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ISSN 1000-0690
CN 22-1124/P
创刊于 1981 年 (月刊)
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  • 地理科学
      1988年, 第8卷, 第1期 刊出日期:1988-01-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    我国沼泽研究的回顾与展望—一献给中国科学院长春地理研究所成立三十周年
    黄锡畴, 马学慧
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 1-11,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.1
    摘要   PDF (809KB)
    本文回顾了中国科学院长春地理研究所成立三十年来在沼泽和泥炭研究领域,包括沼泽和泥炭资源考察,沼泽概念、性质、成因、类型、形成过程、形成时期、发育规律;沼泽的水文、气候、植被、土壤、化学、动物、制图、恢复古环境等方面的研究,以及实验技术和新技术应用;国际学术交流方面所取得的进展和成就。并提出今后的展望。
    The Changchun Institute of Geography,Chinese Academy of Sciences, was estabilished in 1958.Main tasks of the Institute are researches on mires and geographic subjects of Northeast China. In near 30 years,a great achievement has been gotten in investigations on mires and peat resoures throughout country. Based on the researches in hydrology,climate,vegetation,soil,ecochemistry of landscape for the variaty of mires in different regions of China, research works have found out that forming factors,process and types of China’s mires have own features.Thus,some new theoretical viewpoints about definition,characteristic,distribution and development laws of mires which are suitable for China’s mire physical features have been suggested accordingly,the mire research has become a new branch in the system of natural sciences. In researches,some advanced methods,experimental instrument and new technology of remote sensing and detecting have been widely used,and researches on models,databases,information systems,mire mapping and some experimental researches on integrated exploitation and utilization of mire and peat resources have also been attempted,and proglesscs in international academic exchanges have been achieved. In the mire researches of the future,we must enhance the basic theoretical research,combine theory with practice of production,face to construction of national economy and establish China’s mire sciences.
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    基塘系统的特征及其实践意义
    钟功甫
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 12-17,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.12
    摘要   PDF (454KB)
    本文阐述了基塘系统概念、意义,分析了基塘系统的结构、功能及效益。基塘系统的结构合理,具有种种优越性,是形成稳产高产的重要原因。在系统运行过程中,资源获得充分利用,是人为建立的水陆立体种养体系。它的经济效益高,生态效益和社会效益显著,无论在理论研究生产应用上都具有重要意义。基塘系统的开发,是改造低洼湿地的一个范例。
    A dike-pond system is a particular artificial ecosystem of land-water interaction,and also a special stero-cultiviting breeding system,so it has the characteristics of both land ecosystem,and fresh water ecosystem.The system has complicated structure and multi-levels including land cultivating levels and water-body breeding levels.As for the cultivation forms,it may be one of the production structures with the most levels and the highest form. The input and output of substances and energy of the dike-pond system are basically balanced.The sections of the system coordinate and promote each other.Because each unit area can give various agricultural and aquatic products,and high production yield,it is one of the important ways of saving farmland.
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    东北大豆产量与气候条件的关系
    孙玉亭, 白雅梅
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 18-26,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.18
    摘要   PDF (486KB)
    本文应用车贝雪夫多项式对东北三省大豆历年平均产量进行空间场分解,滤掉部分非气候因子的影响,取二项式的拟合值作为气候产量,分析与气候因子的关系,建立大豆各地平均产量与生长季≥10℃积温、张宝堃干燥指数(K=0.16 ∑T/R)及生长季7—8月平均温度关系的气候产量模式。在此基础上分析气候产量的空间分布特点,从而为大豆的合理布局提供气候依据。
    In order to stress the relationship between the climatic conditions and the yield,the authors carried out the resolution of space field in average yearly yield of soybean of three provinces in northeast by means of Chebyshev polynomial;after filtering some effects of non-climatic factors,and taking the simulated value of binomial as the climatic yield,analyzed the relationship between the climatic yield and climatic factors.The mathematical model of the relationship between the annual soybean yield in various areas in northeast and the accumulated temperature (∑T≥10℃)in growing seasons,Zhang Baokun’s dry index (K=0.16T/R),mean monthly temperature in July and August.On the basis of this model,the climatic productivity target(Ai=Yi/Ymax)was calculated,and the distributed features in space were analyzed. That provides a basis for rational distribution of soybean.
