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CN 22-1124/P
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  • 地理科学
      2001年, 第21卷, 第5期 刊出日期:2001-09-20 上一期    下一期
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    论文
    近20年来中国人口重心与经济重心的演变及其对比分析
    徐建华, 岳文泽
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 385-389.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.385
    摘要   PDF (674KB)
    采用近20年来中国各省(市、区)的人口、GDP、工业、农业、第三产业的产值及消费额数据,计算出其各年的重心坐标,定量表示出中国近20年来人口、GDP、工业、农业、第三产业及消费重心的动态演化过程。在此基础上分析了中国人口、经济发展、生活水平区域差异的动态变化及其之间的关系,以及各要素动态演化的驱动因子。结果表明:近20年来,中国人口重心表现为缓慢地向西南方向移动;GDP、工业、第三产业和消费额重心向东南方向移动。与中国几何中心比较,区域差异在总体上是扩大了;与人口重心相比较,东西方向呈不平衡态势发展,南北方向则开始趋于平衡;而农业重心则表现为无规律性变化。
    This thesis adopts production value of population, GDP, industry, agriculture and the tertiary industry and data of expenditure in recent twenty years in every province, every district, every city, and figures out the coordinate of gravity center of each years. It quantitatively express developing evolvement of population, GDP, industry, agriculture, the tertiary industry and the consumption center of gravity. On the basis of the result, it analyses the developing evolvement and relation of China population and region discrepancy of economic developing. From the developing evolvement of gravity center we can draw a conclusion: the discrepancies between east and west in China existed twenty years ago, and the population gravity center slowly moves to southwest in China in recent twenty years; on the whole the movements of GDP, industry, the tert iary industry and the consumpt ion gravity centers show to southeast. Against the geometry center in China: on the whole the region discrepancy in China is extended; against the population gravity center: between east and west take on imbalance developing, while between south and north tend to balance; but the change of the agriculture gravity center shows irregularity. The thesis simply analyses driving gene of the developing evolvement of each factor.
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    黄淮海平原水土资源利用的可持续性评价、开发潜力及对策
    吴凯, 黄荣金
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 390-395.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.390
    摘要   PDF (873KB)
    黄淮海平原耕地顷均水资源量仅及全国平均水平的1/4,目前缺水率为19.3%,水资源利用可持续性综合评价指标属于中等偏下水平,为我国较为严重的缺水区,尤其是海河低平原区。土地资源利用对种植业而言,属于临界可持续状态,山前平原区指数值最低,有使耕地进一步向非农用方面转化的可能。2010年,本区水资源可供水量将比2000年增长22.4%,耕地面积仍能维持1998年水平。本区水土资源的区域匹配有明显的地区差异:山前平原区与海河低平原区水资源开发潜力不大,土地利用受缺水制约,水资源利用率已超过86%,平均可利用水资源量不足2500m3/hm2;但黄淮平原区和滨海低平原区水土资源均有较大的开发潜力,水资源利用率低于50%,平均可利用水资源量分别为3330m3/hm2和7020m3/hm2。本区水土资源利用的对策应为:积极开辟灌溉新水源(2010年外流域调水量和污水处理回用与微咸水利用量分别占可供水量的20.2%和4.9%),积极发展节水灌溉新技术,加快中低产地改造与高产农田的建设(中低产地改造后每公顷可增产粮食1 950 kg)以及实施稳定北部、提高中部、发展南部粮食生产的重点区域发展布局,以促进其农业和农村的可持续发展。
    The Huang-Huai-Hai Plain is a serious water-lacking area in China, especially the low plain in the Haihe River, in which water resources per hectare in the cultivated land are 25 per cent of the average of the country, the existing water-lacking rate is 19.3 per cent, and the sustainable comprehensive evaluating index of water resources belongs to a medium level on the low side. The sustainable evaluating index of land resources for the planting in the area belongs to a critical sustainable condition, in which the evaluating index was lowest in the plain in front of a mountain and it is possible that the land is further transformed from the cultivated land into the non-agricultural one. The amount of water supply in the area in 2010 will be increased by the factor of 22.4 per cent of that in 2000 and the cultivated land area will be maintained by the level in 1998. The water and land resources matches have the obvious region dif ferences in the area: small development potentialities for water resources and the land use restricted by water-lacking in the plain in front of a mountain and the low plain in the Haihe River, in which the utilization rate of water resources was more than 86 per cent and the amount of utilizable water resources per hectare was less than 2500 m3/ha; the bigger development potentialities for water and land resources in the Huang-Huai Plain and the low plain nearby a sea, in which the utilization rate of water resources was less than 50 per cent and the amount of utilizable water resources per hectare was 3330 and 7020 m3/ha respectively. Some countermeasures of water-land resources use should be used in the area, in which opening the new water resources for the irrigation (the predicted water-transferring amount from outside basins and the reuse of treated sewage water and application of slight saline water will make up 20.2 per cent and 4.9 per cent of the water supply in 2010 respectively), developing the new techniques of the water-saving irrigation, transforming the cultivated land with the middle-low yield, by which the yield-increasing amount of grain was 1950 kg/ha, and constructing the cultivated land with the high yield and implementing the key region development distributions including stabilizing the grain production in the north part, raising that in the middle part and developing that in the south part of the area, for the sustainable development of the agriculture and the countryside.
