland and some minority nationality regions,andchange the unbalanced,backward,lopsided industrial distribution of old Chinapreliminarily.At the same time,we utilized the industry of coastal areas fullyand developed it rationally,played the role of original industrial bases fully,andcarried out its proper reconstruction,extension and new-construction.In any country,whether it be the United states,the Soviet Union,the Statesof the European Economic Community or Japan,the development of the regionaldistribution of their productivity was waved from unbalance to balance.And ittook a long time for them to develop their new economic bases gradually,dependingon their developed old bases of ecomomy.In our socialist construction,we should understand and apply consciouslythe unbalance law of regional economic development and the regional division lawof labour,and arrange for the optimized regional distribution of productivity,based on different natural,economic and technological conditions of various regio-ns.we should handle correctly the relationship between developed regions and un-developed regions,promote and support the economic development of undevelopedregions through developing the economu of developed regions,taking the oldbases of developed regions as foothold anb dase area for undeveloped regions.
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    太湖地区第四纪沉积的孢粉组合及其古植被与古气候
    王开发, 张玉兰, 蒋辉
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 17-26.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.17
    摘要   PDF (3650KB)
    太湖地区不仅因风景秀丽,成为人们休养、旅游的胜地,而且由于它的气候温暖湿润,成为华东地区一个富饶的鱼米之乡。但是,历史上的太湖气候却经历过频繁的冷暖、干湿的交替,而这碧波浩瀚的淡水湖泊也曾遭海水的侵入。几年来,我们对太湖地区的和桥 YL—17井、丁山19—5井岩心和宜兴、无锡附近的第四纪沉积、唯亭遗址文化层进行孢粉研究,并分析了现代太湖湖泥、无锡南独山、宜兴铜官山山麓表土,皆获得丰富的孢粉,为研究太湖地区第四纪古植被、古气候、古环境提供了有用资料。
    Ten spore-pollen zones have been distinguished from the Quaternary sedi-ments of Taihu region,reflecting ten phases of the paleovegetation successionsince the middle Pleistocene of Taihu region.These phases are as follow inascending order:deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest and deciduousbroad-leaved forest containing evergreen broad-leaf tree of the middle Pleistocene,reflecting the climate changing from cold and dry to warm and moist;coniferousand broad-leaf mixed forest,evergreen broad-leaf and deciduous broad-leavedmixed forest and Pinus and Cupressaceae forest-grasslands with a few of Piccaand Abies of the late Pleistocene,indicating cold and dry,warm and moist andcold and dry three climate phases;coniferous and broad-leaf mixed forest,broad-leaf and coniferous mixed forest-grasslands,evergreen broad-leaf forest、conife-rous and broad-leaf mixed forest and limnetic vegetation mainly consisted ofConcentricystes and Potamo eton Of Holocene,reflecting that the climate hasundergone five phases:cool and moist,temperate and dry,hot and moist,temperate and dry and warm and moist,the last one nearly being equal to theclimate of present.The late Pleistocene had the lowest temperature,7—8℃lower than that of present.The hot and moist climate of the middle Holoceneresulted in the sea level rising and Taihu Lake was transgressed by sea waterand became a lagoon or a gulf.
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    三江平原的辐射气候特征
    刘兴土
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 27-36.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.27
    摘要   PDF (2892KB)
    三江平原是黑龙江、松花江、乌苏里江冲积形成的低平原,地域辽阔,总面积10万6千平方公里,资源丰富,是我国最大的沼泽区和重要的商品粮基地。对于三江平原的生态环境和沼泽特征,前人作过许多考察与研究工作,考虑到太阳总辐射和地表辐射平衡是研究气候形成、地表能量转换和生态系统结构特征的最基本资料,故本文应用佳木斯的实测辐射,建立了计算三江平原的总辐射和冬季地表反射率的经验公式,并分析了辐射平衡各分量的时空分布特征。与此同时,对辐射干燥指数与沼泽分布及光合潜力作了探讨。
    Sanjiang Plain is an important base of commodity grains and the largestswamp region in China.This paper established the equations of total radiation and of the equation ofground albedo in winter based on solar rediation data and sunshine data in Jiamusifrom 1961 to 1979. The deduced equations for total radiation are:Spring (Mar.—Apr.) Q=QA(0.23+0.472S)Summer (Tune—Aug.) Q=QA(0.125+0.625S)Autumn (Sept.—Oct.) Q=QA(0.155+0.556S)Winter (Nov.—Mar.) Q=QA(0.232+0.52S)Where all the terms are on monthly basis;Q,the total radiation;QA,theastronomical radiation;S,the relative sunshine.The correlation coefficient for linear equations are 0.62,0.81,0.80,0.62.The equation for ground albedo is:
    A=0.196+0.272D (in winter)
    Where D,days of snow cover.The correlation coefficient between A and D is 0.81.This paper has computed and analyzed the annual and the monthly values oftotal radiation,effective radiation and net radiation for 19 stations of sanjiangPlain.Some characteristics have been discussed with regard to the distribution intime and space of total radiation,effective radiation and net radiation.The results indicate that the Sanjiang Plain is rich in solar radiation resources.The total annual amount of global radiation is 99-112 kcal./cm2 and that ofradiation balance,33-42.5 kcal./cm2.In respect to the spatial distribution fromsouthwest to northeast,the total radiation and net radiation have a decreasingtendency.In respect to the annual variation,the monthly values of total radiationand net radiation are the smallest in December and the largest in June.All va-lues of net radiation from February to October stand positive;that from Novem-ber to January negative.Comparing the values of R/Lr and the distribution area of swamp andswampy-meadow,it can be seen that in regions with smaller R/Lr values thereare larger area of swamp and swampy meadow;and in those with larger R/Lrvalues,there are less area of swamp and swampy meadow.Comparing the R/Lr and other moisture index,it is considered that theclimate of the west part of this region belongs to semi-moist climate.On the basis of studies of the characteristics of radiation climate in SanjiangPlain,the photosynthesis potential has been computed.This region should bringthe superiority of radiation resources and photo-synthesis potential into full play,a modernized base of agriculture should be established.