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    渭北旱原的辐射资源
    李治武, 韦省民
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 27-37,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.27
    摘要   PDF (648KB)
    本文系统阐述了陕西省渭北旱原的辐射气候特征,详细估算了该区不同时期的光能资源,深入分析了光能利用现状及其潜力,指出了提高光能利用系数的途径,对渭北旱原农业发展研究有重要的指导意义。
    In this paper,the climatic features of radiation of the arid plateau in north of the Weihe River are described;the light-energy resources in the area for different periods are estimated;the present condition and potentials of light-energy utilization are analysed;and finally the ways to raise the coefficient of light-energy utilization are pointed out.
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    内蒙古锡林河流域草甸草原的特点及其对黑钙土形成过程的影响
    陈佐忠, 黄德华
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 38-46,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.38
    摘要   PDF (635KB)
    本文采用地理调查与定位研究相结合的方法,对锡林河流域黑钙土的分布及其有关植被类型、植物群落特征、生物量等进行了调查,探讨了植物化学元素组成、凋落物分解与土壤之间的物质流,揭示了黑钙土形成的植被条件与黑钙土形成过程的关系。
    The types of vegetation,the structure of plant community and the chemical composition of plants make an important impact on soil formation process,soil nature and its profile shape. The chernozem of Inner Mongolia distributes at the east and northeast of the Hulun Buir Plateau and the western part of the Daxinganling Mountains, The chernozem of the Xilin River valley distributes at the east of this area. The meadow grassland includes three types:arid-cluster-grass grassland, Aneurolepidium grassland and Filifolium grassland.Their dominant species are Stipa baicalensis,Aneurolepidium chinese and Filifolium sibiricum,respectively. The arid-cluster-grass grassland consists of 45 plant species.The number of species in each square metre is 29-39,among which Gramineae accounts for 17.78%,Leguminosa 11.11%,Compositae 11.11%,the others are Liliaceae, etc.The coverage is 64%.The community is 19cm high.The biomass of aboveground(W1) is 179.84g·m-2,in which Gramineae makes up 67.73%.The biomass of underground(W2 at depth of 0-100cm soil horizon)is 2266.99g· m-2,the biomass at depth of 0-30cm soil horizon makes up 75.16% of the total underground biomass.Its r(W2/W1) is 12.61. The Aneouropidium grassland consists of 28 species,among them,there are 5 species of Gramineae,4 species of Compositae and 2 species of Leguminosa.The total coverage is 70%,the height of the community is 30cm.The biomass of aboveground is 96.22-167.47g·m-2,in which Graminea makes up 29.50-73.27%.The biomass of underground is 906.4-2600.82g·m-2,the bio mass at depth of 0-30cm soil horizon is 61.41-59.46% of the total underground biomass.Their r is 15.53 and 9.42. The Filifolium grass/and consists of 30 species and varies in 20-22 species in each square metre.Among 30 species,Gramineae makes up 20%.The total coverage,is 53%,the community is 23.3cm in height.The biomass of Filifolium grassland is much higher than those of Stipa and Aneuropidium grassland,reaches 236.48g·m-2.The biomass of Compositae makes up 57.22% of the total.Its underground biomass at depth of 0-100cm soil horizon gets to 3254.02g·m-2,the biomass at depth of 0-30cm soil horizon makes up 66.35% of the total.But its r gets to 13.76. The nitrogen content of Compositae is the highest in all samples analysed, accouting for 2.62%,but nitrogen content of Gramineae is the lowest,only 1.46%.The nitrogen accumulation of Gramineae is the highest in the aboveglound,1390.39mg·m-2,It makes up 53.06% of the aboveground. The ash content of Leguminosa makes up 11.037%,but the ash content of Stipa gandis only 4.938%.The ash accumulation of Gramineae is the highest,3039.20mg·m-2, makes up 47.28% of aboveground accumulation. The molecular ratio of SiO2/R2O3 has an effect on the clay mineral formation.The molecular ratio of SiO2/R3O4 in Aneurolepidium grassland is much wider,it varies from 13.68 to 148.23.The chemical composition and its accumulated amount of underground biomass plays an important role in the accumulation and activity of nutrient elements in soil.The content and accumulated amount of Si in 0-10cm soil horizon is the highest among all chemical elements,the older of others is as follows:Ca,N,Fe,K,AL,Na,S,Mg,P.The molecular ratio of SiO2/R2O3 in the underground biomass varies from 19.75— 30,40.