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    黄河流域水资源未来变化趋势分析
    王国庆, 王云璋, 史忠海, 康玲玲, 李皓冰
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 396-400.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.396
    摘要   PDF (846KB)
    黄河水资源贫乏,气候暖干化将进一步加剧水资源的供需矛盾,分析水资源的变化趋势对其合理开发利用等方面具有重要意义。根据黄河的产流特点和水平衡原理,建立了月水文模型,用来模拟天然水资源的变化;依据假定的暖干化气候方案和气候模型的输出结果,采用水文模拟途径,分析了黄河上中游主要产流区水资源对气候变化的响应及其变化趋势。
    The Yellow River is deficient in water resources. Global warming will be made for the water supplying and demanding in contradiction with water resources more conspicuous. Analysis on water resources variation tendency is very important to its utilization and development. In this paper, the main area of runoff yielding in the Yellow River is divided into four parts according to the difference of runoff generation and climate conditions. They are the region above Lanzhou station (regionⅠ), the region from Hekouzhen to Longmen (regionⅡ), the region from Longmen to Sanmenxia (region Ⅲ) and the region from Sanmenxia to Huayuankou (region Ⅳ) respectively. Statistical results show that runoff in the four areas is about 98% of total water resources in the Yellow River. And then, a monthly water balance model was established considering the characteristics of runoff yielding in the four areas. The model is used to simulate natural discharge, and the calculated discharge consists of surface flow, ground flow and snow-melting flow. The surface flow is directly proportional to soil moisture and precipitation. The ground flow is calculated by a linear reservoir. And snow-melting flow is not only an exponential function with atmosphere temperature, but also proportional to snow accumulation. The model is used to simulate natural discharge in the four areas. Simulation results for the four areas are perfect. According to the hypothetical climate scenarios, the responses of annual runoff in the four areas to climate change were analyzed. The results show that runoff is more sensitive to precipitation change than that to temperature change. The runoff in the four areas would increase 14%-18% if precipitation increase 10%. And if temperature rise 1℃, the runoff would decrease 3.7%-6.6%. Runoff in the second and the third areas are more sensitive to climate change than that in other areas. Runoff in the first area is lest sensitive to climate change due to abundant ground runoff and snow-melting runoff. And then, monthly runoff absolute changes are calculated under the hypothetical climate scenarios of temperature increase 2℃ and precipitation decrease 20%. Results show that absolute change of runoff is remarkable in more"wet"regions and seasons relatively.And at last, the variation of runoff under the CO2 content in atmosphere doubling scenario were calculated through the output results of three GCMs (LLNL MPI UKMOH). The results show that water resources in the Yellow River would present a decreasing tendency in the several decades. Annual runoff would decrease 35.7×108 m3 and meanwhile runoff in flood period would decrease 25.4×108m3.