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    珠江三角洲的沉积速率
    黄镇国, 李平日, 张仲英, 李孔宏
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 37-46.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.37
    摘要   PDF (2803KB)
    研究三角洲的第四纪沉积过程,是认识三角洲发育历史的一个重要方面,沉积速率则是沉积过程的综合反映。本文分析珠江三角洲各个发育阶段、各个沉积区的沉积速率及其变化和差异,为予测三角洲的发展趋势和淤积速度提供必要的参数。
    According to the sedimentary facies and C14 dating,the Quaternary process ofthe Zhujiang Delta can be divided into three depositional cycles and six stagesof evolution.At the same time,six sedimentary areas can be recognized on accountof the differences of depositional process between one another.This paper attempts to discuss the change of sedimentation rate in different stages and areas of thedelta.127 (at least)or 230 (at most)drill hole sections are used to count thesedimentation rate for each evolution stage.Moreover,the compression rate ofthe strata are dispeled,when computing the mean thickness of the strata.The computed results of sedimentation rate are as follows:(1) The meanrate of 4th—6th stages is 2.52mm/yr.for the whole delta,but Xi-Beijiang Deltais 2.55mm/yr.and Dongjiang Delta 2.01 mm/yr.;(2) The mean rate of thelater three stages is 3.76 times larger than that of the earlier three stages.It isthus shown that Zhujiang Delta was mainly deposited since Middle Holocene,i.e.about 7,500 years B.P.;(3) During the period of past 5,000 years,themean rate of the last 2,500 years (2.710mm/yr.) increased 19.5% as againstthe earlier 2,500 years,while the rate of middle area of Xi-Beijiang Deltainoreased about 41.1%.During the last 2,500 years,the mean rate of middle sedimentary area ofXi-Beijiang Delta Wanqingsha,and eastern part of Lingdingyang was 5.64mm/yr.,8.46mm/yr.and 5.15mm/yr.respectively.Based on the above calculated mean rate,we can estimate that fill-up of the whole estuary of Lingdingyang may require atime duration of 508—834 years.
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    欧亚大陆东西部棕壤的成土条件与主要发生学性质的初步比较
    倪绍祥
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 47-55.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.47
    摘要   PDF (2957KB)
    棕壤是广泛分布于世界温暖湿润气候区的一种重要森林土类。然而迄今为止,国际土壤学界对棕壤的发生、分类及其与相邻土类的关系等认识尚有一定分歧。为此,根据现有资料,对不同地区的棕壤加以比较,对于进一步认识对棕壤的发生学特点及其分类是有益的。本文仅对欧亚大陆东、西部(以下简称东、西部)的棕壤作一初步比较。共收集约105个棕壤剖面的理化分析数据,从中选择出能较好反映当地生物气候条件的69个剖面(其中,我国冀北山地的三个剖面是笔者采集和化验分析的),就成土条件和主要发生学指标按地区进行比较。
    Study was made by analyzing the soil-forming factors as well as the physicaland chemical data of 69 profiles of the brown earths in the eastern and westernregions of Eurasia.It has been found,on the one hand,that the pH,the cation exchangecapacity,the exchangeable Ca++ and Mg++ as well as the base saturation perce-ntage in the surface horizons of the brown earths are higher in the westernregion than in the eastern region.It indicates that the leaching in the brownearths is stronger in the western region than in the eastern region which isagreeable with the bioclimatic conditions of both regions.On the other hand,the comparison has shown that the silica-seoquioxide ratio and the absolute valueof the deviation between the calculated content and the determined content in thehorizons with the largest amount of clay particle are higher in the eastern regionthan in the western region.Besides,the rate of silica-seoquioxide ratio between thesurface horizon and parent material (the transport coefficient K)mostly is morethan 1 in the brown earths of the eastern region.It indicates that the seoqui-oxide of iron and aluminium has apparently transported down profiles and thesilica has apparently accumulated in the surface horizons.In my view,it mightbe a relic element in the present brown earths left over during the old soil-forming process.