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    江苏湖泊水量资源分析
    王洪道, 史复祥
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 47-53,99.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.47
    摘要   PDF (487KB)
    江苏是一个多湖泊的省份,湖泊面积达6385km2,贮水量为104亿m3。本文在分析江苏湖泊水系、水位及流量、湖泊水资源的利用与保护的基础上,提出应制止盲目围湖垦殖和防止湖泊污染等问题。
    Jiangsu is a province with a large number of lakes.Natural lakes are scattered almost all over the province.Preliminary survey shows that Jiangsu Province has about 106 lakes with an area larger than 1km2.All lakes cover an area of 6385km2,amounting to 8.9% of the lake area of the whole country.By calculation,the storage capacity of lakes is known as 9700 million m3.This paper deals mainly with river systems,water level,water volume,and the utilization and protection of lakes water resources.Stopping blind reclamation of lakes and preventing lakes from pollution must be paid attention to. Jiangsu Province has not aboundant water resources of lakes,and the distribution in time and space is uneven,therefore the protection of the very limited water resources of these lakes must be paid particular attention to, and the existing problems must be solved in a proper way.
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    黄河冲积扇和三角洲变迁过程中的临界意义
    曹银真
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 54-62,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.54
    摘要   PDF (589KB)
    黄河冲积扇和三角洲的发育过程具有一定的临界几何形态。全新世中期以来形成的三期冲积扇的地貌临界值在0.93—0.94之间,1855年以来形成的四期三角洲的地貌临界规律和历史变迁趋势,以及现代河道特征表明,将来黄河有可能在东坝头—高村一带向北决口改道。
    In the river system,the environmental change always undergoes the process from a quantitative change to a qualitative change.The limit of the qualitative change is known as the threshold.The threshold is the upper limit of the cumulation process.When the process reaches or goes beyond the limit, the original event series will be replaced by the other event series.The investigation shows that there is the process from a quantitative change to a qualititative change in the evolution of the fluvial fan and delta of the Huanghe River.The geometric forms formed by each process are roughly same.This threshold of the geometric forms not only proved the quantitative index for plotting the periodicity of fluvial fan and delta,but also is very important for estimating the trend of natural ervironmental change. It is shown that the thresholds of geometric forms of the third periodic fluvial fan of the Huanghe River since the middle Holocene range from 0.93 to 0.94,while the one of the fourth periodic delta since 1855 A.D.from 1.2 to 1.21. According to the change trend during the historical time and the conditions of present natural environment,the lower reaches of the Huanghe River will be able to burst its banks at the Dongbatou-Gaocun to flow northward. The controlling measure should be taken.
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    我国小城镇发展与建设问题的探讨
    王淑华, 杨培珍
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 63-70,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.63
    摘要   PDF (571KB)
    本文论述了我国小城镇的特点及发展潜力,分析了影响我国小城镇形成发展的主要因素,最后指出我国小城镇发展与布局方面存在的问题和解决途径。
    A town is a spatial organic complex of multi-function and multi-department,consisting of natural and artificial environments.In forming rational economic network or the town system of towns and villages as an integral whole combined with large,medium and small towns,playing the functions and parts of towns at different levels,forming various economic centers depending on large and medium cities and developing small towns with better conditions step by step proportionally and in a planned way,all of which mentioned above plays an important role in promoting rural economic development,ensuring goods and materials needed by cities,raising social labour productivity and eliminating three major differences.They are also of practical significance to transform agricultural surplus labour on the spot,to control the developing scale of large cities,to achieve the town system with Chinese characteristics,and to accelarate the course of four modernizations. The paper introcuces the general situation of town development in China, and discusses the concept and features of small towns,and the position and functions of small towns in the town development in China.It also studies the existent problems of small town development and ways to solve them.In a word,the development of small towns must be from the practical situation of.China.Through studying their histories,present conditions,material potential and developing direction,one can make the best use of their situation to develop towns which possess the developing conditions so as to race against construction time and raise investment benefit,as well as to prevent and avoid the disadvantage of large city development.