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    国家土壤信息系统的结构、内容与应用
    张甘霖, 龚子同, 骆国保, 张学雷
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 401-406.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.401
    摘要   PDF (253KB)
    土壤信息系统建立是当今土壤科学发展阶段的必然要求,全球和有关国家的土壤信息系统在资源评价和模拟等多方面发挥着重要作用。目前在土壤研究不断积累和SOTER研究全面展开的基础上建设我国国家土壤信息系统的工作已经开展。在分析全球和其他国家土壤数据库的基础上,介绍了建设中的我国土壤信息系统的功能和任务设计、基本组成和数据库结构、内容以及研究基础,并举例说明了土壤信息系统在环境模拟中的应用。
    Soil Information System (SIS) is a computerized tool, which is built to collect, store, manage and analyse soil and soil-related environmental information. The establishment of SIS is the consequence of the development of soil science, for it is absolutely necessary for the evaluation of soil resource and natural resources as well as the modelling of ecological processes. This paper analyses the national and international progress in the research and establishment of soil information system, the features of the spatial databases and the attribute databases of the global and several national soil information systems. Most of the national and international soil information systems contain spatial and attribute databases, while NASIS (National Soil Information System, USA) contains, up to now, only attribute data. Attribute databases are mostly relational but NASIS does use UNIX-based INFOMIX system. The features of the design, functionality, structure, contents and possible applications of the being-built China national soil information system are explained. The functionality of national soils information system includes management, assessment and analysis of soil information. It can provide soil information for soil classification, sol science education, soil resource monitoring, soil process and change prediction as well as agricultural and environmental policy-making. China national soil information system comprises three main components, namely the spatial database, the attribute database and the application models. The main data source comes from the Second National Soil Survey Programme as well as from the study of Chinese Soil Taxonomy. The spatial database consists of a series of soil maps and the related thematic maps in the scale of 1/4,000,000 and 1/1,000,000 for national level, 1/500,000 for provincial level and 1/50,000 for county level. For national and provincial levels, all existing maps will be collected and input into the system, while only a part of county maps can be collected and built into the database in the current stage, due to the mass workload. Spatial data is stored as convertible polygon format as digitized with the current commercial GIS software such as ARC/INFO or MAPGIS. Attribute data is maintained by relational database tool. A unique linking code is built to link the spatial and attribute databases so guarantee the flexible extraction and display. An application model pool containing various models for interpretation is also included, which is equally important for a complete information system. The utility of soil information system varies. For agriculture and forestry, it provides basic information for the recognition of the spatial variation and serves the evaluation of crop (including tree) suitability and, helps to facilitate the implementation of soil conservation projects. For environmental protection, it makes up the necessary part of basic databases to assess environmental capacity and to model environmental processes, regionally and globally. Construction engineering also to seems require more and more site soil information. An example is given to illustrate the main procedures modelling regional pollutant load using soil infromation system and other related databases.
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    资源场理论及其在资源流动中的应用
    董瑜, 谢高地
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 407-411.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.407
    摘要   PDF (596KB)
    借鉴物理学中的场思维,构建了资源场理论分析框架,探索了资源流动的力的本质:资源势差是资源流动的内在本质,资源场力是推动资源流动的本质力量,资源场力和外力的合力是资源流动的直接力量。利用资源场论分析了山东省宁津县宁津镇、张学武乡劳动力资源地域流动和部门流动的情况和趋势。
    On the basis of field theory of physics and existent researches, the characteristics of resources extensity are discussed and the concept of resources field are put forward. Like the physical field, the resources field is also an interactional extensity, which possesses the unique characteristics. The theory of resources field presents the characteristic quanta of resources field including resources field difference, resources field forces etc, which can explain the resources flow from the point of view of the force. The essence of resources flow is as follows: the potential difference is the essence of the resources flow and has the direct relationship with its intensity; the resultant force of resources field force and outside forces including motive forces and resistance is the foundation and direct impetus of resources flow. In addition, the quantitative formulas of resources potential difference and resources flow are presented. Using the resources field theory and quantitative formulas, the regional and departmental flows of labor forces resources in two counties (Ningjin Township and Zhangxuewu Township County of Shandong Province) are analyzed and compared.