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    卫片中线性构造的地质意义及其与地震的关系
    刘燕君
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 56-62.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.56
    摘要   PDF (2557KB)
    不同的地质体吸收、反射、发射和透射电磁波的波长与频率是不同的,这是由各种地质体物质成分、结构和分布格局上的差异造成的。因此可以说,地质体电磁波辐射的特点,是反映地质体总特征的灵敏指示剂。卫星象片是地表景观电磁波辐射总特征的综合反映,而地表的景观现象多受地质构造的控制,同时,我们还可以对不同季节、不同波段的象片进行处理和分析对比,以排除非地质信息的干扰,使地质体或地质构造信息以较明显的色调异常或图形异常出现在卫片上,以便有效地解决不同地质体的界线和地质构造特征等一系列问题。
    When the tone or feature on the Landsat Imagery appears abnormally andextends along a straight line,it is called lineament.The lineament largely represents the traces of deformation of earth crust.Interpretation of the lineament on the Landsat Imagery shows the followingfeatures:1.We can understand more thoroughly about the known rifts;2.A lot of rifts that may be neglected as detected with common methodscan be replenished;3.In the area covered by quartermary sediments,we can discover thedeep-situated rifts by using the method of perspective message;4.We can find the rock undergoing plastic deformation stage or the stressconcentration belt in stress concentrating stage;5.The belt with-lineaments more concentrated or the interface betweendifferent geological bodies in large area indicates the existence of great rift beltswhich pass through the earth crust.The most of strong earthquakes often occur in the great rift belts.Theirconcrete locations are generally at the points where the active structure or thestress concentration belt intersects the old rifts.In regard to the occurence ofstrong earthquakes,the stress concentration belt with its stresses concentrating ismore dangerous than the active structure.
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    DDT和六六六的水污染化学地理行为
    唐以剑, 于维新, 郑建勋
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 63-70.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.63
    摘要   PDF (2533KB)
    DDT和六六六(BHC)一类有机氯农药脂溶性强且不易分解,因而具有残效长、易在生物有机体内累积的特点。随着近代工业的高度发展和农业生产的需要,这类农药的踪迹已遍布地理环境的每一个角落。因此,研究 DDT 和 BHC 在地理环境中的迁移、转化过程和残留累积规律,对有效地控制利用这类有机氯农药和保护环境具有很重要的意义。
    The present article is the result of the investigation in the lower reaches ofthe Jiyun River,which flows through the industrial area that produces organo-chlorine insecticides,and primarily discusses the problem about the distribution,transportation and transformation of DDT and BHC in the lower reaches.According to the result fo the investigation,we hold that:(1) Primarycause for DDT and BHC pollution in local occurrence is the discharge of the pe-sticide factory;(2) Remain ratio of DDT is ten times higher than BHC undersame condition;(3) According to calculation,it shows that DDT is the moststable accumulation pollutant in water body,and yet there is still 35% DDT that maybe transformed into DDD or DDE in the sediment.As far as β-BHC is the moststable BHC isomer in water body,and α-BHC is the easisest to be degradated.
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    关于城市性质问题的探讨
    王淑华
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 71-78.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.71
    摘要   PDF (2778KB)
    当前,世界各国城市发展的实际情况表明,城市规模不断扩大已成为国内外城市发展的主要趋势。要想合理地确定与控制大城市发展规模,解决当前城市建设中存在的主要矛盾,必须根据国民经济发展的要求及地区发展的条件与特点确定城市性质,从而使全国各区域的城市发展既各具特色,又有分工,保持相互间的经济联系,以期实现在全国合理发展与布局城市,组成大、中、小相结合的城市网,并发挥城市在经济中的网络作用。
    Since there is no unified and complete concept,basis and method for urbancharacter to date,it is difficult to define urban character,which influences notonly general urban planning and construction,but also rational urban development and layout.This paper makes mainly a preliminary approach to the concept,basis and method for urban character.The concept of urban character can be understood in both narrow sense andbroad sense.The urban character in a narrow sense reflects the main function ofthe most essential characteristics of a city.The urban character in a broad senseinvolves the main function and the developing tendency of a city.In general,urban character is the position,role and developing tendency of a city in politics,economy and culture of a country or a region.And there can be one and only onemain function (single or comprehensive) for a city,while there can be one ormore secondary functions.The basis and method for defining urban character are that we can studycomprehensively and decide the developing tendency of a city in a given period,based on national economic censtruction,general requirements of national eco-nomic plan,regional resources and conditions,principle of rational productivitydistribution,present urban development and economic geographical position,through qualitative analysis,quantitative analysis,regional comparison and co-mprehensive analysis,making a city to be developed and distributed rationallyand favoring to improve economic benefit,social benefit and environmentalbenefit.