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    《楚游日记》与湘南风光资源——纪念徐霞客诞辰四百周年
    熊绍华, 杨载田, 欧阳识之
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 71-78,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.71
    摘要   PDF (615KB)
    本文以徐霞客《楚游日记》为依据,分析了湘南风光资源的主要类型,并结合现代旅游业的发展,阐明《日记》对湘南风光资源开发利用所给予的启示,以纪念这位伟大地理学家诞辰四百周年。
    Xu Xiake,an extraordinary traveller and geographer of the Ming Dynasty, made an on-the-spot investigation when he travelled in the southern part of Hunan Province,and wrote"Journal of Travels in Hunan".This paper,based on the journal,analyzes the main types of the scenic spots in the southern part of Hunan Province,and discusses the instructions and enlightenment given by Xu Xiake’s journal in exploration and utilization of the scenic spots of the southern Hunan for the development of modern tourism.
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    研究报道
    洞庭湖水系河水中28种元素背景值研究
    钱杏珍, 李岫霞, 李健
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 79-86,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.79
    摘要   PDF (451KB)
    本文用中子活化法研究了洞庭湖水系湘江、资水、源江、澧水河水中28种元素的背景值。讨论了元素背景值的区域特征、人类活动和基岩性质对背景值的影响,以及元素溶解态和悬浮态浓度的比例和赋存状态。
    The Dongting Lake system includes the Xiangjiang River,the Zijiang River,the Yuanjiang River and the Lijiang River.The contents of 28 elements:Ag,As,Au,Ba,Ce,Co,Cr,Cs,Eu,Fe,La,Lu,Mo,Na,Nd,Rb, Sb,Sc,Sm,Sr,Tb,Th,U,Yb and Zn in the river water from the Dongting Lake system have been determined with the Neutron Activation Analysis method.The average contents of these 1elements are all within the range of element compositions of the world fresh water,and close to the low limit of the ranges.The coefficients of variations of contents are wthin 0.72 for most elements.In comparison with other river water,the contents of Pe,Th and Re REE in the Dongting Lake system are lower,but the contents of Rb and Cs are relatively high.That is mainly caused by the influence of the hydrochemistry and geochemistry.The reason why the environmental background values of almost elements in the reservoir water are higher than in river water is discussed in the paper.The human activities might result in the increase of the environmental background values of elements.Finally,the percentage by content of 18 elements in soluble and suspended state and forms are also discussed.
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    试论影象地图的制图综合和编制工艺
    于宗波
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 87-93,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.87
    摘要   PDF (504KB)
    本文探讨了影象地图编制中的影象概括问题,分为比例影象概括、目的影象概括和视觉影象概括。并在实践基础上阐述了影象地图编制工艺。
    The image map is a product of cartography combining with remote sensing technology.Compiling line maps exists the problem of mapping integration,so does compiling image maps.It is called image generalization.According to the size,important degree,colour characteristics and the result of sense transference,image generalization can be divided into scale image generalization,objective image generalization and vision imago generalization. The scale image generalization means reflecting the regular type features and typical characteristics of mapping objects by means of contracting or enlarging image scales.The objective image generalization means stressing special information,on the understanding of importance of mapping objects by cartographers,by selecting various bands and their combination forms.The vision image generalization means stressing outline,structure and features of major objects after natural eliminating those fragmental features which should be filtered to map scales.
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    问题讨论
    辽宁境内暖温带北界的划定
    毕伯钧
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 94-98,100.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.94
    摘要   PDF (324KB)
    本文根据调查和有关资料,选用气候指标、地理指标,采用模糊数学中的隶属度计算方法,对辽宁境内暖温带北界作了划定,并以地带性植被的分布作为该界线划定的旁证。
    The northern boundary of the warm-temperate zone in Liaonig Province is delimited using the computing method of subordinate degrees in fuzzy mathematics,based on investigation result,related data and the climatic and geographical indices selected.The distribution,of belt vegetation is taken as the circumstantial evidence of delimiting the boundary.
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    学术活动
    《北水南调规划环境影响评价第一次工作会议在长春召开》
    张为中
    地理科学. 1988, 8 (1): 98-98.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.1988.01.98
    摘要   PDF (59KB)
    为进一步全面落实国家计委下达的《松花江、辽河流域水资源综合开发利用规划》的工作任务,水电部松辽水利委员会于1987年8月28日至29日,在长春召开了《北水南调》工程环境影响评价工作会议。参加会议的有中国科学院长春地理研究所、吉林省环境保护研究所、东北师范大学和吉林省水利勘测设计院等单位的30多位科研和工程技术人员。
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