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    城市系统的异速生长关系与位序-规模法则——对Steindl模型的修正与发展
    陈彦光, 刘继生
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 412-416.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.412
    摘要   PDF (1480KB)
    基于Steindl模型的建模思想,设置一个时间-年龄变量T,将城市规模(P)-数目(f)异速生长的假设条件重新构造为dP(T)/dT=gP(T),df(T)/dT=-rf(T),据此导出反映城市等级-规模关系的Beckmann-Davis模型:P(m)=P1λm-1,f(m)=f1δ1-m,进而导出三参数Zipf定律:P(r)=C(r-α)-dz,式中g=lnλ,r=lnδ,C=P1〔δ/(δ-1)〕dz,α=1/(1-δ),dz=g/r=lnλ/lnδ。根据几何测度关系建立分维方程:dz=Dp/Df,从而揭示:城市规模分布的分维D=1/dz在本质上乃是城市体系空间结构的分维Df与各城市人口空间分布的平均维数Dp之比。
    By modifying the assumptions of Steindl's model as allometric relationships: dP(T)/dT=gP(T),df(T)/dT=-rf(T),where P(T) is the average size of cities of age T,f(T) is the number of cities of age T,parameters g and r represent respectively coefficients of growth of P(T) and f(T),we deduce a set of generalized Beckmann-Davis model of city hierarchies and city-size distribution,namely, δn-law advanced by the authors,as follows: Pm=P1λ1-m,fm=f1δm-1,where λ=eg,δ=er,P1 is the size of the largest city(cities), f1 is the number of the largest city(cities),and generally, f1 =1, m is the ordinal of city class (m=1,2,…,N).From the generalized Beckmann-Davis model,a three-parameter Zipf model can be derived as P(r)=C(r-α) -dz ,where r is the rank of a city, P(r) is the size of the rth city,as for parameters, C=P1δ/(δ-1)〕dz, α=1/(1-δ),dz= ln λ/ln δ=g/r.Based on general geometrical measure relationship, Pm1/Dp∝fm-1/Df,an equation of fractal dimension is constructed as dz=g/r=Dp/Df,where Dp is the generalized dimension of Pm,and Df,the dimension of fm.In reality, Dp→D f,g→r,so dz→1,and when dz=1,we have what is called 2n-law presented by K.Davis(1978).
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    历史时期(1803~1958年)西藏水灾分析
    张雪芹, 葛全胜, 林振耀
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 417-422.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.417
    摘要   PDF (272KB)
    分析了现有灾异史料所覆盖时段(1803~1958年)西藏水灾的时空变化特征。研究指出:①1803~1958年,西藏水灾发生(县)次数波动比较大;19世纪40~80年代为西藏的水灾多发期;1924、1954年为严重水灾发生年;②西藏水灾空间分布差异显著,主要分布在"一江两河"地区。其中,日喀则、山南地区的水灾(县)次最多,其次为拉萨市、林芝地区,昌都、阿里、那曲地区则水灾发生相对较少;③高强度的持续降水为西藏水灾发生的关键诱导因子,河流暴涨、漫溢、改道为重要媒体,山崩、雪崩、山洪及泥石流等要素为特定地貌条件下的主要致灾因子,雹灾、地水上涌等也是不容忽视的致灾因子;④19世纪40~80年代西藏气候湿润。
    The Xizang Autonomous Region, one part of the Qinghai-Xizang Plateau, is characterized by high elevation, complex topography, and frequently occurred natural disasters (e.g., flood, drought, storm, hail, and frost, etc.), which has huge impacts on the development of agriculture and animal husbandry over the plateau. It is rather important to study the climate change over the Xizang Plateau using historical documents for a better understanding of the plateau's climate and its connection with the global climatic changes. First, the accuracy of historical archives in chronological record can provide accurate time for the study of historical climate change about the plateau. Second, the typical hazardous events (e.g., severe drought/flood, warm/cold) and abrupt climatic change extracted from historical archives can well support the peak and/or valley of series of environmental changes. Third, by searching for the relation of data between the plateau and east part of China embedded in historical documents, the climate change over the plateau can be deduced basing on the rich data of the east part of China. Finally, past climatic environmental series can be reconstructed by synthesizing proxy records as many as possible, which will reduce distortion and improve the accuracy of reconstruction of climatic environmental series.Based on the introduction of data and method used in the paper, the spatio-temporal characteristics of flood in Xizang for the historical documents covered period of 1803-1958 A.D. are analyzed as follows. Firstly, the frequency of flood fluctuated significantly for Xizang from the early 19th century to the 1950s, flood occurred frequently within 1840s-1880s, and severe flood occurred in 1924 and 1954. Secondly, the spatial distribution differentiation of flood in Tibet is obvious, which mostly occurred in the "Yarlung Zangbo-Lhasa-Niyang Rivers" region. Among them, the flood occurred most frequently in Xigaze, Shannan Prefectures following Lhasa City and Nyingch Prefecture, while flood occurred relatively little in Qando, Ali, and Nagqu Prefectures. Thirdly, the high-intense-continuous precipitation is the key factor of flood in Xizang, the sudden and sharp rise, overflow, and riverway change of river are important media, landslide, snowslide, mountain onrush, debris flow, etc. are major factors inducing flood under particular geomorphologic condition, and hail, groundwater discharge, etc are factors not neglected. Fourthly, it was humid for Xizang climate during the period from 1940s to 1980s. In a word, it's reliable and valuable to study the flood of Xizang by using the disaster historical materials especially Xizang's disaster historical documents and diaries. Though the historical materials covered only from 1803 to 1958 A.D., they still reflected the disaster condition of this period for Xizang. We hope to be helpful to the current production of agriculture animal husbands, and disaster prevention and relief in Xizang by the further genetic analysis of flood.