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    问题讨论
    仅论中国东北落叶阔叶林区的北界
    钱家驹
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 79-82.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.79
    摘要   PDF (2417KB)
    本文所指的中国东北只包括内蒙南部、辽宁北部和吉林南端。植被区划图中的边界线是本区内典型优势植被群落分布的外缘边界的大体连线。
    The writer,in accordance with some original materials collected by himselfand others recently,selected some typical places,some typical plants and theirtypical communities in the local vegetation;and then,based on the concept,basis and method of vegetational regionalism,compared with the plant floristicregion.Finally,he recognized that these were two different courses in botany,and they were only similar in their regions,but not the same.After discussion,he,based on actual natural distribution of deciduous broad-leaf forest in N.E.China,drew its northern boundary as follows:Beginning from Jian,along the southern slope of Laoling,passing throughHuanren,Benxi,Kaiyuan,Facu,Fengjia,Kulunqi,Chifeng,and entering HebeiProvince near Weichang.
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    医学地图的内容和编制方法的探讨
    文圣君
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 83-88.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.83
    摘要   PDF (2709KB)
    医学地理学是研究疾病和环境条件之间关系的科学。它最早出现在希波克拉底氏时代(希波克拉底为古希腊名医),后来有人称之为疾病地理学、地理医学、地理病理学,当前多称之为医学地理学。地图既是地理学的研究成果,也是研究手段。因此,医学地理学的研究也离不开地图。尤其当人类与环境的关系问题日益引起广泛注意的今天,与人类健康密切相关的医学地图,更应得到重视和发展。
    Three topics are discussed in this paper:1.The significance and the present state of medical maps;2.The contents and drawing methods of medical maps;Medical maps should consist of present state of disease distribution,changinglaws of disease distribution,environmental conditions of disease area and pre-ventive measures,ctc.As for drawing methods,several calculating methods areprimarily introduced.3.Expressions for medical maps.Expressions for medical maps should be chosen according to their contentsand calculating methods.Several typical expressions for medical maps are introducedin this paper.
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    研究报导
    新疆天山和吐鲁番盆地天然水自然背景值
    屠树德, 毛雪瑛, 李岫霞, 钱杏珍, 王玉琦, 陈冰如, 李智
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 89-92.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.89
    摘要   PDF (2448KB)
    海拨1940米的新疆天池公园是我国对外开放的高山湖泊自然保护区,具有明显的山地垂直景观带结构。吐鲁番盆地是我国海平面以下最低的地区,也是世界上少有的低地之一,具有独特的干旱区域自然景观。研究天山雪线—天池和吐鲁番盆地天然水化学元素的含量和组成,对揭示该地区的水质变化规律,评价人类活动对环境的影响程度,进一步发展旅游事业等有重要意义。
    The natural background values of some waters from snow line of the Tien Mountain to Tien Lake region and Torupen Basin were measured by neutronactivation method.The results of measurement may be summarized as follows:Contents of rare earth elements(REE)from these areas ranged from n?0.001to n?0.01 ppb,and those of elements Au,Cs,Rb,Sb,W,and Cu ranged fromn?0.0001 to n?1 ppb.Uranium content has increased with decreasing altitudeabove sea level.It is possible to be relevant to the geochemical effect of rock.In addition,it has been found that the contents of Ca,Sr,Ba,Sc,Co,Cr,Fe,Se,Zn,etc.in well water at this area have been highly concentrated,Thereason about it was discussed in this paper.
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    学术活动
    国际泥炭学会专业学术讨论会在明斯克召开
    黄锡畴, 吴奇虎
    地理科学. 1983, 3 (1): 93-94.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1983.01.93
    摘要   PDF (1023KB)
    国际泥炭学会(IPS)第四和第二专业委员会联合召开的学术讨论会于1982年9月21日至25日在苏联明斯克举行。这次讨论会的主题是:泥炭的性质及其利用前景。参加会议的有奥地利、加拿大、中国、捷克、英国、德意志联邦共和国、芬兰、匈牙利、德意志民主共和国、爱尔兰、荷兰、挪威、波兰、瑞典等128位科学家和泥炭工作者以及苏联代表148人。国际泥炭学会第四专业委员会的讨论内容是:泥炭和腐泥的化学、物理、生物化学、微生物学特性;生理活性物质;生长刺激素;医药制剂及有关物质的生产和应用。
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