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    土壤水溶性有机物吸着系数及其影响因素研究
    张甲(王申), 曹军, 陶澍
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 423-427.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.423
    摘要   PDF (666KB)
    测定了中国中、东部地区17种土类45个表土样品中水溶性有机物的吸着系数、分子量分布、腐殖酸含量、粘土含量以及土壤pH值,分析了水溶性有机物吸着系数的分布、地域分异和影响吸着系数的主要因素。结果表明,中国中、东部主要天然土壤类型A层水溶性有机物吸着系数在0.0014~0.0284 L/g,中位数为0.0062 L/g;研究区吸着系数具有自北向南和自西向东递降的一般趋势。水热的地域分异是影响土壤A层Ks地域分异的根本因素,pH和WSOC分子量分布是直接影响Ks值的两个重要因素。
    Using the procedure of Multiple-Water-Ratio, sorption coefficients (Ks) of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) of 45 soil samples collected from eastern China were determined. Also, content of total organic carbon, humic acid, fulvic acid and clay of the samples together with molecular distribution of WSOC were determined. It was found that the Ks values range from 0.0014L/g to 0.0284L/g with a median of 0.0062L/g. Statistical analysis shows that there is a decreasing trend in Ks from north to south and from east to west in the studied area. No significant correlation coefficients were found between Ks and content of content of total organic carbon, humic acid, fulvic acid and clay of the samples. Molecular size distribution of WSOC and soil pH were found to be the primary factors influencing the Ks.
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    太湖地区农田土壤养分动态及其启示
    高超, 张桃林, 吴蔚东
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 428-432.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.428
    摘要   PDF (1294KB)
    太湖地区人地关系紧张,环境问题尤其是地表水体富营养化严重,农田生态系统的养分收支和土壤养分状况不仅关系到农业的高产稳产,对区内的水环境质量也有着重要的影响。典型区的实地调查和采样分析结果表明,自20世纪80年代初以来太湖地区农田生态系统中的氮、磷一直处于盈余状态,且盈余量不断增加,土壤钾素则长期亏缺,但近年来有所缓和。区内土壤有机质、全氮、全磷和有效磷含量近20年来都有较大幅度的提高,速效钾含量在20世纪90年代中期以前呈下降趋势,近年来有所回升。主要类型土壤的pH也呈降低的趋势。
    Taihu Lake watershed region is one of the most densely populated areas in China and is confronted with numerous environmental problems, especially fresh water eutrophication. It is of crucial importance to improve soil nutrient management practices in order to have a positive effect on nutrient use efficiency, crop yield, and the environment. Nutrient balances of different times were calculated for arable soils in a case area. It was shown that positive balances for nitrogen and phosphorus and a negative balance for potassium had lasted for decades. Results of representative soil sampling between 1982 and 1999 show that decades of fertilization at rates exceeding the amount removed by crops have resulted in widespread accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus in the area. Until recently the soil potassium level had declined due to the insufficient input. Soil pH of most samples also decline and this may be attributed to the over use of chemical fertilizer. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of nutrient budget and soil nutrient dynamics of the area some nutrient management options were proposed in the paper.
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    城市格网化及其景观生态效应研究——以西安市为例
    赵振斌, 包浩生, 马荣华
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 433-438.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.433
    摘要   PDF (719KB)
    以西安市为例,对城市格网化的概念、成因及景观生态效应进行了系统的分析。城市格网化是一种大规模网状或格状的土地利用空间结构现象,技术、功能优先的现代城市规划方法是其主要成因。景观生态效应主要表现在自然生境的破碎化、城市景观的同化、开放空间环境的退化等方面。减小格网化现象的负面效应有赖于城市景观生态重建,结合西安市实际提出了若干措施。
    Urban grid phenomenon and its landscape ecological effects are analysed in this paper. Urban grid phenomenon is defined as a grid or net-like urban land-use pattern, which is characterized by grid-shaped road system and regular patch forms. Functionalism and single-purpose planning is the main reason of the formation of urban grid. In the case study of Xi'an, traditional Chinese urban planning thoughts also contributes to the formation of urban grid phenomenon. The measurement of Xi'an urban grid phenomenon is conducted with two formulas. It shows that the density of the urban grid decreases from inner city to suburb; and the patches are predominantly regular polygon-shaped. The negative effects of urban grid phenomenon include the fragmentation of wildlife habitats; uniformity of urban landscapes; and degradation of public open spaces. To abate the negative effects and restore the urban landscape, some new planning thoughts and approaches are applicable: creation of the public open spaces; protection of the micro-landform differences; preservation of the wet land system and accommodation of nature into the city.
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    火山区突发性地热异常热红外传输机理研究
    薄立群, 徐新良, 华仁葵, 周德民
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 439-446.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.439
    摘要   PDF (1747KB)
    实验研究证实,在火山喷发前兆期,火山区有明显的突发性地热异常现象。火山区的突发性地热异常特征与火山区的地质构造、火山成因、规模、类型等多种因素有关。火山区突发性地表热异常是热红外遥感监测、预测火山活动的重要标志。从传导、对流等多方面分析了异常区地表升温机制,并在地物体有效辐射的基础上给出了热红外辐射的大气传输方程。热红外辐射在传输过程中受到地表非漫射性等系统噪声和随机噪声的干扰,为热红外遥感监测、预测火山活动提供了理论依据。
    A lot of experiments have proved that there is an obvious abrupt geothermal anomaly in volcanic region before volcanic eruption. The characters of the abrupt geothermal anomaly concern many factors such as geological structure, cause of volcanic formation, volcanic scope and type. On the other hand, this kind of geothermal anomaly is an important sign for using thermal infrared remote sensing to monitor and forecast the volcanic activities. This paper analyses rising temperature's mechanism on the earth's surface in the anomalous region from radiation, convection and so on, and raises an atmospheric transmission equation of thermal infrared radiation on the basis of surface feature effective radiation when thermal infrared radiation transmits and the cover of earth's surface feature, air, cloud, rain, wind and cold airflow affect it. All of noise analysis in the article are the theory foundation for using thermal infrared technology to monitor and forecast volcanic activities.
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    利用TM影像分析潮河与密云水库入库口处泥沙的空间分布
    程承旗, 马廷, 王立明, 杨德海
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 447-451.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.447
    摘要   PDF (729KB)
    河流携带的泥沙进入水库后,由于河流水体与水库水体的共同作用而在河口区产生沉降。理论上水体中的泥沙含量是与距入库口处的空间距离相关的。并且,根据实验与模拟的结果,在可见光的任一波段内,水体中的含沙量与水面反射率具有一定的相关关系。TM影像的第二、三波段刚好位于含沙水体反射光谱的肩部和峰值部分,可以准确地反映水体的含沙情况。以潮河与密云水库的交接处为例,在泥沙含量与反射率负指数关系式的基础上,利用两个时相的TM影像,通过泥沙沉降过程的主轴作用线,采用回归模拟和经验公式相结合的办法,建立了泥沙沉降过程的遥感空间分布模型,并讨论了模型中各参数的具体含义,来描述水体中泥沙含量与沉降的情况。最后,采用多个作用轴线进行拟和与空间插值分析,建立了水体中泥沙含量的空间分布模拟图,经过检测,该图较好地反映了河流入库处水体中的泥沙含量情况,为遥感技术在监测水体含沙量方面的应用提供了技术基础。
    The sediment, which is taken by rivers, will subside in the corporate action of river and reservoir on the estuarine area, when it enters into the reservoir. In theory, the quantity of sediments in water is correlated with the distance to the reservoir entrance. At the same time, the quantity of sediments in water has a certain relation with the reflection of water in every band of visible light, according to the result of experimentation and simulation. It happens that, the second and third bands of TM image lie just in the caroming and peak of reflection spectrum of the sandy water, thus the quantity of sand in water can be exactly reflected. Then we can make use of this characteristic to quantify the sediments in water. In this paper, the boundary of Chaohe River and Miyun Reservoir is taken an example. On the basis of the equation of the quantity of sediments and the negative exponent of reflection, together with multi-temporal TM image, a remote sensing spatial-distribution model of sedimentation course has been created, in which the principal axis of sedimentation course is researched and the combined method of recursive simulation and experiential formula is adopted. The meaning of each parameter of the model is discussed in order to describe the quantity and sedimentation of sediments in water. Finally, in the way of multi axis' simulation and spatial insertion analysis, the spatial distributed stimulant picture of the quantity of sediments in water is portrayed. After examination, this picture preferably reflects the quantity of sediments in water on the entrance of the reservoir, which provides a technical foundation for the remote sensing technology in inspecting the quantity of sediments in water.
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    基于卫星遥感信息的吉林省西部草地退化分析
    刘志明, 晏明, 王贵卿, 孟华, 张文哲, 王春晖
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 452-456.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.452
    摘要   PDF (704KB)
    利用1996年和1986年秋季陆地卫星TM数据,将计算机监督分类与非监督分类识别方法结合应用进行草地的解译,改进算法,改善遥感图像的识别精度。试验研究结果表明:吉林省西部草原生态环境在恶化,草地面积平均每年减少4.5×104hm2,草地退化严重,退化草地面积已占草地总面积的81.1%,而且退化程度也在加重,中、重度退化草地比例明显提高,草地退化呈发展的趋势。
    Grasslands had been revised with the method combined supervised and non-supervised classifications using Landsat data in autumn of 1996 and 1986. The advanced algorithm was used to improve the accuracy. The result shows that first, the grassland environment in the West Jilin is worsening and the area is decreasing by an average of 4.5?104 hectares a year; second, the grassland degeneration is sharpening and the degeneration area is 81.1% of the total. The degeneration becomes heavier, and the middle and heavy degenerated grasslands are developing in higher proportion.
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    区域水资源量的估算及预测分析——以南京地区为例
    张永勤, 缪启龙, 何毓意, 彭补拙
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 457-462.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.457
    摘要   PDF (1106KB)
    分析了南京地区的水资源状况,从地表热量平衡、水量平衡的基本理论出发,结合南京地区的气象、水文、土壤等资料建立了区域水资源量估算模型,计算了该地区的地表水、地下水及水资源总量,根据实际资料进行了模型检验,并对未来不同气候变化情景下的水资源状况进行了预测分析,提出了该地区水资源合理利用的方案。
    Water resources are the indispensable materials for the existence and development of mankind. The goal of this paper is to analyze the impact factors of water resources amount and exploitation and consume status of Nanjing region, then provide scientific guidance for reasonable use and protection of water resources. Regional water resources include ground and underground water resources coming from precipitation. To Nanjing region, they also include the water amount coming from the Yangtze River, which passes through and provides water for this region. By analyzing the water resources of Nanjing region, this paper adopts basic theories of land surface heat and water balance, combines with meteorological, hydrological, soil condition and economy development to develop an calculation and evaluation model of regional water resources amount. This model is used to calculate the amount of this region's ground water resources, underground water resources and total water resources. Based on actual data, the paper tests the model. The result shows the model is suitable because the variation between the result and the actual data is less than 8%. In this model, the temperature and precipitation change are fully considered as important influence factors to the amount of ground water, underground water and regional water resources. The paper also predicts and analyzes future water resources amount in future thirty different kinds of climate scenarios, that is: temperature increasing 0.0℃,0.5℃,1.0℃,1.5℃,2.0℃,2.5℃ and precipitation varying ±20%, 0%, ±10% respectively. It convinces that climate change can impact the water resources greatly. Precipitation change influences water resources more severely than temperature change does. Decreasing amount caused by temperature increasing 1.0℃ is equal to that of caused by precipitation deducing 3.3%. Carefully analyzing the actual social and economic development of this region, the paper gives a reasonable proposal of using water resources. The government and each sector should pay attention to constructing hydraulic project, monitoring water resources and harnessing wastewater. These measurements are essential to this region's future economic and social development.
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    龙口市水资源环境管理决策支持系统构建研究
    吴泉源
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 463-466.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.463
    摘要   PDF (173KB)
    水资源危机已成为全球性社会环境问题,它将长期成为人类社会生存和发展的主要障碍。以龙口市为例介绍了以GIS、RS、DSS为基础构建水资源环境管理决策支持系统的主要过程以及所具有的基本功能,该系统的建成,将帮助管理者提高水资源决策的自动化和科学化,使有限的水资源持续产生最大的经济效益。
    The crisis of water resource has been one of the social and environmental problems of the globe, which would be the main barrier of the living and development of the society in the long period. In order to exploit and utilize the water resource in maximum extent, high technology is eagerly introduced into the exploitation and the using of water resource. Management decision support system water resource environemt is a rising research subject. It's foundation and application will help the administer improve the automation and science of water resource's decision, and make the limited water resource lastingly produce the maximum social economical and ecological benefit. The basis of establishment of management decision support system of water resource environment of Longkou is the technique of RS, GIS, DSS and the simulated model of water resource The structure's design and establishment of management decision support system of water resource environment of Longkou is stressfully introduced in this article. For example, the environmental condition of the system, the establishment of spatial database, the attributed database, the methodological database and the main function that the system have, including the function of query, forecast and simulated analysis, spatial analysis, optimized dispatch, dialogue between man and computer and long-distance visit.
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    综述
    生态水文学研究进展
    严登华, 何岩, 邓伟, 王春梅, 侯佑泽, 厉彩虹
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 467-473.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.467
    摘要   PDF (1204KB)
    生态水文学是生态学与水文学的交叉学科,它研究不同时空尺度上水文过程与生物动力过程的耦合机制与规律,以期实现水资源的持续管理。它是在水资源问题日益严峻的形势下,于1992年在Dublin国际水与环境大会上正式提出的。虽然生态水文学的产生经历了很长一段时期的孕育,有较为可靠的理论研究背景,但尚未形成完整的理论框架和方法体系,目前的研究仍然是处于基础理论的探求阶段,并且这个阶段还将持续一段时间。当基础理论完善以后,生态水文学可望得到较快的发展。
    Ecohydrology (EH) is the interdisciplinary subject of the ecology and hydrology and the science of the integrating hydrological processes with biota dynamics over varied spatial and temporal scales. It has been postulated in 1992 during Dublin International Conference on Water and Environment under the condition of the crisis of water. It complies with the two requires of sustainable development and is being favored by people as soon as being put out. It has not the orbicular theory frame and the methods systems through it is based on the abundant theory basement. EH is still on the path of hunting theory base presently and will be lasting on this path for more time in the future. It will get more quick advance after the consummating the basically theory.
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    研究报道
    全新世以来里下河地区古地理演变
    凌申
    地理科学. 2001, 21 (5): 474-479.   DOI: 10.13249/j.cnki.sgs.2001.05.474
    摘要   PDF (562KB)
    里下河地区是苏北平原的重要组成部分,全新世以来,本区古地理环境经历了巨大的变化。据作者研究,大致可分为三个阶段:早全新世,本区受海侵影响,7~6kaB.P.左右海侵达到高峰,整个里下河地区成为一个大的浅水海湾;中全新世,海面相对稳定,长江、淮河等河流挟带大量泥沙入海,古海湾被岸外砂堤所包围,形成泻湖;晚全新世,海岸东迁,古泻湖演变为湖泊沼泽,在人类活动与黄河夺淮的影响下,本区逐渐演变为里下河平原。
    The Lixiahe District contributes an important part to the North Jiangsu Plain since the Holocene, this district has undergone great palaeogeographic changes. According to the investigation and research done by the author, these changes have been fulfilled roughly through three stages. During the Early Holocene, this district had been transgressed. The transgression had reached its height during the period of 7ka- 6ka B. P. The whole district had been reduced into a huge bay. ln the Middle Holocene, the sea level had remained relatively steadiness. However, some rivers such as the Yangtze River and the Huaihe River had carried a great guantity of sand to the sea to form an offshore bar which surrounded the old bay, and a lagoon come into being. As the Late Holocene opened, the seashore began to move eastward. The old lagoon became lakes and marshlands. As a result of human activities and the influences done by the Yellow River when it flew into the Huaihe River, this district has been gradually changed into the Lixiahe Plain.
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